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Neuromuscular System


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Neuromuscular System

  2. 2. MUSCULAR SYSTEM<br /> Anterior Posterior<br />
  3. 3. MUSCULAR SYSTEM<br /> Smooth Muscle<br /> Cardiac Muscle<br />Skeletal Muscle<br />
  4. 4. MUSCULAR SYSTEM<br />Smooth Muscle<br /> Found in the digestive, circulatory, urinary and reproductive systems <br /> Controlled by the autonomic nervous system<br /> Smooth in appearance<br /> Involuntary controlled<br />
  5. 5. MUSCULAR SYSTEM<br />Cardiac Muscle<br /><ul><li>Found in the heart
  6. 6. Contraction of the heart is controlled by the sinoatrial node (SAN)
  7. 7. Striated (striped) in appearance
  8. 8. Involuntary controlled </li></li></ul><li>MUSCULAR SYSTEM<br />Skeletal Muscle<br /><ul><li>All attached either directly or indirectly to the skeleton
  9. 9. Controlled by the somatic nervous system
  10. 10. Striated in appearance
  11. 11. Voluntary controlled</li></li></ul><li>MUSCLE PROPERTIES<br />The main constituents of skeletal muscle are:<br />Water 70%<br />Protein (myofilaments)23%<br />Minerals (calcium and phosphorus) and substrates (glycogen and fatty acids) 7%<br />
  12. 12. SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY<br />Skeletal muscle is made up of fibres:<br />Made up of smaller myofibrils<br />Within each myofibril are strands of myofilaments (actin and myosin)<br />Fibres grouped together are called fasciculi<br />Fasciculi are then grouped together to form the muscle<br />
  13. 13. SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY<br />Endomysium – surrounds each muscle fibre<br />Perimysium – surrounds each fasciculi<br />Epimysium – covers entire muscle<br />
  14. 14. fascia<br />surrounds the muscle<br />connected to periosteum (bone)<br />Epimysium<br />the outer layer<br />perimysium<br />around each bundle offibres<br />endomysium<br />around each muscle fibre<br />muscle fibre<br />myofibril<br />muscle filament<br />SKELETAL MUSCLE ANATOMY<br />
  15. 15. SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY<br />Myofilamentsactin (thin) and myosin (thick) do not decrease in length when a muscle contracts.<br />They simply slide over each other thus shortening the entire muscle.<br />The myosin filaments have golf club shaped heads which attach onto the actin and pull the actin closer together (as detailed in picture on next slide)<br />
  16. 16. SLIDING FILAMENT THEORY<br />myosin<br />actin<br />myosin cross-bridges attach to the actin filaments<br />actin is pulled together and sarcomere length is reduced<br />
  17. 17. NEUROLOGICAL SYSTEM<br /><ul><li>The nervous system consists of two primary</li></ul> divisions, the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS)<br />
  18. 18. NEUROLOGICAL SYSTEM<br />The Central Nervous System<br />The Brain and Spinal Cord<br />The Peripheral<br />Nervous System<br />
  19. 19. THE REFLEX ARC<br />Central Nervous System<br />Sensory Receptor<br />Sensory Nerve<br />Motor Nerve<br />Muscle responds to nerve impulses<br />
  20. 20. MUSCLE FIBRE RECRUITMENT<br />Motor units and muscle fibre recruitment:<br /><ul><li> A motor unit consists of a motor neuron (nerve fibre) and all the fibres it innervates
  21. 21. ‘All or none law’ – when a motor neuron is stimulated, ALL of the muscle fibres are activated
  22. 22. The more motor units that are recruited for a </li></ul> task, the greater the force will be developed<br />
  23. 23. ROLES OF MUSCLES<br /><ul><li>Agonist- A muscle that carries out a voluntary movement
  24. 24. Antagonist- The opposing muscle that relaxes in order to allow the movement to occur
  25. 25. Synergist- A muscle that assists the agonist in producing movement
  26. 26. Fixator- A muscle that stabilises a body part whilst the agonist is contracting</li></li></ul><li>Muscular Contractions<br />
  27. 27. TYPES OF MUSCLE CONTRACTION<br /><ul><li>Concentric (positive); the muscle contracts and shortens to overcome a resistance
  28. 28. E.g. Lifting a dumbell during a bicep curl
  29. 29. Eccentric (negative); the muscle contracts and lengthens to control a resistance
  30. 30. E.g. Lowering a dumbell during a bicep curl
  31. 31. Isometric(static); the muscle contracts to</li></ul> overcome a resistance but without any change in length<br />
  32. 32. MUSCLE FIBRE TYPES<br /><ul><li> Slow-twitch or Type 1</li></li></ul><li>MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE<br />STRUCTURAL FEATURES<br /><ul><li> Smaller diameter fibre
  33. 33. Large myoglobincontent (carry oxygen)
  34. 34. Many mitochondria (where energy is produced)
  35. 35. Many capillaries (blood vessels)
  36. 36. Red in colour</li></li></ul><li>MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE<br />FUNCTIONAL FEATURES<br /> Increased oxygen delivery<br /> Produce less force<br /> Long-term contractions<br /> Resistant to fatigue<br />
  37. 37. MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE<br />ACTIVITIES-<br /> Maintaining posture<br />Endurance-based activities – long-distance running etc.<br />
  38. 38. MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE<br /><ul><li>Fast-twitch or Type ll</li></li></ul><li>MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE<br />STRUCTURAL FEATURES<br /><ul><li>Larger diameter fibre
  39. 39. Smaller myoglobin content
  40. 40. Fewer mitochondria
  41. 41. Fewer capillaries
  42. 42. White (pale) in colour</li></li></ul><li>MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE<br />FUNCTIONAL FEATURES<br /><ul><li>Decreased oxygen delivery
  43. 43. Produce more force
  44. 44. Short term contractions
  45. 45. Less resistant to fatigue</li></li></ul><li>MUSCLE FIBRE TYPE<br />ACTIVITIES-<br />Rapid, intense movements<br />
  46. 46. NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM<br />Responses of the neuromuscular system to exercise<br />Short term response:<br />Vasodilation(diversion of blood) to the muscles<br />
  47. 47. NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM<br />Responses of the neuromuscular system to exercise<br />Long term adaptations to aerobic exercise:<br /><ul><li>Increase in the number and size of mitochondria in the </li></ul> muscle fibres<br /><ul><li> Increase in the number of capillaries surrounding these </li></ul> fibres<br /><ul><li> Increase in the number of aerobic enzymes, stored</li></ul> glycogen and triglycerides (fats)<br />
  48. 48. NEUROMUSCULAR SYSTEM<br />Responses of the neuromuscular system to exercise<br />Long term adaptations to strength training:<br /><ul><li> Decrease nervous inhibition (increased nervous stimulation!)
  49. 49. Increase in the diameter of the recruited fibres
  50. 50. Increase in work performed under anaerobic conditions or high stress conditions</li></li></ul><li>Principles of Training<br />
  51. 51. PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING<br />OVERLOAD<br /><ul><li>In order to challenge the muscle you need to work outside of your comfort zone. The degree of extra challenge depends upon the aims and fitness level of the individual</li></li></ul><li>PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING<br />SPECIFICITY<br /><ul><li>Training that is relevant to the desired outcome</li></li></ul><li>PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING<br />REVERSIBILITY<br /><ul><li>You cannot store fitness – if you don’t use it you will lose it!
  52. 52. Muscles which are not regularly stimulated will suffer muscle wastage or “atrophy” </li></li></ul><li>PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING<br />PROGRESSION<br /><ul><li>As you adapt to a workload and can complete it without feeling challenged, the next step is to increase the workload in order to progress</li></li></ul><li>PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING<br />ADAPTATION<br /><ul><li>An anatomical or physiological change that occurs in the body, such as getting stronger, losing fat or increasing muscle size.
  53. 53. The body will adapt to any new stresses by protecting and strengthening the area. </li></li></ul><li>PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING<br />HYPERTROPHY<br /><ul><li> An increase in cross-sectional diameter of trained muscle fibres</li></li></ul><li>PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING<br />ATROPHY<br /><ul><li> An decrease in cross-sectional diameter of muscle fibres due to lack of use</li>