The Mobile Audiences


Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

The Mobile Audiences

  1. 1. The Mobile Audiences Prof. Michele Sorice University of Rome “la Sapienza”, Italy University of Lugano, Switzerland Cross-media story telling Mechelen, Belgium, 23-24 November 2007
  2. 2. Premise <ul><li>The document you are reading constitutes only an abstract of the whole presentation given in Mechelen. </li></ul><ul><li>It represents the “step one” of a large research project about Mobile Audiences. </li></ul><ul><li>The “step two” will be presented in London, in the frame of FilMobile Conference (4-5 April 2008) </li></ul>Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences
  3. 3. Theoretical Background … and some myths
  4. 4. <ul><li>To belong to an audience represents a criterion of cultural reference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not the simple action of “watching” television or consuming the products of any other medium </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to study the audience means to take in consideration different contexts and multiple activities of cultural consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What is the audience nowadays? </li></ul>Audience: what is this? Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences
  5. 5. <ul><li>The audience fragmentation but also its reconstitution into shapes that only few years ago were unthinkable obliges us to question the very existence of the audience itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Is the common-sense understanding of “audience” simply an academic construction? (Staiger 2000) Maybe not but we have not to melt the audience with its representation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Italy, for example, the exploring public of the satellite TV networks (but also of IpTv and some trends on the borders of TV such as YouTube) has constituted the topic of struggle between the “people meter” system defenders and Sky management (supported by many scholars) </li></ul></ul>A deep transformation Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences
  6. 6. <ul><li>Is still the home the most meaningful place in which to study the audience? Are there other important places where people perform their role as audience members? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Is there only one site for studying the audience ‘close-up’ or is the point, precisely, to study the linkages between many sites in contemporary culture in order to grasp the contemporary audience?” (Couldry 2005). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the interactivity framework the space of representation is often “doubled” and the interaction process too. </li></ul><ul><li>Interactivity breaks with the idea of the passive public. </li></ul><ul><li>But “active audience” doesn’t mean automatically “participatory” audiences </li></ul>Does the Audience still exist? Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences
  7. 7. Two definitions… <ul><li>Audience: a composition of determinate number of people listening or watching media events in a precise moment </li></ul><ul><li>Audience: people experiencing audiencing process that do not take place in a specific moment and a predictable physical space. </li></ul>Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>Is in-store radio listening in a shopping mall or a department store different from home or car radio listening? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does ‘real’ consumption of music only happen in listening to concerts? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there not a public that downloads their favourite songs from the Internet or listens to music on an iPod, often displaying a new type of “conspicuous consumption”? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What kind of audience is the one made up of travellers on the tube watching TV programs while they are waiting for trains? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>De-localized audiences </li></ul><ul><li>What the background’s logic? Access? Involvement? What else? </li></ul>… and several questions Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences
  9. 9. Access, Interaction, Involvement, Participation
  10. 10. Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences For the complete theoretical background, please contact Crisc-Cmcs [email_address] or control the updates in this website. Thanks.
  11. 11. <ul><li>Is interaction a “social and participatory” activity? </li></ul><ul><li>Or is it only a different connection system? </li></ul><ul><li>Really the “pull-technologies” cancel the power of the producers and distributors? </li></ul>Interaction Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences
  12. 12. <ul><li>Involvement is one of the concepts commonly used in reception studies and in the analysis of the “audiencing” process. </li></ul><ul><li>The concept of involvement emphasizes particularly the relational and affective aspect implied in the reception process. </li></ul><ul><li>Every relation always contains symbolic and communicative aspects. </li></ul><ul><li>The media consent to give a community different foundations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not only the space community but also the relational community . </li></ul></ul>Involvement Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences
  13. 13. <ul><li>Performance is an important concept in Goffman’s dramaturgical model of self-presentation within different social settings (Goffman 1959) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>analysis of modern communication, including interactions or quasi-interactions conducted via internet, broadcasting and mobile tools (cfr. Moores 2005) </li></ul></ul>Involvement and Performance Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences
  14. 14. <ul><li>Performances in a range of contexts are best made sense of in terms of what Giddens (1993) names the structuration of social practices </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary audiences – and particularly mobile audiences – represent a complete example not only of the merger of creativity and reproduction but also of performativity and involvement as social practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional audiences – based upon a rigid distinction between creativity and social reproduction – are dead. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This doesn’t mean that there are no audiences; just they are very different from some years ago. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This doesn’t mean that the active audiences are “always” composed by participants people </li></ul></ul>From Creativity/Reproduction to Performativity/Involvement Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences
  15. 15. Theoretical background and methodology The Research
  16. 16. Three steps <ul><li>1,630 questionnaires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With interviewers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respondents: citizens of metropolitan area of Rome, aged between 15 and 54 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(15-24 * 25-34 * 35-44 * 45-54) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>51% women, 49% men </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>8 focus groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two for each cluster </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethnographic field research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participating observation in micro-communities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non participating observation (stations and airports) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In-depth interviews </li></ul></ul>Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences
  17. 17. Findings
  18. 18. Background’s Structural Data
  19. 19. Users expenses for mobile videos (world) Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences Source: Juniper Research – Key4Biz
  20. 20. Mobile TV and Video Revenues Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences Millions of Euros – Source IDATE
  21. 21. The Research Step 1. The Questionnaires This step coordinated by Emiliana De Blasio
  22. 22. <ul><li>Respondents (1,630) had almost one of the following tools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Phone or Smartphone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>iPod </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Mp3 player </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PSP or similar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Laptop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Portable DVD player </li></ul></ul>Step 1. Questionnaires Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences
  23. 23. Sample composition Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences Source: Crisc-Cmcs
  24. 24. <ul><li>Consumption of advanced contents per age clusters </li></ul>Video mobile consumption (1/3) Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences Source: Crisc-Cmcs
  25. 25. <ul><li>Users of advanced mobile video contents </li></ul>Video mobile consumption (2/3) Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences Source: Crisc-Cmcs
  26. 26. <ul><li>Consumption of advanced contents per gender </li></ul>Video mobile consumption (3/3) Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences Source: Crisc-Cmcs
  27. 27. <ul><li>Our research seems to show that mobile audiences are more male gendered than the file sharing users in another italian research of September 2007 </li></ul>“ Things for men”? Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences Sources: Crisc-Cmcs & Fondazione Einaudi
  28. 28. Frequency of use Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences Source: Crisc-Cmcs
  29. 29. Downloading or streaming? Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences Source: Crisc-Cmcs
  30. 30. Downloaded products with smartphone Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences Source: Crisc-Cmcs
  31. 31. Downloaded products in Web 2.0 Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences Downloaded products Films 30% TV serials 7% TV programs 11% Other 7% CDs (whole) 21% Music tracks 91%
  32. 32. Step 1. Questionnaires Main findings <ul><li>Increasing in consumption of mobile contents </li></ul><ul><li>Video contents consumption is “episodic” (also due to expensive costs) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Streaming involves mainly news and sport </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobile “audiencing” is still less participatory than many myths indulge to think </li></ul>Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences
  33. 33. Warning <ul><li>This is only an overview. </li></ul><ul><li>The complete findings (also including the qualitative research results) will be published in late Spring 2008. </li></ul>Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences
  34. 34. The Research Step 2. The Focus Groups
  35. 35. Step 2. Focus Groups <ul><li>8 focus groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explorative Approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>68 people </li></ul><ul><li>Aged between 15 and 54 </li></ul><ul><li>36 men </li></ul><ul><li>32 women </li></ul>Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences
  36. 36. Step 2. Focus Groups Recruiting <ul><li>4 focus groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Snowball sampling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Validation questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exit questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 focus groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recruiting questionnaire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exit questionnaire </li></ul></ul>Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences In this way we have tried to reduce the distortion coming from the recruiting systems
  37. 37. Step 2. Focus Groups Aims <ul><li>To investigate the subjects' daily life with the media as people report this in focus groups conversations </li></ul><ul><li>To avoid causal generalizations about mobile media possession and their use </li></ul><ul><li>To map the interrelated territories of media consumption and social participation </li></ul><ul><li>To go beyond the simplistic difference between “active” and “passive” audiences </li></ul>Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences
  38. 38. Step 2. Focus Groups Findings <ul><li>Use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How and in what way the focus groups participants use mobile media (smartphone, iPod, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aesthetization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tactical use of the technological tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategies and tactics of the people using mobile tools as an identity representation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active consumption and/or interactive involvement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>≠ Participation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile “audiencing” is still less participatory than many myths indulge to think </li></ul></ul></ul>Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences
  39. 39. Step 2. Focus Groups Findings. Five trends <ul><li>Activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the participants consider original their mobile consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They don’t consider as “consumption” the music-listening of “in-store radios” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remediation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of mobile tools as social signals and “definers” of identity frames </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aesthetization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some tools (particularly iPod) seem to have an aesthetic value (conspicuous consumption and/or symbolic one) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tactical behaviour </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File sharing, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interaction but not necessarily social participation </li></ul>Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences
  40. 40. The Research Step 3. Ethnographic Research
  41. 41. Step 3. Ethnographic Research Observation <ul><li>Participant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers in micro-community of youths using iPod, PSP and Smartphone (to listen/view audio-visual contents) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Non Participant </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethnographic description of the individuals using iPod, PSP and Smartphone (to listen/view audio-visual contents) in three railways stations, two airports, the Rome’s Tube and three stores with “in-store radio” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In-depth interviews </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample of “observed” people accepting to be interviewed </li></ul></ul>Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences
  42. 42. Step 3. Ethnographic Research <ul><li>This step will be published for the FilMobile Conference (London, 4-5 April 2008) </li></ul>Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences
  43. 43. Michele Sorice : Mobile Audiences [email_address] [email_address] Thank you! [email_address] Dank u! Merci!
  44. 44. Credits <ul><li>Crisc-Cmcs management group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Davide Bennato, Emiliana De Blasio, Salvatore Polito, Michele Sorice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Thanks to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Riccardo Esposito </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prof. Matthew Hibberd, University of Stirling, UK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IDate, Spain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Libercom, Italy </li></ul></ul>Crisc-Cmcs is affiliate member of institutional member of