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Internet Ethics Issues and Action 
in the United States

International Symposium on Internet Ethics
Seoul, South Korea
Sept 12, 2012


                                         Michael Zimmer, PhD
                 Assistant Professor, School of Information Studies
                  Director, Center for Information Policy Research
                                University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
                                          www.MichaelZimmer.org
Ethical Dilemmas in the United States

       • Social Media                                                                    • P2P File
       • Behavioral                                                                        Sharing
         Targeting                                                                       • Mashup
                                                  Privacy                     Property     Culture




                                                Security                      Content
        • Hacking                                                                        • Sex, Violence
        • Government                                                                     • Hate Speech
          surveillance
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Social Media

      Explosive rise of social media
        66% of online adults in U.S. use social media
        Share personal information on Facebook, Twitter,
          LinkedIn, MySpace
           Name, email, mobile, address
           Work and education history
           Political views, cultural tastes, sexual orientation
           Photos of self, family
        Increasingly inter-connected with variety of online
          activities and domains
                                                                                       Privacy
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Social Media

      Facebook’s strategy to
             monetize:
              Users’ social graph
              Communication &
               message streams
              “Likes” and activities
               from the platform




                                                                                       Privacy
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Social Media

      “Four years ago, when Facebook was just getting
             started, most people didn’t want to put information
             about themselves on the Internet. So, we got people
             through this really big hurdle of getting people to
             want to put up their full name, a real picture, mobile
             phone number…and connections to real people.”
                                                                                Mark Zuckerberg




                                                                                            Privacy
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Social Media

      Ethical dilemma: Expectations of privacy
        Does willingness to share personal data point to a broad
          shift in privacy norms & expectations?
        Or, might users simply not understand how information is
          made visible, captured, commodified?

      Ethical dilemma: Value of privacy
        Are users simply willing to trade privacy for free and
          valuable services?
        Is it a fair trade? Informed?

                                                                                       Privacy
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Behavioral Targeting

      Customizing online advertising to individual users,
             based on:
              Social media profiles
              Search query history
              Types of websites visited
              Actions on particular websites




                                                                                    Privacy
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Behavioral Targeting




                                                                                    Privacy
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Behavioral Targeting
      Ethical dilemma: Privacy vs. free
        Is it right to expect users to trade their privacy for free
          services, and more relevant advertising?
        Do users have the means to choose privacy?

      Ethical dilemma: Privacy vs. business interests
        Is there a point at which the threats to privacy outweigh
          the desire for increased profitability
        Can industry promises to behave ethically be trusted?

      Ethical dilemma: Profiling & the “panoptic sort”
        Concerns over dignity, accuracy, and discrimination
                                                                                    Privacy
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Actions…

      Some increased oversight by federal government
        U.S. Federal Trade Commission criticizing Facebook &
         Google over practices and user notification
        Proposed “Do Not Track” mechanism for Internet users to
         avoid behavioral targeting

      User education & advocacy
        Google has impressed with its “Privacy Center” & videos
        Advocacy groups work to increase awareness:
           ALA: PrivacyRevolution.org
           ACLU: DotRights.org
                                                                                   Privacy
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Actions…

      Scholars and researchers providing new means of
             thinking about privacy, and understanding
             expectations in social media environments
              Helen Nissenbaum, “Privacy in Context”
              Dan Solove, “The Future of Reputation: Gossip, Rumor,
               and Privacy on the Internet”
              boyd & Marwick, “Social Privacy in Networked Publics:
               Teens’ Attitudes, Practices, and Strategies”
              Turow, et al, “Americans Reject Tailored Advertising and
               Three Activities that Enable It”
                                                                                   Privacy
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Peer-to-Peer File Sharing

      Large, ad hoc networks of personal computers to
             facilitate the sharing of digital content, often in
             violation of copyright law
              In 2004, an estimated 70 million people participated in
               online file sharing in the U.S.
              By 2006, 32 million Americans over the age of 12 had
               downloaded at least one feature length movie from the
               Internet
              58% of all Americans thought file sharing was acceptable
               in some circumstances
                70% of 18 to 29 year olds
                                                                              Property
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Peer-to-Peer File Sharing

      Legal reaction by the content industry
        Litigate against P2P providers for willful infringement,
          shutting them down
        Sue individual users accused of sharing/downloading
           Letters to college kids threatening federal lawsuit,
             offering to settle for $3000
           Joel Tenenbaum found guilty of sharing 30 songs, fined
             $675,000
        “3-strikes” law, threatening to shutdown Internet
          connection after 3 warnings from ISP

                                                                              Property
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Peer-to-Peer File Sharing
      Ethical dilemma: Ethics of P2P?
              Can it be ethically justifiable to download a song to provide for
                     one’s happiness, when prices make ownership prohibitive?

      Ethical dilemma: Validity of intellectual property laws
              IP was originally intended to spur creativity and protect
               authors’ moral rights, but increasingly viewed as restrictive of
               culture and motivated by corporate profits
              Do property laws apply in digital environments?

      Ethical dilemma: Tactics
              Is it ethical to indiscriminately target college students
              Is it ethical to monitor network traffic to fight possible
                     copyright violations                                     Property
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Digital Mashup Culture

      Emerging creative process of cutting, combining, and
             mixing up digital files
              Roots in “sampling”, the re-use of particular parts of a
               song in a new composition
              Often “transformative” – creating entirely new works
              While utilizing copyright protected material, often
               considered “fair use”
                Transformative
                Often only small amounts used
                Often little impact on original market
                                                                              Property
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Digital Mashup Culture

    Dangermouse: Grey Album
                  Mashing up the Beatle’s
                   White Album with Jay Z’s
                   Black Album
                  Posted for free online
                  Immediate take-down
                   notice by record
                   companies




                                                                              Property
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Digital Mashup Culture

    Girl Talk (Gregg Gillis):
                  Mashups and digital
                   sampling using small parts
                   of popular songs
                  Typically uses 15-20
                   different snippets and
                   loops to create new songs
                  Credits sources; gives
                   music away for free



                                                                              Property
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Digital Mashup Culture

      Ethical dilemma: Ethics of mashups & fair use
        Is mashup culture sufficiently “transformative” to avoid
          ethical concern over the rights of original authors?
        Are fair use exceptions to copyright sufficient to
          encourage creation? Or are they robbing copyright
          holders of potential markets?
        What is ethically on stronger ground: protecting rights of
          copyright holders or encouraging creativity for the greater
          good?


                                                                              Property
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Actions…

  Government continues to
         fight P2P and piracy
          Digital Millennium
           Copyright Act (DCMA),
           and now SOPA and PIPA
          Department of Justice
           prosecuting
           Magaupload.com, and
           seizing domain names of
           infringers

                                                                                   Property
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Actions…

      But, new business models are emerging
        iTunes now largest music vendor in the world
        Film and television industry have launched own ventures
          to combat piracy and illegal uploads
           Hulu, official YouTube channels, etc
        Some artists provide music files for free

      And scholars/advocates fight for protection of fair
             use and mashup culture
              Grey Tuesday
              American University Center for Social Media
                                                                                   Property
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Online Sex & Violence
      Online environment conducive for hosting and
             sharing controversial/taboo material
              Long history with USENET lists, discussion forums, porn
               sites
              Current examples include live webcams, amateur video
               hosting, fetish-specific communities, and “dark web”
              YouTube and related sites often criticized for hosting
               violent videos:
                Animal violence
                Amateur and homeless violence
                Rape videos and sexual violence
                                                                                Content
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Online Sex & Violence

      Attempts to limit availability and control access
             typically fall short
              Difficult to monitor, track, delete offending content from
               digital networks
              Strong 1st Amendment tradition to allow speech, unless
               deemed “obscene”, and not overly restrictive
                Communications Decency Act: Unconstitutional
                Child Pornography Protection Act: Unconstitutional
                Child Online Pornography Act: Unconstitutional
                Children’s Internet Protection Act: Only Partially
                  Constitutional                                    Content
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Hate Speech

      Internet provides new means for spread of hate
             speech:
              Loud, cheap, and anonymous megaphone to spread
               ideas
              Spaces and tools for hate groups to organize,
               communicate
              Web presence can add visibility and legitimacy to
               otherwise fringe groups



                                                                                      Content
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Hate Speech




                                                                                      Content
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Online Sex & Violence // Hate Speech

      Ethical dilemma: Content regulation & filtering
        Is it ethical to prohibit certain content deemed
          unwanted by a portion of society?
        Is it ethical to impose filtering, which may be imprecise
          and overly-restrictive?
        Does ease of access and distribution online change the
          ethical equation of what is acceptable vs. harmful
          speech?
        Is it ethical to regulate what people think and say
          (compared to physical actions)?

                                                                              Content
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Actions…

      Internet companies try to balance speech and
             protecting/respecting users




                                                                                   Content
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Actions…

      Internet companies try to balance speech and
             protecting/respecting users
              Warnings
              Community standards & voting
              Willing to take down offensive/illegal material in certain
                     markets to comply with (valid) laws

      Attempts to segregate content
        .xxx domain
        Pushed underground to the “hidden web”

                                                                                   Content
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Hacking
      White hat:
              Penetration testing, ensure systems are secure
              Rarely purposefully cause any damage
              Often hired by companies themselves

      Black hat:
              Attack systems for profit, for fun, or for political motivations
              Often involve modification or destroying of data

      Hactivism:
              Combining computer hacking for some broader
                     social/political cause (fight power, injustice, etc)
                                                                                  Security
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Hacking
      Anonymous
        Attacks against Church of Scientology due to
         its aggressive copyright policies
        Attacks against PayPal, MasterCard related to
         Wikileaks affair

      Ed Felton (Freedom to Tinker)
        Hacking electronic voting machines to reveal
          security weaknesses

      WikiLeaks
        Making illegally accessed material freely
         available                                                                Security
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Hacking

      Ethical dilemma: The Hacker Ethic
        Does the ethics of “making information free” justify
          unauthorized access, exposure, or damage?
        When can electronic civil disobedience be ethically
          justifiable?
        Do laws preventing circumvention of security controls
          (like DMCA) go too far, and restrict research and
          criticism that might serve the public good?



                                                                                  Security
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Government Surveillance

      Increase in government surveillance of Internet
             activities
              Total Information Awareness
                      Post 9/11 attempt
              Fusion centers, Trapwire
              SOPA and PIPA
                      Stated intent to monitor and prevent piracy




                                                                              Security
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Government Surveillance

    Room 641A
                  “Secret room" in AT&T's
                   Folsom Street office in San
                   Francisco
                  Believed to be one of
                   several internet
                   wiretapping facilities at
                   AT&T offices around the
                   country feeding data to the
                   NSA
                  Exposed by whistle-blower

                                                                              Security
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Government Surveillance

      Ethical dilemma: Outdated security protections
        Laws meant to protect users (ECPA) are outdated and
          irrelevant given Internet technologies

      Ethical dilemma: Security vs. privacy
        Which ethical value is more important?
        Are “fishing expeditions” or attempts to data-mine and
          create predictive profiles ethical?




                                                                              Security
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Actions…
      Attempts to control hacking have limited success
              Occasional raids on Anonymous and 4chan members
              Often met with retaliation

      Supporters of WikiLeaks prosecuted
              Bradley Manning
              Fight for Twitter account data

      Advocates push for reforms
              Working towards updating ECPA to better protect Internet
               communications from surveillance
              Seeking transparency in government actions (Wikileaks)
                                                                                   Security
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
Ethical Dilemmas in the United States

       • Social Media                                                                    • P2P File
       • Behavioral                                                                        Sharing
         Targeting                                                                       • Mashup
                                                  Privacy                     Property     Culture




                                                Security                      Content
        • Hacking                                                                        • Sex, Violence
        • Government                                                                     • Hate Speech
          surveillance
Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012

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Internet Ethics Issues and Action in the United States

  • 1. Internet Ethics Issues and Action  in the United States International Symposium on Internet Ethics Seoul, South Korea Sept 12, 2012 Michael Zimmer, PhD Assistant Professor, School of Information Studies Director, Center for Information Policy Research University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee www.MichaelZimmer.org
  • 2. Ethical Dilemmas in the United States • Social Media • P2P File • Behavioral Sharing Targeting • Mashup Privacy Property Culture Security Content • Hacking • Sex, Violence • Government • Hate Speech surveillance Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 3. Social Media  Explosive rise of social media  66% of online adults in U.S. use social media  Share personal information on Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, MySpace  Name, email, mobile, address  Work and education history  Political views, cultural tastes, sexual orientation  Photos of self, family  Increasingly inter-connected with variety of online activities and domains Privacy Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 4. Social Media  Facebook’s strategy to monetize:  Users’ social graph  Communication & message streams  “Likes” and activities from the platform Privacy Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 5. Social Media  “Four years ago, when Facebook was just getting started, most people didn’t want to put information about themselves on the Internet. So, we got people through this really big hurdle of getting people to want to put up their full name, a real picture, mobile phone number…and connections to real people.”  Mark Zuckerberg Privacy Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 6. Social Media  Ethical dilemma: Expectations of privacy  Does willingness to share personal data point to a broad shift in privacy norms & expectations?  Or, might users simply not understand how information is made visible, captured, commodified?  Ethical dilemma: Value of privacy  Are users simply willing to trade privacy for free and valuable services?  Is it a fair trade? Informed? Privacy Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 7. Behavioral Targeting  Customizing online advertising to individual users, based on:  Social media profiles  Search query history  Types of websites visited  Actions on particular websites Privacy Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 8. Behavioral Targeting Privacy Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 9. Behavioral Targeting  Ethical dilemma: Privacy vs. free  Is it right to expect users to trade their privacy for free services, and more relevant advertising?  Do users have the means to choose privacy?  Ethical dilemma: Privacy vs. business interests  Is there a point at which the threats to privacy outweigh the desire for increased profitability  Can industry promises to behave ethically be trusted?  Ethical dilemma: Profiling & the “panoptic sort”  Concerns over dignity, accuracy, and discrimination Privacy Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 10. Actions…  Some increased oversight by federal government  U.S. Federal Trade Commission criticizing Facebook & Google over practices and user notification  Proposed “Do Not Track” mechanism for Internet users to avoid behavioral targeting  User education & advocacy  Google has impressed with its “Privacy Center” & videos  Advocacy groups work to increase awareness:  ALA: PrivacyRevolution.org  ACLU: DotRights.org Privacy Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 11. Actions…  Scholars and researchers providing new means of thinking about privacy, and understanding expectations in social media environments  Helen Nissenbaum, “Privacy in Context”  Dan Solove, “The Future of Reputation: Gossip, Rumor, and Privacy on the Internet”  boyd & Marwick, “Social Privacy in Networked Publics: Teens’ Attitudes, Practices, and Strategies”  Turow, et al, “Americans Reject Tailored Advertising and Three Activities that Enable It” Privacy Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 12. Peer-to-Peer File Sharing  Large, ad hoc networks of personal computers to facilitate the sharing of digital content, often in violation of copyright law  In 2004, an estimated 70 million people participated in online file sharing in the U.S.  By 2006, 32 million Americans over the age of 12 had downloaded at least one feature length movie from the Internet  58% of all Americans thought file sharing was acceptable in some circumstances  70% of 18 to 29 year olds Property Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 13. Peer-to-Peer File Sharing  Legal reaction by the content industry  Litigate against P2P providers for willful infringement, shutting them down  Sue individual users accused of sharing/downloading  Letters to college kids threatening federal lawsuit, offering to settle for $3000  Joel Tenenbaum found guilty of sharing 30 songs, fined $675,000  “3-strikes” law, threatening to shutdown Internet connection after 3 warnings from ISP Property Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 14. Peer-to-Peer File Sharing  Ethical dilemma: Ethics of P2P?  Can it be ethically justifiable to download a song to provide for one’s happiness, when prices make ownership prohibitive?  Ethical dilemma: Validity of intellectual property laws  IP was originally intended to spur creativity and protect authors’ moral rights, but increasingly viewed as restrictive of culture and motivated by corporate profits  Do property laws apply in digital environments?  Ethical dilemma: Tactics  Is it ethical to indiscriminately target college students  Is it ethical to monitor network traffic to fight possible copyright violations Property Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 15. Digital Mashup Culture  Emerging creative process of cutting, combining, and mixing up digital files  Roots in “sampling”, the re-use of particular parts of a song in a new composition  Often “transformative” – creating entirely new works  While utilizing copyright protected material, often considered “fair use”  Transformative  Often only small amounts used  Often little impact on original market Property Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 16. Digital Mashup Culture  Dangermouse: Grey Album  Mashing up the Beatle’s White Album with Jay Z’s Black Album  Posted for free online  Immediate take-down notice by record companies Property Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 17. Digital Mashup Culture  Girl Talk (Gregg Gillis):  Mashups and digital sampling using small parts of popular songs  Typically uses 15-20 different snippets and loops to create new songs  Credits sources; gives music away for free Property Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 18. Digital Mashup Culture  Ethical dilemma: Ethics of mashups & fair use  Is mashup culture sufficiently “transformative” to avoid ethical concern over the rights of original authors?  Are fair use exceptions to copyright sufficient to encourage creation? Or are they robbing copyright holders of potential markets?  What is ethically on stronger ground: protecting rights of copyright holders or encouraging creativity for the greater good? Property Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 19. Actions…  Government continues to fight P2P and piracy  Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DCMA), and now SOPA and PIPA  Department of Justice prosecuting Magaupload.com, and seizing domain names of infringers Property Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 20. Actions…  But, new business models are emerging  iTunes now largest music vendor in the world  Film and television industry have launched own ventures to combat piracy and illegal uploads  Hulu, official YouTube channels, etc  Some artists provide music files for free  And scholars/advocates fight for protection of fair use and mashup culture  Grey Tuesday  American University Center for Social Media Property Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 21. Online Sex & Violence  Online environment conducive for hosting and sharing controversial/taboo material  Long history with USENET lists, discussion forums, porn sites  Current examples include live webcams, amateur video hosting, fetish-specific communities, and “dark web”  YouTube and related sites often criticized for hosting violent videos:  Animal violence  Amateur and homeless violence  Rape videos and sexual violence Content Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 22. Online Sex & Violence  Attempts to limit availability and control access typically fall short  Difficult to monitor, track, delete offending content from digital networks  Strong 1st Amendment tradition to allow speech, unless deemed “obscene”, and not overly restrictive  Communications Decency Act: Unconstitutional  Child Pornography Protection Act: Unconstitutional  Child Online Pornography Act: Unconstitutional  Children’s Internet Protection Act: Only Partially Constitutional Content Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 23. Hate Speech  Internet provides new means for spread of hate speech:  Loud, cheap, and anonymous megaphone to spread ideas  Spaces and tools for hate groups to organize, communicate  Web presence can add visibility and legitimacy to otherwise fringe groups Content Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 24. Hate Speech Content Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 25. Online Sex & Violence // Hate Speech  Ethical dilemma: Content regulation & filtering  Is it ethical to prohibit certain content deemed unwanted by a portion of society?  Is it ethical to impose filtering, which may be imprecise and overly-restrictive?  Does ease of access and distribution online change the ethical equation of what is acceptable vs. harmful speech?  Is it ethical to regulate what people think and say (compared to physical actions)? Content Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 26. Actions…  Internet companies try to balance speech and protecting/respecting users Content Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 27. Actions…  Internet companies try to balance speech and protecting/respecting users  Warnings  Community standards & voting  Willing to take down offensive/illegal material in certain markets to comply with (valid) laws  Attempts to segregate content  .xxx domain  Pushed underground to the “hidden web” Content Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 28. Hacking  White hat:  Penetration testing, ensure systems are secure  Rarely purposefully cause any damage  Often hired by companies themselves  Black hat:  Attack systems for profit, for fun, or for political motivations  Often involve modification or destroying of data  Hactivism:  Combining computer hacking for some broader social/political cause (fight power, injustice, etc) Security Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 29. Hacking  Anonymous  Attacks against Church of Scientology due to its aggressive copyright policies  Attacks against PayPal, MasterCard related to Wikileaks affair  Ed Felton (Freedom to Tinker)  Hacking electronic voting machines to reveal security weaknesses  WikiLeaks  Making illegally accessed material freely available Security Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 30. Hacking  Ethical dilemma: The Hacker Ethic  Does the ethics of “making information free” justify unauthorized access, exposure, or damage?  When can electronic civil disobedience be ethically justifiable?  Do laws preventing circumvention of security controls (like DMCA) go too far, and restrict research and criticism that might serve the public good? Security Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 31. Government Surveillance  Increase in government surveillance of Internet activities  Total Information Awareness  Post 9/11 attempt  Fusion centers, Trapwire  SOPA and PIPA  Stated intent to monitor and prevent piracy Security Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 32. Government Surveillance  Room 641A  “Secret room" in AT&T's Folsom Street office in San Francisco  Believed to be one of several internet wiretapping facilities at AT&T offices around the country feeding data to the NSA  Exposed by whistle-blower Security Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 33. Government Surveillance  Ethical dilemma: Outdated security protections  Laws meant to protect users (ECPA) are outdated and irrelevant given Internet technologies  Ethical dilemma: Security vs. privacy  Which ethical value is more important?  Are “fishing expeditions” or attempts to data-mine and create predictive profiles ethical? Security Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 34. Actions…  Attempts to control hacking have limited success  Occasional raids on Anonymous and 4chan members  Often met with retaliation  Supporters of WikiLeaks prosecuted  Bradley Manning  Fight for Twitter account data  Advocates push for reforms  Working towards updating ECPA to better protect Internet communications from surveillance  Seeking transparency in government actions (Wikileaks) Security Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012
  • 35. Ethical Dilemmas in the United States • Social Media • P2P File • Behavioral Sharing Targeting • Mashup Privacy Property Culture Security Content • Hacking • Sex, Violence • Government • Hate Speech surveillance Michael Zimmer | International Symposium on Internet Ethics | Sept 12, 2012