Talk on 21st century skills given at LABCI conference in Lima 11/07.


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This talk is about 21st century skills and answers these questions: what are they?; which ones are the most useful?; how can we help students acquire them?

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  • Talk on 21st century skills given at LABCI conference in Lima 11/07.

    1. 1. Essential skills for 21st century learners Abstract: Rapid technological change, shifting job markets and the increasingly connected nature of society all mean that, in this century, young people will need new skills to become active global citizens. In this session we will look at such “21st century skills”: lifelong learning strategies; information processing and critical thinking; global awareness; intercultural and interactive communicative competence; digital literacies. 2013 LABCI CONFERENCE LIMA 11/07/13
    2. 2. Which of these skills is the most useful and which is the least important for 21st century citizens? a) learn on your own using the technology available. b) cooperate with people from other cultures. c) remember a lot of facts. d) understand global issues. e) use digital media to communicate. f) deal with information effectively and critically. * We voted on this and the following results came out: Most useful skills (in this order): f) d) b) a) e) Least useful skill: c) (unanimous vote) None of the participants had learnt any of the useful skills when at school. All of us had learnt lots of facts. Discussion
    3. 3. Paradigm shifts in western education: · Middle ages (up to 1500): ecclesiastical/theocratic (handwritten manuscripts- priests) · Renaisance (1500-1850): classical/discursive/text-based (printing press/books- merchant classes) · Industrial revolution (1850-2000): modern curriculum: science/geography/history etc. (cheaper books/mass literacy) · Knowledge-based (2000-): 21st century skills (digital/internet/pc/mobile phones) Background * In my opinion, we are in the middle of a paradigm shift right now.
    4. 4. 21st century skills · Information handling + critical thinking · Self-directed learning ………………………………………………………………………………………… · Global awareness ………………………………………………………………………………………… · Intercultural competence · Cooperation + digital connections DIGITAL LITERACIES e.g. Information literacy Search literacy Network literacy Dudeney/Hockley/Pegr um (2013) A provisional taxonomy
    5. 5. INFORMATION HANDLING CC Marco Arment CRITICAL THINKING 1- Is an argument being given? 2- What is it? 3- Should I be persuaded by it? TRACY BOWELL AND GARY KEMP (2005) How well can your learners process the information they get from the Net? Arthur.C.Clarke: “Getting information from the Internet is like getting a glass of water from Niagara Falls.” Background
    6. 6. ONLINE SKILLS 1. Look at the photo of Aung San Suu Kyi and read the profile of her. Which three facts do you think might not be true about her? Research 2. Choose three of the websites to check the information in Exercise 1. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) CHOICES UPPER INTERMEDIATE * Checking information online. Cross-checking = a key information processing skill
    7. 7. SELF-QUESTIONING 1 What do you know about the Sun? 2 Write two questions about the Sun. 3 Listen and see which questions you can answer. * Simple technique for listening/watching/reading: No need for teacher to produce a task. This is a real-life processing activity. INFORMATION PROCESSING
    8. 8. TIPS: · It is easier to search using the English version of Google. Look for in English at the bottom of each Google search page. · When you want to find basic information about a person using Google, put their name in quotation marks and add other words: “Nelson Mandela” + very short/brief biography or “Nelson Mandela” + quick facts/ information SEARCH LITERACY * See Google tips for more ideas. Other useful search engines: Dogpile / duckduckgo / Yippy / Flickr (photos) ONLINE SKILLS
    9. 9. * The importance of note-taking for reading/listening/watching + for preparation for speaking and writing. The use of mind maps/concept maps. Getting students to show you and their partners their notes. Notes as a final product and not just a transitional stage. INFORMATION PROCESSING
    10. 10. A great concept map of this talk by Marlies Van Eunen-de Boer (CC) INFORMATION PROCESSING
    11. 11. TIPS: When evaluating websites in English to get information, think about: · The level of language. Websites for young people or simplified websites can have more accessible language (e.g. simple Wikipedia). Pictures and photos can also help. · The amount of information. Depending on the kind and amount of information you need you should use different types of websites (e.g. for basic information = simple websites). · The organisation of the websites. Is it easy to find the contents? Are there summaries of information? Is there a search facility (usually at the top right-hand side of the page)? · Reliability. Is the information up to date? Is it from a reliable source (e.g. a well-known encyclopaedia or non-governmental organisation)? Does it give further reference or links? 3. Evaluate the three websites you used. Which of the websites: · was the easiest to understand? · had the best information? · was best organised? · looked the most reliable? CHOICES UPPER INTERMEDIATE * The use of critical thinking to evaluate websites for reliability. ONLINE SKILLS
    12. 12. Welcome to the web site for the Dihydrogen Monoxide Research Division (DMRD), currently located in Newark, Delaware. The controversy surrounding dihydrogen monoxide has never been more widely debated, and the goal of this site is to provide an unbiased data clearinghouse and a forum for public discussion. WELCOME Dihydrogen Monoxide FAQ Enviro Impact of DHMO DHMO and Cancer DHMO Research Editorial: Truth about DHMO Evaluate the reliability of this website. What’s wrong with it? ONLINE SKILLS
    13. 13. CHOICES UPPER INTERMEDIATE MAPPING ARGUMENTS A useful technique for critical thinking and for evaluating arguments (written texts/audio/video/multimedia). CRITICAL THINKING
    14. 14. Much easier with digital technology than ever before. Examples: - Building up your own personal learning environment of digital/online tools and links. - Working on your own and getting immediate feedback in virtual learning environments like My English Lab. Communication with your teacher + your activities being monitored automatically. Self-directed learning
    15. 15. Personal learning environment 1 prioritise your bookmarks 2 google expressions/structures to check them 3 use online dictionaries to check meaning/pronunciation 4 use google images as a picture dictionary 5 use spell and grammar check features in Word 6 ask for help/advice on the class forum / VLE Self-directed learning
    16. 16. BLENDED LEARNING Self-directed learning
    17. 17. Climate change Human rights Migration Population Energy crisis War + terrorism Globalisation World health Economic crisis Inequality Technology Global issues Global awareness: we live on an interconnected planet – our actions have consequences that we may not know about.
    18. 18. CHOICES INTERMEDIATE * Using photos as a way in to key global issues like child labour and modern-day slavery which is often used to manufacture modern consumer products (e.g. clothes chocolate/mobile phones). Global awareness
    19. 19. Global awareness * Use of graphs and videos for developing global awareness. CHOICES UPPER INTERMEDIATE
    20. 20. Global awareness Feel free to use this material, comment on it and send me your own. It‟s open- source and uncensored, so we can look at topics here that are not covered in ELT coursebooks like gay rights, religion, society and politics.
    21. 21. CHOICES ELEMENTARY Intercultural Competence
    22. 22. CHOICES PRE-INTERMEDIATE Intercultural competence
    23. 23. Group project work: Working together to create something (e.g. a poster/ a presentation / a performance / an artefact.) Digital literacy: The use of digital tools to do this like wikis or other collaborative, open documents. The use of online educational networks like Glogster (multimedia projects). Cooperation/digital connections
    24. 24. Online What tasks are involved in this online project? Example: find good websites A great website for multi- media projects. Digital connections
    25. 25. 1 How well did you work together as a group? A-very well B-quite well C-not very well 2 Complete the work report below: 3. Assess the participation of the others: A-very good B-quite good C- not very good TASKS SUSANA QUIQUE JUAN ANA Research: find good websites make notes / find recordings + graphics (permissions) Production: design / writing / recording: video/audio / solving technical problems Presentation: upload / share class presentation + follow-up questions / reacting to feedback Digital connections * Tasks in red = digital literacies.
    26. 26. MAP OF TALK globalised + interconnected world Lifelong learning skills MAIN ARGUMENT: 21st century citizens will need to acquire a new set of skills digital knowledge economy Reason: Rapid technological, social + economic change (paradigm shift) shifting job market Information handling/ critical thinking Consequences. need for: Examples Personal learning environments Global awareness Self- questioning Cross-cultural competence Cooperation + digital connections Multimedia projects Tolerance of difference Global issues
    27. 27. Bibliography: 21st Century Schools (2008) What is 21st Century Education Andrews, C. (2012) Integrating 21st Century Literacies into the Curriculum Barseghian, T. (2011) 50 Reasons to Invite Facebook into your Classroom your-classroom/ Cates, K. (1997) “Frequently Asked Questions About Global Issues” The Language Teacher Online Coyle, D., Hood, P. and Marsh, D. (2012) Content and Language Integrated Learning Cambridge: CUP Downes, S. (2009) 21st Century Skills: An Operating System for the Mind Dudeney, G and Hockly, N. (2007) How to teach English with Technology London: Longman Dudeney, G. and Hockly, N. (2012) Digital Literacies London: Pearson (forthcoming) See webinar: Dyer,B. + Bushell, B. (1996) World Issues or a Global Perspective? Language Teacher Online Goldstein, B. (2011) The digital image: developing visual literacy in ELT Hockly, N. and Clandfield, L. (2010) Teaching Online: Tools and techniques, options and opportunities Surrey: Delta Humphrey, D. (2007) Intercultural Communication Competence: The State of Knowledge CILT: The National Centre for Languages Kellner, D. (2000) New Media and New Literacies: reconstructing education for the new Millennium King,A. (1992) Comparison of Self-questioning, Summmarizing and Notetaking-review as Strategies for Learning from Lectures. American Educational Research Journal 29/2 pp 303 323 Lee McKay, S. (2002) Teaching English as an International Language Oxford: OUP Lin, M and Mackay, C. (2004) Thinking through Modern Foreign Languages, Chris Kington Publishing Partnership for 21st Century Skills Maley, A. 1992. „Global issues in ELT‟. Practical English Teaching, 13, 2: 73. Mattheoudakis, M. (2011) Human Rights and TEFL: Globalising School Education Global Issues in Language Education Newsletter no 42 Modiano,M (2001) Linguistic imperialism, cultural integrity and EIL. ELT Journal Volume 55/4 Pal, B. and Zsofi, L. (2012) The Pros and Cons of Using Facebook in ELT elt-12812372 Parekh, B. (2003) Cosmopolitanism and Global Citizenship in Review of International Studies 29: 3-17. Pergrum, M e-language (Mark‟s blog) Pergrum, M. (2010) Digital Literacies- where do we start? 2010 Ragatz, M (2010) Creating Interactive Posters with Royal, W. (2007) Global Issues, Social Responsibility and Teacher Education Global Issues in Language Education Newsletter Sharma, P. And Barrett, B. (2007) Blended Learning: Using technology in and beyond the language classroom. Oxford: Macmillan Trompenaars,F. (1995) Riding The Waves Of Culture London: Economist Books Vai, M. and Sosulski, K. (2011) Essentials of Online Course Design: A standards-Based Guide New York: Routledge Valdes,J.M. (1986) Culture Bound: bridging the cultural gap in language teaching Cambridge: CUP Woodward, T. (2011) Thinking in the EFL Class: Activities for blending language learning and thinking. Helbling Languages
    28. 28. Self-directed learning: Allright, R. (1988) Autonomy and Individualisation in Whole Class Instruction. From: Individualisation and Autonomy in Language Learning. ELT Documents 131 ed Brookes, A. Modern English Publications / British Council. Dam, L. (1995) Learner Autonomy 3: Theory for Classroom Practice. Dublin: Authentik Dam, L. (2010) IATEFL Plenary: Coursebooks and learner autonomy Dickinson, L. (1987) Self-instruction in language learning. Cambridge: CUP. Fenner, AB. and Newby, D. (2000) Approaches to Materials Design in European Textbooks: Implementing Principles of Authenticity, Learner Autonomy and Cultural Awareness. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Harris, M. (1997) Perceptions of progress: self-assessment of language learning in formal educational settings ELT Journal 50/1 Holec, H. (1981) Autonomy and Foreign Language Learning. Oxford: Pergamon. Little, D. (1991) Learner Autonomy. 1: Definitions, issues and problems. Dublin: Authentik. Little, D. (2010) Issues in Learner Autonomy little-issues-in-learner-autonomy-tesolacademic-org/ Littlejohn, A. (1985) Learner Choice in Language Study. In- ELT Journal Vol 39/Issue 4, pp. 253-261 Oskarsson, M. (1980) Approaches to Self-assessment in Foreign Language Learning Council of Europe/Pergamon Reinders, H. and Balaikanli.C. (2011) Do Classroom Textbooks Encourage Autonomy? Rodriguez, S. (2011) Learner Autonomy: Where are we now? Tudor, I (2004) Motivation: Towards a methodology of motivation. Humanising Language Teaching Year 6, issues 1 and 2. Non-ELT: Bowell, T. and Kemp, G. (2005) Critical Thinking: A concise guide New York: Routledge Dean, J. (2010) Blog Theory: Feedback and Capture in the Circuits of Drive. Cambridge: Polity Press Goldacre, B. (2009) Bad Science. London: Harper Perennial Lawrence, P.R. And Nohria, P. Driven: How human nature shapes our choices. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Leadbeater, C (2009) We-think: Mass innovation, not mass production. London: Profile Books Martin, J. (2006) The Meaning of the 21st Century: a vital blueprint for ensuring our future. London: Eden Project Books Roszak, T. (1977) Person / Planet: The creative disintegration of industrial society. London: Victor Gollancz Toffler, A. (1970) Future Shock. New York: Random House Watson, R. (2010) Future Minds: how the digital age is changing our minds, why this matters and what we can do about it. London: Nicholas Brealey