TechEd Africa 2011 - OFC307: Architecting a Disaster Tolerant and Highly Available SharePoint 2010 Farm


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Many organizations are finding that their SharePoint environments are becoming as or more mission-critical as email or phone currently are. They are subsequently expecting that SharePoint be both highly available and disaster tolerant at all times. Because the Service Application architecture model in SharePoint 2010 is relatively complex, it’s not surprising that there is confusion about how to architect a SharePoint environment to be able to survive hardware, software, and site outages. This session focuses on a deep dive into the specifics of how to architect the web, data, and service application tiers of SharePoint 2010 to be both highly available and disaster tolerant. Topics such as SQL Database mirroring, clustering, Network Load Balancing, Virtualization HA and Service Application failover are discussed. In addition, real world models of various farm failover techniques for environments of all different sizes are presented and compared. • Learn how to build in high availability and disaster tolerance into the web, data, and service application tiers of SharePoint 2010 Architecture. • Examine real world designs for SharePoint 2010 that are built to allow for full functionality in the event of various failure scenarios. • Examine how to take advantage of several ‘out of the box’ technologies with SharePoint, SQL, and Windows to provide for HA, as well as understanding when a third-party option may be required.

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  • Export-SPWeb –Identity http://App01/Sites/ContosoPortal/ -Path \\\\App01\\SharePointBackups\\SharedDocuments.bak -Itemurl “Shared Documents” -ForceImport-SPWeb –Identity http://App01/Sites/ContosoPortal/ -Path \\\\App01\\SharePointBackups\\SharedDocuments.bak -Force -IncludeUserSecurity
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  • TechEd Africa 2011 - OFC307: Architecting a Disaster Tolerant and Highly Available SharePoint 2010 Farm

    1. 1. 17-20 OCTOBER 2011<br />DURBAN ICC<br />
    2. 2. Architecting a Disaster Tolerant and Highly Available SharePoint 2010 Farm<br />Michael Noel – Convergent Computing<br />OFC307<br />
    3. 3. Michael Noel<br />Author of SAMS Publishing titles “SharePoint 2010 Unleashed,” “SharePoint 2007 Unleashed,” “SharePoint 2003 Unleashed”, “Teach Yourself SharePoint 2003 in 10 Minutes,” “Windows Server 2008 R2 Unleashed,” “Exchange Server 2010 Unleashed”, “ISA Server 2006 Unleashed”, and many other titles .<br />Partner at Convergent Computing ( / +1(510)444-5700) – San Francisco Bay Area based Infrastructure/Security specialists for SharePoint, AD, Exchange, Security<br />
    4. 4. What we will cover<br />SharePoint 2010 Structure <br />SharePoint Component Redundancy<br />Sample Architecture of Redundant/Highly Available Deployments<br />Smallest redundant/highly available farm<br />Mid-sized farms<br />Large farms<br />Virtualization farm architecture<br />SQL Mirroring of Content Databases<br />Synchronous Mirroring in Single Site Model<br />Synchronous Mirroring in Highly Connected DR Site Model<br />Asynchronous Mirroring in DR Site Model<br />Backup/Restore Tips, including info on DPM 2010 Snapshot-based backup for SharePoint<br />
    5. 5. SharePoint 2010 Component Redundancy<br />
    6. 6. SharePoint 2010 Component Redundancy<br />Each SharePoint 2010 server type has different redundancy/availability concerns.<br />Web Server<br />Search Service Application Role<br />Other Service Application Roles<br />Database Server<br />
    7. 7. SharePoint 2010 Component RedundancyWeb Servers – Network Load Balancing<br />Hardware Based Load Balancing (F5, Cisco, Citrix NetScaler – Best performance and scalability<br />Software Windows Network Load Balancing fully supported by MS, but requires Layer 2 VLAN (all packets must reach all hosts.) Layer 3 Switches must be configured to allow Layer 2 to the specific VLAN.<br />If using Unicast, use two NICs on the server, one for communications between nodes.<br />If using Multicast, be sure to configure routers appropriately<br />Set Affinity to Single (Sticky Sessions)<br />If using VMware, note fix to NLB RARP issue (<br />
    8. 8. SharePoint 2010 Component RedundancyWeb Servers – Network Load Balancing<br />Best Practice – Create Multiple Web Apps with Load-balanced VIPs (Sample below)<br />Web Role Servers<br /> ( – Web Role Server #1<br /> ( – Web Role Server #2<br />Clustered VIPs shared between SP1 and SP2 (Create A records in DNS)<br /> ( - Cluster<br /> ( – SP Central Admin<br /> ( – Inbound Email VIP<br /> ( – Main SP Web App (can be multiple)<br /> ( – Main MySites Web App<br />
    9. 9. SharePoint 2010 Component RedundancyService Application Servers<br />Redundancy for Service Applications can be added by simply adding S.A. roles to additional servers<br />Redundancy and availability is automatically handled from within SharePoint<br />Most Service Applications have an associated database that must also be made redundant / available<br />Special considerations for Search<br />Important to understand what the Service Application roles are<br />
    10. 10. Service Application Matrix<br />
    11. 11. Additional Service Applications<br />Office Web Apps<br />Excel Calculation Services<br />Word Viewing Service<br />PowerPoint Service<br />Project Server 2010<br />Third Party (Newsgator, etc.)<br />
    12. 12. SharePoint Component RedundancySearch Service Application Role<br />Replaces both Index and Query Roles from 2007 into one Role<br />Processes query results for Web servers<br />Holds the index, either in entirety or a partial copy when using ‘index partitions’<br />Runs the query processor, which merges search results from multiple index partitions, performs security trimming, and other search tasks.<br />Adding multiple Query servers creates redundancy<br />Each Query Server requires a large drive set for the Index partitions. Be sure to set aside enough space! The index size may be from 5% to 30% of the size of the content being indexed. Don’t forget external content sources!<br />
    13. 13. SharePoint Component RedundancyQuery Servers: Index Partitions<br />Portion of the entire Index<br />Can be spread across multiple query servers<br />Multiple index partitions = faster search queries<br />Query mirrors (second copy of an index partition) can be deployed across query servers for redundancy.<br />
    14. 14. SharePoint Component RedundancyCrawl Servers<br />Runs the Crawl component, which creates index partitions and propagates them to query servers<br />Typically used to house the Search Administration component<br />Multiple crawl servers provide High Availability for the crawl architecture<br />Crawl database(s) and Property Database(s) utilized for crawl information and history, and properties for crawled data<br />Multiple crawlers can be associated with each crawl database<br />Can be run on a server with Web role or Query role<br />
    15. 15. SharePoint Component RedundancyDatabase Role<br />Shared Storage Clustering (MSCS) can be used for local server High Availability<br />Mirroring of Content Databases to remote SQL instance is supported (and recommended) More on this…<br />SQL Server 2005/2008/2008R2 Standard Edition supports two-node Cluster and synchronous mirroring.<br />SQL Server 2005/2008/2008R2 Enterprise Edition supports more than two-nodes, asynchronous mirroring, and Transparent Data Encryption (SQL 2008 only)<br />SQL Server 2012 (Denali) has potential…not yet released<br />
    16. 16. SharePoint Component RedundancyDatabase Role – Two Instance / Two Node Cluster Model<br />
    17. 17. SharePoint Component RedundancyRedundancy/HA of Database Server Instance<br />Use SQL Client Aliases for Config DB Server (i.e.<br />Use a second SQL Client Alias for Content DBs (i.e.<br />Loss of SQL Server can be mitigated by simply pointing the alias to a new SQL instance.<br />Be sure to add the Kerberos SPNs to the aliases<br />
    18. 18. Sample Highly Available Architecture for SP2010<br />
    19. 19. Farm ArchitectureAll-in-One Farm (No Redundancy)<br />All SharePoint roles and SQL Server on the same box<br />For very small environment without a lot of load<br />SQL contention with SharePoint<br />Easy to deploy, but highest potential for contention<br />
    20. 20. Farm ArchitectureDedicated SQL Database Server (Better Performance / No HA)<br />Dedicated SQL Server<br />All SharePoint roles on single box<br />Disk IO contention lessened by moving SQL off SP Server<br />Greater performance can be gained by breaking SharePoint roles onto separate servers<br />
    21. 21. Farm ArchitectureSmallest Highly-Available Farm<br />2 Web/Query/Crawl Servers<br />2 Database Servers (Clustered or Mirrored)<br />2 Query components for each index partition<br />2 Crawlers for the Crawl DB, one on each server<br />Search Admin Service on one server<br />
    22. 22. Farm ArchitectureMedium Sized Farm<br />2 Web/Query Servers<br />2 Crawl Servers<br />2 Database Servers (Clustered or Mirrored)<br />2 Query components for each index partition<br />2 Crawlers for the Crawl DB, one on each Crawl server<br />Search Admin Service on one Crawl server<br />
    23. 23. Farm ArchitectureLarge Farm<br />Multiple Dedicated Web Servers<br />Multiple Dedicated Query Servers<br />Multiple Dedicated Crawl Servers, with multiple Crawl DBs to increase parallelization of the crawl process<br />Multiple distributed Index partitions (max of 10 million items per index partition)<br />Two query components for each Index partition, spread among servers<br />
    24. 24. SQL Database Mirroring for High Availability and Disaster Recovery<br />
    25. 25. Clustering is Shared Storage, can’t survive storage failure, makes Mirroring more attractive<br />Clustering fails over more quickly<br />Mirroring is not supported for all databases, but Clustering is<br />Both Clustering and Mirroring can be used at the same time (Instance to Instance)<br />SQL Database MirroringClustering vs. Mirroring<br />
    26. 26. SQL Database MirroringHistory of Mirroring<br />Introduced in SQL 2005 SP1<br />Greatly improved in SQL 2008 and now SQL 2008 R2<br />Available in Enterprise and Standard (Synchronous only) editions<br />Works by keeping a mirror copy of a database or databases on two servers<br />Can be used locally, or the mirror can be remote<br />Can be set to use a two-phase commit process to ensure integrity of data across both servers<br />Can be combined with traditional shared storage clustering to further improve redundancy<br />SharePoint 2010 is now Mirroring aware!<br />
    27. 27. SQL Database MirroringDatabase Mirroring Model #1 – Single Site<br />Single Site<br />Synchronous Replication<br />Uses a SQL Witness Server to Failover Automatically<br />Mirror all SharePoint DBs in the Farm<br />Use a SQL Alias to switch to Mirror Instance<br />
    28. 28. SQL Database MirroringDatabase Mirroring Model #2: Cross-Site (Stretch) Farm<br />Two Sites<br />1-10 ms Latency max<br />1Gb Bandwidth minimum<br />Farm Servers in each location<br />Auto Failover<br />
    29. 29. SQL Database MirroringDatabase Mirroring Model #3 – Failover Farm in Remote Site<br />Two Sites<br />Two Farms<br />Mirror only Content DBs<br />Failover is Manual<br />Read-only Mode possible<br />Must Re-Attach and Re-Index<br />
    30. 30. SQL Database MirroringDatabases Supported for Mirroring – Slide 1 of 2<br />
    31. 31. SQL Database MirroringDatabases Supported for Mirroring – Slide 2 of 2<br />
    32. 32. SharePoint Data Redundancy<br />
    33. 33. SharePoint Data RedundancyWhat are the Critical SharePoint Components to Backup?<br />SharePoint Databases<br />Config Database (typically excluded)<br />Content Database(s)<br />Services Databases<br />IIS Configuration<br />Web.config files in inetpub directory<br />Web part assemblies in %systemroot%assembly<br />Any custom templates<br />
    34. 34. Understanding the SP2010 DatabasesSharePoint 2010 Databases (Part I)<br />
    35. 35. Understanding the SP2010 DatabasesSharePoint 2010 Databases (Part II)<br />
    36. 36. SharePoint Data RedundancyTools available for Backup and Restore<br />Two-stage Recycle Bin<br />Site Recycle Bin (added in SharePoint 2010 Service Pack 1)<br />SharePoint Central Admin Tool<br />PowerShell<br />STSADM<br />IIS Metaverse Backup Script<br />SQL 2005/2008 Tools (Maintenance Plan)<br />Microsoft System Center Data Protection Manager (DPM) 2010<br />Third-party (Quest, Metalogix, AvePoint, others)<br />
    37. 37. Backup with the SharePoint Central Admin Tool<br />
    38. 38. What does the Central Admin Backup Tool do?<br />Full fidelity backups of all SharePoint content and indexes<br />Backs up all SharePoint databases except Config DB, which is not needed.<br />Similar to SQL level backup, except can be more granular at the Web Application level<br />SP2010 now has status indicators<br />SP2010 now allows for Site Collection Backup from Central Admin<br />
    39. 39. Disadvantages of Central Admin Backup Tool<br />Not automated<br />If XML catalog is damaged, entire backup can be at risk<br />No item-level restore capabilities<br />Not enterprise level<br />
    40. 40. PowerShell Backups<br />
    41. 41. PowerShell Backup in SP2010<br />PowerShell can be used to automate Backups<br />Backup-SPConfigurationDatabase<br />Backup-SPFarm<br />Backup-SPSite<br />Equivalent to Central Admin or STSADM<br />Can pipe out results and backup multiple site collections, etc.<br />
    42. 42. PowerShell BackUp & Restore CMDLETS<br />
    43. 43. PowerShell - Farm Configuration Backup<br />Farm Configuration Only Backup<br />backup-spfarm –backupMethodfull –directory servernameBackup -configurationonly<br />Complete Farm Backup<br />Backup-spfarm –backupmethod full – directory servernameBackup<br />Backup-SPFarm specific parameters<br />-BackupMethod<br />-BackupThreads<br />
    44. 44. PowerShell - Configuration DB Backup<br />Configuration Database Backup<br />Backup-spconfigurationdatabase –directory servernamesp2010backup –databaseserver server –databasenamemss_configdb<br />Backup Farm Configuration Information<br />Information Rights Management<br />Workflow<br />Diagnostic logging<br />Customizations [solutions deployed]<br />Outbound e-mail configuration<br />Antivirus settings<br />
    45. 45. PowerShell – Site Collection Backup<br />Backup Site Collection<br />Backup-SPSite –Identity -Path servernamesp2010backupdemosc.bak -Force<br />Other Parameters – <br />-NoSiteLock – use with caution, possible data corruption<br />-UseSQLSnapshot – use content database snapshot when doing a backup<br />Can be run multiple times and/or scripted to automate backups<br />Extremely useful approach to backing up SPF Site collections and personal sites<br />
    46. 46. Granular Backup / Restore<br />New in SharePoint 2010 - <br />Granular Backup/Restore From Central Administration<br />Site Collection Backup<br />Export a site or list<br />Recover data from an unattached content database<br />Granular Backup Job Status indicators<br />Granular restore operations only using PowerShell<br />Workflows are not included when exporting a site or a list<br />
    47. 47. PowerShell – Export Site / List<br />Export-SPWeb –Identity -path serverbackupbackup.bak -itemurl “features” –force<br />Option to include user security and versions<br />
    48. 48. Unattached Content Databases<br />New feature of SharePoint 2010<br />Granular restores of SharePoint content<br />Read-only content databases<br />Restored SharePoint content databases<br />Content database snapshots<br />Restore Site Collections, Sites, Libraries and Lists<br />
    49. 49. How to backup the IISv7 Config<br />Open a command prompt by using the Run as Administrator option and change directory to %windir%system32inetsrv.<br />At the command prompt, type appcmd add backup <backupname>. If you do not include the name of the backup, the system will name it for you by using a date, time format. <br />
    50. 50. SQL Maintenance Plan Backups<br />
    51. 51. Backing up using SQL Tools<br />SQL 2005/2008/2008 R2 Management Studio can be used to backup all Databases<br />Same as Central Admin Backup, but only backs up SQL databases, not index<br />Can be scheduled as part of a SQL Maintenance Plan<br />Can backup as Full, Differential, or Incremental<br />Can backup Config DB, but normally not needed (only supported scenario is during a SAN Snapshot)<br />
    52. 52. System Center Data Protection Manager 2010<br />
    53. 53. Features of DPM for SharePoint<br />Item-level recovery of Documents and List Data<br />VSS Snapshot Integration, can snapshot SQL Databases every 15 minutes<br />Backup to Disk (near-term), Backup to Tape (long-term) – Direct integration<br />Not only SharePoint, but File Data, Exchange, SQL, and Bare-metal recovery<br />
    54. 54. DPM Backing up a SharePoint Farm<br />System State<br />Internet InformationServices (IIS)“Front End”<br />SharePoint VSS Writer<br />“Farm” Config dB<br />(SQL)<br />DPM 2010<br />SQL<br />SQL<br />SQL<br />Files<br />Enterprise Search (index)<br />Content Servers (SQL)<br />
    55. 55. SharePoint Recovery<br />The Entire Farm<br />“Farm” Config dB<br />(SQL)<br />Entire Farm<br />DPM 2010<br />Enterprise Search (index)<br />Content Servers (SQL)<br />
    56. 56. SharePoint Recovery<br />The Entire Farm<br />A Content DB<br />“Farm” Config dB<br />(SQL)<br />Content DB information<br />DPM 2010<br />Content DB<br />Enterprise Search (index)<br />Content Servers (SQL)<br />
    57. 57. SharePoint Recovery<br />The Entire Farm<br />A Content DB<br />Site Collection<br />A Site<br />Document<br />Site Collection / Site / Individual Document<br />“Farm” Config dB<br />(SQL)<br />DPM 2010<br />DPM handles restore thru Recovery Farm to production Farm<br />Farm then redirects data to appropriate content database and site<br />Enterprise Search (index)<br />Content Servers (SQL)<br />
    58. 58. Third-party Backup Solutions<br />Multiple tools available<br />Provide for item-level recovery and complex DR scenarios<br />Often integrates with the storage platform vendor<br />
    59. 59. For More Information<br />SharePoint 2010 Unleashed and SharePoint 2007 Unleashed (SAMS Publishing) (<br />Microsoft SQL Mirroring for SharePoint 2007 Whitepaper ( <br />Microsoft SQL Mirroring for SharePoint 2007 Case Study (<br />Microsoft Virtualizing SharePoint 2007 Whitepaper ( <br />Microsoft SharePoint 2010 Search Architecture Diagrams ( <br />
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    61. 61. Creating<br />the future<br />together<br />
    62. 62. Thanks for attending!Questions?<br />Michael Noel<br />Twitter: @MichaelTNoel<br /><br />Slides:<br />