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Hung's project science


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Hung's project science

  1. 1. Khang Nguyen&Hung PhamEarth SciencePeriod 2
  2. 2. • Temperatures in California• Temperature Range• Climate Zones• Rainfall• Rain-Shadow Zones• Cold Fronts• The “Pineapple Express”• Annual Precipitation• Wild Fire• Tule Fog• May Gray/June Gloom• Earthquake Weather
  3. 3.  The temperature gradientbetween immediate coast andlow-lying inland valleys in thesouth is about 7 °F (4 °C) inwinter and in summer roughly25 °F (14 °C). Palm Springs, a city in theCoachella Valley, averageshigh/low/mean temperaturesof 75°F/50°F/63°F,(24°C/10°C/17°C) respectivelyduring the period of coolerweather form Nov. to Apr. At the Santa Monica coast, theaverage high in August is 75 °F(24 °C), while in Burbank,approximately 10 miles (16 km)inland, the average high in Augustis 90 °F (32 °C); a temperature gainover one degree per mile. The temperature gradient is mostextreme between Santa Barbaraand Death Valley, withtemperatures between the twodiffering by 4 °F and 35 °F (2 °Cand 20 °C) in the winter andsummer.
  4. 4. • The topography inCalifornia and California’slocation near the PacificOcean have createddiverseclimate patterns in thestate.The climate in Californiaranges from cool and wettohot and dry. Rainfallpatterns have a largeimpact on California’s
  5. 5. • The two air masses that most often cause rain inCalifornia during the winter are shown in thepicture.• These air masses are the Maritime Polar Pacific airmass and the Maritime Tropical Pacific air mass.• As these air masses enter the mid-latitudes, theyare driven across the Pacific Ocean towardCalifornia by the winds of the prevailing westerly.• As these air masses move over the Pacific Ocean,they absorb moisture from the evaporation of oceanwater.
  6. 6. • The California Coast Rangesand the Sierra Nevadacreate rain-shadow zones.Rainfall is heavy along thewestern side of the CoastRanges and the SierraNevada. Much less rain,however, occurs on theeastern side of thesemountains. Thus, semi-aridinterior valleys and ariddeserts have formed on theeastern side of themountains.
  7. 7. • As Maritime Polar Pacific air mass moves southeasttoward California in the winter, the air mass meetswarmer air from the mid-latitudes.• The air mass pushes the warm air upward and forms acold front.• Rain often begins to fall over the Pacific Ocean beforethe cold front reaches the California Coast.• If rain does not begin over the ocean, then mountainswill determine where rain will occur in inland California.
  8. 8. • Along a cold front, conditions that cause a low-pressure,counter clockwise circulation of the atmosphere maydevelop.• The southern part of this circulation pattern producessouthwesterly winds.• As these winds move father southward, they pull airfrom the Maritime Tropical Pacific air mass into southernCalifornia.• The result is warm, tropical rain in southern California.The name “Pineapple Express” refers to this warm,moist air that comes from the Pacific Ocean near
  9. 9. • Westerly winds from the oceans also bring moisture, and thenorthern parts of the state generally receive higher annual rainfallamounts than the south.• Northwestern California has a temperate climate with rainfall of 15inches (380 mm) to 50 inches (1,300 mm) per year. Some areas ofCoast Redwood forest receive over 100 inches (2,500 mm) ofprecipitation per year.• The Central Valley has a wide range of precipitation.• The northern parts of the Central Valley receive substantiallygreater precipitation from winter storms which sweep down fromthe Pacific Northwest, while the southernmost regions of theCentral Valley are near desert-like because of a lack ofprecipitation.
  10. 10. • The high mountains, including the Sierra Nevada, the CascadeRange, and the Klamath Mountains, have a mountain climate withsnow in winter and mild to moderate heat in summer.• On the east side of the mountains is a drier rain shadow.Californias desert climate regions lie east of the high SierraNevada and Southern Californias Transverse Ranges andPeninsular Ranges.• The low deserts east of the southern California mountains,including the Imperial and Coachella valleys and the lowerColorado River, are part of the Sonoran Desert, with hot summersand nearly frostless mild winters; the higher elevation deserts ofeastern California, including the Mojave Desert, Owens Valley, andthe Modoc Plateau, are part of the Great Basin region, with hot
  11. 11. • Summers are typically hot and dry, particularlyin the southern areas.• This makes them prone to wildfires.• These can be life threatening and causeevacuation.• Wildfires are less common along the coastbecause of the cool humid summers, but canoccur in autumn when the Marine layer is lesscommon making it warm and dry.• This is the 2ndLargest Wild Fires In California.
  12. 12. • A thick ground fog that settles in the San JoaquinValley and Sacramento Valley areas of the CaliforniaCentral Valley.• Tule fog forms during the mid fall, winter to earlyspring after the first significant rainfall.• This phenomenon is named after the Tule grasswetlands of the Central Valley.• Tule fog can extend from Bakersfield to Chico.• Accidents caused by the Tule fog are the leadingcause of weather-related deaths in California; visibilityis usually less than an eighth of a mile (about 600 feetor 183–200 m), but can be less than 10 feet (3 m).• This here is a Tule Fog covering the paradise at dawn.
  13. 13. • A characteristicweather pattern of latespring (May and June)in which a combinationof inland heat, off-shorecool water, andprevailing wind patternsbring foggy andovercast weather tocoastal regions. FromPoint Conceptionnorthwards the gloomcontinues until earlyautumn.• This was over LAwhere the“May Gray/June Gloom”happened.
  14. 14. • Any unseasonal, uncomfortable weather,typically hot and more humid than usual, andoften associated with high and mid-level clouds,is spoken of (usually jokingly) as "earthquakeweather”.
  15. 15. ••• Most information are gathered from EarthScience book.