Sutton - Using the Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool to Engage Students
Cutting-edge Technologies in Higher Education
Emerald Book Chapter: Using the Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool to
Engage Students in Undergraduate and Graduate University Courses
Michael J.D. Sutton, Afsaneh Hazeri
To cite this document: Michael J.D. Sutton, Afsaneh Hazeri, "Using the Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool to Engage Students
in Undergraduate and Graduate University Courses", Charles Wankel, Patrick Blessinger, in (ed.) Increasing Student Engagement and
Retention Using Online Learning Activities (Cutting-edge Technologies in Higher Education, Volume 6), Emerald Group Publishing
Limited, pp. 195 - 225
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USING THE WIKI AS AN
EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING TOOL
TO ENGAGE STUDENTS IN
Michael J. D. Sutton and Afsaneh Hazeri
This literature review explores the academic material comprising appli-
cations, cases, courses, and classroom-based research in higher education
where wiki tools appeared as an instructional technology. The authors
define and describe the wiki concept, outlining a framework for wikis
deployed as instructional technology tools. Additionally, analyses and
syntheses of the findings are described from an interdisciplinary research
literature search across many fields, along with a number of illustrative,
exemplary cases demonstrating the application of this tool to teaching
and learning. The authors also identify research evidence that outlines
the benefits and strengths offered by new wiki technologies, while
highlighting challenges, weaknesses, and issues encompassing their
Increasing Student Engagement and Retention using Online Learning Activities:
Wikis, Blogs and Webquests
Cutting-edge Technologies in Higher Education, Volume 6A, 195À225
Copyright r 2012 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited
All rights of reproduction in any form reserved
application in courses. The authors also outline numerous theories of
learning that can be associated with wiki work; new forms of wiki-based
learning; patterns of wiki technology use; characteristics of learners
using wikis; and the changing role of teaching and teachers who instruct
with wikis. Finally, we conclude with a summary of the findings and sug-
gested future directions for studying wikis in higher education (HE).
Although no broad, definitive prognosis yet exists that can point to a
causeÀeffect relationship between the application of wikis and increases
in learning, a significant body of evidence has emerged that suggests that
wikis positively stimulate the learning environment and increase the col-
laborative capabilities of learners when applied to course work.
Keywords: Adult learning; andragogical; pedagogical; application of
wikis; case(s); experiential learning; teaching framework; theory of
learning; wikis; higher education; wiki-based learning
This chapter is structured into five major sections and attempts to describe
and highlight a number of research issues drawn from exemplary cases of
wikis in higher education (HE). The first section, Background and Motiva-
tion, consists of three critical subsections: definitions and descriptions of the
wiki concept, wikis as an instructional technology tool, and goal of the liter-
ature review. The second section, Methodology, describes the purpose of a
research exemplary case review and the elements comprising a research liter-
ature review. The third section, the Emergence of Wikis in Higher Education,
outlines the evolution of wikis within HE. The fourth section, Transforming
Teachers, Learners, and Learning, encompasses applicable theories of learn-
ing, new forms of learning, patterns of technology use, characteristics of
learners, and changing role of teaching and teachers. Finally, the Conclu-
sions and Future Directions section brings together a synthesis of discoveries
relevant to the literature review and future studies.
BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION
An initial round of searches furnished literature reviews, cases, book chap-
ter descriptions, conference proceedings paper and presentations, and
empirically-grounded studies associated with wikis in HE. We reviewed
196 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
many cases where wikis were specifically used in traditional and online
classes, courses, or classrooms. Most noteworthy is the paucity of evidence
suggesting or recommending the ways this relatively new technology could
change learning and teaching practice. The source for the largest body of
material comes from scholars, instructional designers, and educational
technologists associated with traditional, e-learning, and distance learning
We consider wikis as experiential learning tools. Kolb (1984, p. 21) was
an early proponent of experiential learning, “Knowledge is continuously
derived from and tested out in the experiences of the learner.” Chickering
(1977, pp. 86À87) proposed, “There is no question that issues raised by
experiential learning go to the heart of the academic enterprise. Experien-
tial learning leads us to question the assumptions and conventions underly-
ing many of our practices.” Concomitantly, Kayes (2002) contended that
“preserving experience-based approaches to … learning … [require instruc-
tors to revise] the concept of experience to more closely account for the
relationship between personal and social (i.e., tacit/explicit) knowledge”
(p. 137). Lindeman (1961, p. 6) forecasted, “...the resource of highest value
in adult education is the learner’s experience.” The dialogue on the value
of experiential learning is widespread (Sutton, McFarland, Sanchez, & Vuyo-
vich, 2012). As this chapter will assert, wikis formed a foundation for expe-
riential learning across all disciplines and college departments creating
significant positive advantages for both the learner and instructor of wiki-
based classroom learning experiences.
Definitions and Descriptions of the Wiki Concept
Since wikis are most often applied in the classroom as experiential learning
tools, let us look at how this came to be. Wikis are a collaboration soft-
ware tool that gained notoriety and spawned a revolution, such as the phe-
nomenon of Wikipedia (http://www.wikipedia.org). In Wikis: Tools for
Information and Collaboration, Klobas (2006) outlines a very succinct his-
tory of the wiki, beginning with a description of the Portland Pattern
Repository established in 1995 by Ward Cunnigham, a virtual location for
creating a sense of community and sharing information. Klobas goes on to
mention SunirShah’s MeatballWiki founded in 2000, along with Jimmy
Wales’ Wikipedia, which was launched in 2001. During the next five years,
other commercial tools emerged in the marketplace: Socialtext, Conflu-
ence, JotSpot, etc. Currently, there are probably over 100 different wiki
engines, with a range of names (see Table 1).
197Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
Wikis became popular during the last decade as a software technology
and a location (website) to collect and share a broad range of data
and information, from recipes, travel information, and corporate project
information to curricula, music lyrics, and movie material. Succinctly stated
by Mader (2008), a “wiki is simply a website in which users can create and
collaboratively edit pages, and easily link them together” (p. 4). The wiki
pages can normally be accessed and used by individuals with little or no
formal IT training. Wikis encompass a suite of common features that have
been easily exploited for experiential learning (Klobas, 2006).
The online services for a wiki application can execute from a local
server or a remote server as a cloud-based computing application (Soft-
ware as a Service À SaaS). A critical element of a wiki is the capability to
store and sequence the history of each edited page, permitting an edited
page to revert to a previous revision, if the user makes a request. Wikis
also engage the collaborators in a set of discussions and exchanges, stimu-
lating the formation, modification, and potential transformation of the
data and information amongst a group of contributors, readers, and edi-
tors. The formation (capture) and modification (alteration) of the data are
easier concepts to grasp than transformation (transmutation), which is the
mobilization of information into actionable knowledge by the user learner.
Wikis evolved as learning platforms when instructors applied the tool to
the goals of adult learning. Wikis demonstrate the transformative effect
learners have on personal responsibility (experiential and self-directed) ver-
sus hierarchical command and control (professor-centric) classroom situa-
tions. For example, a project-based, low-residency MBA program founded
upon a wiki of business topics (information), motivated learners to apply
Table 1. Representative Names of Wikis (Not Exhaustive).
@wiki InterWiki PHPWiki WackoWiki
ClearWiki IpbWiki PikiePikie WagnWiki
Corendal Wiki JAMWiki PmWiki Wetpaint
DokuWiki LittleWiki QwikiWiki Wikia
EclipseWiki MediaWiki ScribbleWiki Wikidot
EditMe Mindtouch Seedwiki Wiki-Site
EditThis.info MoinMoin Swiki.net Wikispaces
eTouchSamePage Netcipia TikiWiki Wikka Wiki
FlexWiki Ogham UseModWiki WikkiTikkiTavi
GetWiki On-Wiki VeryQuickWiki XWiki
Ikiwiki PBWiki ViaWiki XwikiWiki
InstikiWiki PerspectiveWiki VimKi ZwiKi
198 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
self-learning and personal mastery of the elements required to create a busi-
ness plan, when browsed and applied to specific business problems (Sutton,
2009a, 2010a). The information is mobilized into actionable knowledge by
the learner, due to the network of links within the corpus of topics. The
learner finds a path through the information in order to articulate and
weave a story from the underlying topics. Moreover, because of the HE
environment, wikis demonstrate a capability for construction of HE learning
organizations that replace the status quo with nontraditional learning
(Barkley, Cross, & Major, 2005; Fuchs-Kittowski & Kohler, 2002; Millis &
Cottell, 1998; Raman, Ryan, & Olfman, 2005). A wiki may be metaphori-
cally compared to the behavior of a tornado or maelstrom, pulling text and
media from collaborators together into new configurations, where editing
and wordsmithing can shape data and information into new knowledge that
would not have been visible in solo, personal sources. Static information,
when reworked by a community of learner-authors can take on the life of a
dynamic entity (vis-a` -vis Wikipedia, to name the most prevalent today).
Wikis are under continual improvement and technological development.
The wiki has become a utilitarian electronic notebook tool, where the
knowledge of the whole evolves to be greater than the knowledge in any
single actor. Grant, Owen, Sayers, and Facer (2006) outlined fundamental
shifts taking place in the relationship of practice-based knowledge with cre-
ativity and innovation (an element where HE could benefit significantly
with applications of wikis in educational environments):
… our relationship with knowledge is changing, from one in which knowledge is orga-
nised in strictly classified ‘disciplines’ and ‘subjects’, to a more fluid and responsive
practice which allows us to organise knowledge in ways that are significant to us at dif-
ferent times and in different places. … New forms of collaboration tools are also emerg-
ing, where people can work together to build new documents or products. (pp. 3À4)
Traditional disciplinary boundaries of knowledge and learning quickly
erode, because the learner personalizes and appropriates knowledge nug-
gets from a multitude of sources, regenerating new knowledge in the
process. Wikis encourage new engagement patterns with classmates, knowl-
edge, and learning. For example, Christensen and Eyring (2011) described
the innovative nature and success of new competency-based, experiential,
and project-based BBA and MBA programs founded upon a wiki knowl-
edgebase coupled with faculty coaching of learners at Westminster College
in Salt Lake City, UT, (see http://www.westminstercollege.edu/project-
based/). Learning, knowledge production, and diffusion practices were
being inexplicably altered by the presence of the wiki. Learners in the Bill
199Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
and Vieve Gore School of Business project-based programs adopted more
collaborative and less solitary methods of inquiry and collaboration.
Goal of the Literature Review
The overall goal of the literature review was to explore a wide range of
existing references within the existing body of international literature
emerging through multidisciplinary and cross-disciplinary sources. The
purpose of the review became an initial attempt to frame the new interdis-
ciplinary educational field by analyzing emerging literature from many dif-
ferent disciplines, subdisciplines, and fields of study. Approximately 500
references were originally identified, retrieved, and reviewed; the consensus
on the impact of wikis appeared to be positive. Evidence provided in a
minority of cases, studies, and course descriptions were inconsistent or did
not reinforce the strengths of wiki tools in learning environments. The
emergent body of knowledge associated with wikis in HE is predominantly
focused on the experiences and learning outcomes of learners. The answer
to the question of how educators integrate wikis appropriately in formal
education appeared contradictory.
For the purposes of this chapter, the authors decided to scope their
review and identify exemplary cases with empirical evidence that could
demonstrate the pros and cons of learner engagement of wiki tools within
HE environments. Our case study review was executed from the viewpoint
of educators who actually used wikis in undergraduate and graduate level
programs. The authors felt that a review of exemplary cases could create
the foundation for further case-based research, where common criteria and
consistent evidence might emerge.
Exemplary cases are loosely defined by Soy (1997) as
…carefully select cases [that] carefully examine the choices available
from among many research tools available in order to increase the valid-
ity of the study… (para. 7);
…deliberately sort[ing] the data in many different ways to expose or cre-
ate new insights and will deliberately look for conflicting data to dis-
confirm the analysis… (para. 18);
…report[ing] the data in a way that transforms a complex issue into one
that can be understood, allowing the reader to question and examine the
study and reach an understanding independent of the researcher…
200 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
Yin (1994) outlined five characteristics of exemplary case studies: signifi-
cance, completeness, consideration of alternative perspectives, reporting of
sufficient evidence, and an engaging composition. This chapter will review
and report information from published cases that satisfy a majority of the
criteria outlined by Soy and Yin. The following section describes the meth-
odology for the study.
A number of authors proposed that learner engagement with wikis pro-
vides significant opportunities for self-representation, personal reflection,
and additional instances of organized forms of collaboration and knowl-
edge construction. Content is often remixed, repurposed, and regenera-
ted into more refined knowledge nuggets through collaborative activities
creating “network effects through an ‘architecture of participation,’ and
going beyond the page metaphor of Web 1.0 to deliver rich user experi-
ences” (O’Reilly, 2005, para. 2). Open access collaboration spaces
(Wheeler, Yeomans, Wheeler, 2008) and common wiki applications like
collaborative writing (Ferris Wilder, 2006) have demonstrated this capa-
bility. In the 2009 Horizon Report by Johnson, Levine, and Smith (as cited
in Conole Alevizou, 2010, p. 10), described critical success factors for
technology adoption in HE for the period 2010 to 2015, one of which was
forecast to be “the work of students being seen as more collaborative in
nature and therefore there is potential for more intra- and inter- institu-
tional collaboration.” Conole and Alevizou (2010) also outlined a recent
impulse of international reports describing the adoption and use of Web
2.0 technology in the educational sector and the role of wikis in the trans-
formation of HE. The authors wished to extend the research with this
compilation of exemplary cases.
An exploratory and explanatory study exhibits the strengths and weak-
nesses associated with an inductive mode of analysis. We engaged in an
exploratory study in order to investigate an unexplored territory and estab-
lish familiarity and a deeper understanding with a new subject. The focus
of the research in an exploratory study is the what questions about the phe-
nomenon. Such studies normally unearthed original insights in the results
about what is going on that may advance theory associated with a new
subject or raise new questions. The focus of the research in an explanatory
study is the how and why questions about the phenomenon. The result was
an illuminative evaluation (Parlett Hamilton, 1972) of a subset of the
201Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
educational material covering the selected topic À wikis in HE. This illumi-
native evaluation did not conform to a pure meta-analysis, but instead
encompassed descriptive and interpretative methods, rather than a predic-
Our literature review accessed material available from the academic
sources that identified educational and classroom situations using wikis as
an element of the instructional technology and support. The researchers
were satisfied that a significant corpus of material had been identified from
the searches. The primary focus was wiki use and application in HE À
(universities and colleges delivering undergraduate, graduate, doctoral
degrees and postgraduate, and continuing education certificates). The
scope of the material was reduced by excluding material that was not asso-
ciated with HE À corporate and business environments, as well as K-12
institutions (primary, secondary, middle, or high schools). Evidence sug-
gesting the impact of wikis upon learning and teaching were reviewed.
Assertions made by numerous authors of the material were included in the
selection to be reviewed.
Research included in the review consisted of primary and secondary
research material, including abstracts, books, book chapters, conference
presentations, conference proceedings, dissertations, journal articles À
(both peer reviewed and nonpeer reviewed), practice descriptions, research
reports À (drafts as well as final form), and theses. The coverage was inter-
national and consisted of English language material, or material explicitly
translated into English that ranged from authors in Africa, Asia, China,
Europe, and South America, to a predominance of material from Austra-
lia, United Kingdom, and North America.
Google Scholart searches were initially performed to identify the
potential major sources for academically sound material available on the
World Wide Web, private websites, portals, or Intranets where abstracts
and titles might be accessible. When available, the Adobe pdf files,
Microsoft Word documents, and Microsoft PowerPoint slides were down-
loaded into a local repository. Following Google Scholart searches, plain
Googlet searches were executed to try and locate material not available
in Scholar. Finally, when private Intranets and portals showed up on a
hit list, the authors procured access through the college/university library
or interlibrary loan.
The authors defined the search domain in terms of simple, separate,
search queries formulated and executed to cast the widest possible net
around the potential fields and disciplines where the concepts appeared.
The search strategies consisted of keywords and Boolean searches that
202 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
constrained the search to words or terms in the title, when possible, or oth-
erwise a string of keywords available within the document. The keywords
encompassed a structured combination of the search terms:
In reviewing the downloaded material, over 75% of the identified mate-
rial contained three of the suggested search terms as colocated words
within the title or abstract, while over 90% of the identified material con-
tained two of the previously suggested search terms as colocated words
within the title or abstract.
Subsequently, online academic sources were searched in-depth, where
the subject area within the title of the sources, theme, goal, or objectives of
the journal/conference proceedings suggested a high probability of useful
material. These sources netted any additional material not available
through Google Scholart or Googlet. The sample size of the originally
retrieved material was approximately 500 documents, including a half a
dozen dissertations and theses.
Our approach to the study was qualitative and employed a document
analysis method to review the contents of cases that described the applica-
tion of wikis in HE. This research was posited within an educational para-
digm, constructivism. This paradigm was chosen because it provided an
overarching framework for exploring and interpreting a phenomenon, the
wiki within an educational context. Constructivism is a paradigm for
teaching and learning, which does not ignore the influence of personal rela-
tionships, especially relationships fostered by an intimately collaborative
technology like a wiki. We constructed an understanding of the phenome-
non through experiences of the other researchers, who critically influenced
the character of their experiences (Confrey, 1990). The authors combined a
constructivist approach with Yin’s (1994) exploratory and explanatory case
study approaches in order to report the findings.
Since a systematic research literature review (Easterby-Smith, Thorpe,
Jackson, 2008) exceeded the authors’ time and budget constraints, the
203Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
researchers followed the research literature review steps outlined by Fink
(2005) where a descriptive review, (in terms of an illuminative evaluation of
exemplary cases), was the anticipated deliverable. Although our abridged
process may have been less rigorous in its application to a topic than a stric-
ter systematic literature review, it was still a disciplined method to identify a
narrow corpus of research material for exploration.
The final screening criteria outlined below were used to ensure that the
corpus of retrieved material addressed the research topic narrowly enough
to proceed with case analyses:
1. Does a document address the use of wikis in an HE environment?
2. Does a paper discuss real-life experiences (cases) or “lessons learned” of
using wiki-based practices for teaching or learning?
3. Does the objective of the paper clearly mention teaching or learning
with the application and use of wikis?
4. Does the paper adequately discuss contextual factors of the case, which
provided confidence that a retrieved document could make a valuable
contribution to understanding the application and use of wikis in an
In the following section, the authors discuss cases that demonstrated the
emergence of wikis as important loci of study.
EMERGENCE OF WIKIS IN HIGHER EDUCATION
Wikis in HE were reported in the research literature since the mid to late
1990s (Dillenbourg, 1999; Godwin-Jones, 2003; Gonza´ lez-Bueno, 1998;
Warschauer, 1998). The initial occurrences of wikis on the Internet and
World Wide Web were made available through online services whose pur-
pose was group-based and team-centric collaboration, or what was called
at that time computer-mediated collaboration (CMC), (Fabos Young,
1999; Koschmann, 1996; Krauss Fussell, 1991). As CMC tools grew in
application, the emergence of the formal “wiki” came into existence.
Phillipson (2008) proposed a typology to describe different kinds of
wikis within HE:
204 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
simulation wiki, or
The resource wiki was flexible and applied to a wide range of courses.
The purpose of a resource wiki was a repository to collect a collabora-
tive knowledgebase of information for access that could include a pleth-
ora of subjects. Notwithstanding the course goal, a resource wiki
furnished a platform for collective constructivism. Learners could piggy-
back upon peers work in preceding courses as a large corpus of informa-
tion was collected within a project. Instructors built upon previous
work, such as the Wikipedia, soliciting and stimulating the creation of
original, new material. On the other hand, a presentation wiki was con-
structed for the sole purpose of a discussion forum, where peer evalua-
tion might occur by crafting, retrieving, and modifying information.
Presentation wikis built knowledge nuggets from the learners’ individual
perspectives into large communities of practice for group review and
Next, Phillipson presented the framework for gateway and simulation
wikis. The gateway wiki acted as a data repository for static information
that could easily be referenced, once it had been fixed as facts, that is, “sci-
entific measurements, statistics, calculations, survey results, metrics, and
any number of other data sets” (p. 26). In a gateway wiki, the fixed data
was the raw material of discussion and analysis. Additionally, a gateway
wiki was a platform for logging results of experiments, sharing experiences,
proposing well-formulated questions, and making connections between
theory and practice. A simulation wiki presents an interactive experience:
it is built as a world to explore. A simulation wiki was constructed to con-
vey decision-making outcomes, where indiscriminate, unplanned, and illog-
ical pathways were traversed by the learner. A simulation wiki could force
a contrast and comparison of internal decisions versus real-life models.
The subject of a simulation wiki could convey a doppelganger effect in
terms of being a proxy for the real world problem. A simulation wiki cre-
ated a foundation for constructing narrative paths. Therefore, a simulation
wiki might be applicable to history projects, event tracking, or creative
Finally, Phillipson described the illuminated wiki À a wiki directed
toward deciphering or elucidating a problem. In contrasting the illumi-
nated wiki to the gateway wiki, the illuminated wiki mutated the topic
under study, tightly incorporating it into the structure and architecture of
the wiki. Learners individually and communally marked up text, videos,
205Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
audios, and images contained on the illuminated wiki, resulting in a corpus
that integrated the original material with the discussion and comments
generated by the learners. Thus, Phillipson’s proposed framework for iden-
tifying the wiki types most suited to specific course and class tasks fur-
nishes researchers and instructors with an a la carte menu to choose an
appropriate wiki tool, based on the learning strategy and anticipated learn-
TRANSFORMING TEACHERS, LEARNERS,
In order to segment the information derived from the collected corpus of
knowledge, we decided to adopt the same categories as Conole and Alevi-
zou (2010, p. 2) established for a major section of their literature review
entitled “Changing learning and learners.” The subsections outlined were
theories of learning (associated with wiki applications), new forms of learn-
ing, patterns of technology use, characteristics of learners, and changing
role of teaching and teachers. The authors of this study felt that paralleling
Conole and Alevizou’s study of Web 2.0 technology with our study would
segment the material into logical elements and provide a basis for cross-
comparison. Over 90% of this chapter’s cases were not addressed specifi-
cally in the report by Conole and Alevizou.
Theories of Learning (Associated with Wiki Applications)
Barton (2008, p. 186) proposed to answer the question “What are key ped-
agogical benefits of wikis?” in a philosophical treatise. His conclusions,
which suggested a starting point for this section, were as follows:
Wikis demonstrate, in a clear and obvious fashion, how knowledge is a function of
communities engaged in ongoing discourse.
[Wikis also] demonstrate and build upon the interconnectness of knowledge and
illustrate plainly that no discourse exists in isolation from other discourse.
…wikis make the fundamental importance of rhetoric clear to students.
Ironically, Barton, using an undergraduate course in Computers and
English as a case, described the challenges of deploying a knowledge-based
206 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
tool in the classroom in support of knowledge creation, representation,
sharing, and diffusion. Barton proposed that his learners needed to incor-
porate service learning and civic action within their wiki activism. He felt
learners needed to inculcate the concept of “giving back to their commu-
nity” in order to become shapers of the public space.
Wikis … offer a democratic alternative to the mass society… Wikis are truly mass-pro-
duced, many-to-many writing spaces whose very design prevents the corporate control
structure so prevalent in the ‘culture industry.’ They allow the people to participate
directly in making meaning. (p. 192)
Visions of the world, society, and self appear to undergo transformation
through the text and images projected by the different publics. Wikis, in
Barton’s opinion could become an ideological tool for changing society
beyond the classroom.
Inquiry into the issues of applying wikis in the HE classroom is wide-
spread, crossing many disciplines and subjects. Vie and deWinter (2008,
p. 111) proposed a number of pedagogical reflection questions on the
issues of ownership and collaboration within classroom wikis:
1. [What is] the way in which traditional authorship is upset by wikis?
2. How can wikis be used to explore fostering the challenge of
3. How can wikis encourage students to move beyond traditional notions
of ownership and academic writing and into more collaborative, public
Cubric (2007) highlighted the value of a framework for supporting the
use of wikis with a learning and teaching process framework. The theoreti-
cal foundation for her study encompassed constructivist learning theories
of Vygotsky (1978), Gravett and Petersen (2002), and Novak and Patter-
son (1998). Cubric described 13 lessons learned from the two case studies.
Cubric concluded, “...students’ engagement with wiki-based learning activi-
ties is directly proportional to the quality and frequency of tutor’s feed-
back and the clarity of the underlying learning and teaching process”
(p. 11). The learning and teaching process frameworks consisted of
Feedback-driven learning and teaching framework;
On-line learning and teaching framework;
Feed-forward JITT (Just-In-Time Teaching) process; and
Facilitation and collaborative learning process.
207Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
Later, in a separate work, Cubric (2008) outlined a mapping of
the learning and teaching process to the agile development process
(Cohn, 2006) and SCRUM process (http://www.mountaingoatsoftware.
The underlying andragogy described by Dalsgaard (2006) asserted that
social software tools, such as wikis, support a social constructivist
approach to e-learning. Learners incorporate collaborative tools in order
to engage in social networking activities. Consequently, learners direct
their personal problem-solving process within the context of a social
environment. Social constructivism emphasizes the importance that
the learner must be actively engaged in the learning process. Counter-
prevailing viewpoints that are professor-centric suggest that the teacher
is responsible and accountable for delivering knowledge, requiring only
passive learning from the learner. In this study, the motivation for
engaging communities in the application and use of wikis is scoped to
the educational sector alone. Often, the findings within work and prac-
tice-based environments do not stand up to the test of validity and
reproducibility of empirical experiments. Content, communication, and
collaboration comprise three critical dimensions to evaluate the value of
learning within the social context of a wiki.
New Forms of Learning
Silverstein (2009) suggested increased learning absorption and retention by
undergraduate students taking an engineering course in Material and
Energy Balance. The learners were obligated to interact with a wiki after a
lecture and reflect upon selected textbook chapter elements. Although
many benefits were observed in the evolving student learning after lectures
and through the interaction on the wiki, Silverstein did note two outcomes
that were contradictory:
Comparing exam performance by this semesters’ students with previous terms students
show no statistically significant differences… Students that the instructor suspected at
the start of the course would be unable to complete the course were successful early in
the course and were able to demonstrate learning sufficient to pass the course with a
‘C’ or better. (para. 19)
Tselios, Altanopoulou, and Katsanos (2011) confirmed this last obser-
vation in their study involving 36 first-year students attending an Introduc-
tion to Web Science course. The study consisted of a pretest-posttest
design. In this study, learners who initially were poor performers improved
208 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
almost 30% over the duration of the course. Not only were not-
able learning gains reported but the students also indicated better writing
performance, increased self-organization skills, and improved collaborative
group processes. The authors concluded “…that a properly designed,
framed wiki-based activity could substantially facilitate students to achieve
high levels of learning” (p. 5).
Forte and Bruckman (2006) executed a detailed study of freshman lear-
ners in an American government course at the Georgia Institute of Tech-
nology. Three basic questions drove the study (p. 3):
1. To what extent do students’ interactions online affect their reasoning
2. How does publishing influence students’ beliefs about their writing and
motivation to write well?
3. How does publishing influence the content and tone of students’ writing?
Reasoning and learning was affected. The analysis of the first and final
drafts of essays showed that 80% of the learners using peer evaluation in the
wiki to revise papers and 90% received feedback associated with the argu-
ment of the essay and its content. Most learners did not perceive the public
nature of a wiki as a site that would be outward facing to the public, espe-
cially after the course finished, when it would become a resource. Explicit
permission was obtained from learners to reuse their material in the future,
but learners were quite naı¨ve and did not comprehend the true nature of the
wiki or the fact others (in the public) might find their work interesting. The
pilot suggested that an online audience of a public wiki played a crucial role
in creating meaningful and effective writing-to-learn. In conclusion, the
authors described the basis for moving forward from this pilot (p. 6):
…wiki-supported information resources … signal a unique opportunity for student wri-
ters to enrich public discourse in a way that serves a real purpose and engages a real
audience…Online publishing can encourage students to adopt the view that writing is
one part of a collaborative process that involves both their efforts and the disposition
and ability of their readers experiences. A sense of audience is a vital part of written
A study by Guth (2007) at the University of Padua confirmed the value
Forte and Bruckman discovered for engaging learners on public, class-
room-based wikis (p. 65):
writing on a public wiki promotes collaboration beyond the classroom;
publishing online leads to an increased sense of responsibility and more
209Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
knowledge sharing on a public wiki gives students a sense of
Nonetheless, Guth concluded that learners using a semipublic wiki,
because they did not lose ownership of their pages to anonymous users,
experienced a higher comfort level.
Patterns of Technology Use
Thomas and Minocha (2007) reported student feedback on the introduc-
tion of a Moodle wiki in a Requirements Engineering (RE) course at the
UK Open University. The authors proposed three questions to review the
success of the wiki and the course (p. 2):
Did the wiki activities facilitate collaborative learning as we intended?
What other tools might support collaborative requirements development?
What are the challenges in teaching collaborative RE using a wiki?
A number of issues arose during the course. The design of the original
course was based on independent learning by the students. The introduction
of the wiki created a collaborative, group-based approach to fulfilling the
assignments. The scoring system had to be revised to take into account both
individual contributions and group activities. In addition, the andragogy
moved from an independent learner to include numerous elements of
social constructivism. Finally, one of the other issues revolved around moti-
vation. In order to get the students to apply the wiki, numerous papers, and
articles related to requirements engineering were used as the topics for dis-
cussion. Those outcomes suggest that traditional courses should not just be
changed with the introduction of a wiki, but need to be completely rede-
signed, similar to problem discovered in moving traditional courses to
Mixed methods for deriving answers to survey questions were used by
the authors to query up approximately 117 students. Qualitative feedback
from many of the open-ended questions suggested:
the sharing of ideas, including constructive feedback, contributed to the
students ability to reflect and modify their own views;
collaborative authoring contributes to the iterative requirements engi-
210 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
missed assumptions and inconsistent requirements were more easily
In the next iteration of the RE course, Thomas and Minocha (2007)
indicated that a number of initial problems encountered in the first offer-
ing had been overcome. A significant problem was the lack of discussion
capabilities within the version of the Moodle wiki, and enhanced capabili-
ties would be included in the future. In a five-month course, the logistical
challenges of getting students together to self-organize for meetings
requires the application of a scheduler augmented to the wiki. Finally, the
inability of the students to meet face-to-face and carry out other online
socialization activities diminished the trust among group members who
were relative strangers. Again, the insights we gain from these findings are
the need to significant functionality as part of a wiki platform.
Thomas, King, Minocha, and Taylor (2008) followed up this initial
study and expanded it to include 250 students in two courses at the UK
Open University encompassing 56 wikis. The two courses included a post-
graduate Computing course, Software Requirements for Business Systems,
which emulated the original Requirements Engineering course in 2007; and
a postgraduate course in the Business School entitled Current Issues In
Public Management And Social Enterprise. A qualitative inductive analysis
was applied to identify emergent themes. The wikis were strictly text based
and designed to be exceptionally simple in the toolset. The goal was to
concentrate on content, not presentation. Even simple changes to a wiki
page were not being tracked, since any modification by a new author may
be captured at the page level, but the author of the change cannot nor-
mally be associated with text changed within a wiki page.
Simple wikis were defined as “a pull, not push, technology, which means
that contributions are unknown unless one deliberately looks for them”
(Thomas et al., 2008, p. 79). Constrained tools like a simple wiki exhibited
many limitations. Simple wikis are strictly text-based, do not accommodate
rich formatting, and cannot handle diagrams, images and photos. Richer,
more complex wikis can accommodate multimedia material, provides alerts
and subscriptions to modified pages, and has very rich features for format-
ting text and data on the page. In conclusion, an attempt to utilize simple
wikis failed because the students anticipated very rich formatting of con-
tent as well as accurate presentation. Additionally, many of the logging
and discussion forum features that would comprise function rich wikis
were identified as very useful, again suggesting sophistication in the tools
need to appropriately apply a wiki to a classroom situation.
211Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
Bruns and Humphreys (2007) stumbled upon a very insightful observa-
tion associated with user interface. After noting that a sparse MediaWiki
environment hindered the learners in a course, the Bruns and Humphreys
introduced Atlassian Confluencet, which had much richer functionality.
The correct technology appeared to effect adoption as well as learning.
Schroeder (2008) suggested that the use of a wiki by learners required the
development of best practices that need to be conveyed in order to success-
fully overcome the challenges of using the wiki architecture by novice
1. Create a culture of trust among wiki participants;
2. Set up conventions and require students to abide by these;
3. Have a common goal for all participants;
4. Assign meaningful, authentic activities;
5. Include explicit instructions and provide time for practice;
6. Remind students of course deadlines and schedules;
7. Define and identify roles for collaborative activities;
8. Provide clear and explicit course expectations;
9. Model examples of collaborative activities; and
10. Be patient with students and realize they may need help.
Characteristics of Learners
Evans (2005) described the experience of her learners with a wiki in a
course entitled Introduction to the Culture and Literature of Quebec. She
provided a platform to increase the quality of individual and group presen-
tations encompassing cultural topics. Her previous course experience sug-
gested that students lacked the application of knowledge associated with
researching a topic and were not confident in their delivery of the presenta-
tion. After the students engaged in their work using the wiki for five
weeks, Evans (p. 3) noticed some remarkable qualitative effects:
The instructor had envisioned several small groups of students working together on
topics... Instead, every student in the class chose to work individually and there was
very little visible or audible interaction during the in-class lab sessions devoted to the
Wiki editing... The students became deeply involved in researching their subjects, and
spent the majority of their time writing, revising, and reorganizing the content of their
pages. Rather than focusing on the collective site, students were developing expertise in
their own domains, schema building as they integrated new information and later
sought connections between their work and other pages.
212 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
This observation suggested that the process of using the wiki, which
is often promoted as collaborative, could still be quite useful for engag-
ing individual learners with the research material. The wiki supported
knowledge acquisition and transformation of information gathered
from the library and external resources. Finally, the researcher con-
cluded (p. 4):
…the majority of the students demonstrated ease with the material in oral presenta-
tions of their Wiki sites to the class. Unlike oral reports on cultural topics in previous
classes, the presentations in this class were done entirely without notes as students
spoke confidently about their area of expertise. The sociocultural notion of internaliza-
tion provides a means of describing the manner in which learning occurred in the
course of the project….It seems quite likely that by working with the authentic mate-
rial, transforming and manipulating it to create their own Wiki sites, students were able
to internalize a great deal of information.
The learners communicated more confidently about the research topics
and subject matter, and thus, their grade performance improved.
Bossewitch, Frankfurt, Sherman, and Kelley (2008) proposed three sim-
ple questions when deploying a wiki to 80 undergraduates in a Black
Movements in the US course at Columbia University (pp. 44À45):
1. What is a wiki?
2. How do you teach with a wiki?
3. What is the point of a wiki, that is, how do the collaborative composi-
tion experiences of [the] students compare with notable collaborations
The findings from the social justice case study were also insightful.
Wikis, in the opinion of the three authors, created the “essence of engage-
ment” amongst students, and between students and faculty. The authors
suggested a new ideal category of wiki: a platonic wiki À one where “every-
one can see anything that has been published, can edit anything they can
see, and can easily create a new page” (p. 49). Of course, this ideal is actu-
ally governed within each instance of a wiki type by business and technical
rules, policies for interaction, and workflow processes that are applied to
the content. Each wiki instance predicates different learner experiences and
interaction models, and the experiences can vary across deployments of the
same product in the same course or different courses. The flexibility of the
wiki environment and social interface, (coupled with the imaginations of
the learners), minimized the deterministic results that might be prescribed
by a specific product.
213Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
In the Columbia University case, Bossewitch et al. (2008) divided 80
learners into groups of three to four. The goal was simple: build a website
through learner collaboration that described critical social justice move-
ments in New York City. The learners were asked to explore the (p. 53):
broader political vision(s) of each of these movements (what they are
trying to accomplish),
the context for their emergence,
their strategies and tactics,
the impact they have had on the communities they serve as well as on
struggles for social justice as a whole, and
the kind of support they need to sustain the work they are doing.
Interviews and historical library research were necessary, using the wiki
as a repository for working collaboratively. Moreover, the instructor
needed to review and furnish feedback to the learners over the course of
the semester. Kelley identified four key benefits of using the wiki in a
social justice context (Bossewitch et al., p. 55):
1. The ability to introduce a new technology into the course with minimal
2. The ability for students to work collaboratively.
3. The ability for [the instructor] to provide feedback throughout the
4. The ability for [the instructor] to monitor the student projects and
ensure they were being constructed collaboratively.
As groups were fleshed out in detail, the learners developed an ad hoc
taxonomy of categories to describe the different types of activism repre-
sented by each organization. The bottom up approach promoted agree-
ment amongst the learners in order to achieve a grade that was based on
individual and team negotiation, discussion, and consensus. The result was
the construction of collaborative stakeholders where the learners could
immediately detect the result of their effort. Bossewitch et al. (2008, p. 55)
…wikis are well suited for collaborative projects where the intended outcome is a cohe-
sive whole as opposed to a collection of independent or loosely related ideas.
Wikis are also a good tool for iteratively developing ideas over time, allowing colla-
borators to revise and reorganize their contributions as themes emerge.
214 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
Finally, the authors proposed evaluation criteria for a wiki-based proj-
ect that could be applied in other cases:
1. Grade the content of each activist organization’s home page.
2. Grade the groups’ responses to instructor feedback during the semester.
3. Assess the level of collaboration within each team.
4. Assess the aesthetic of each organization’s home page and subpages to
support learning about the organization described.
Level of collaboration and aesthetic were not defined by a rubric within
the reported case.
Another case presented some insightful conclusions. In Wang et al.
(2005), a statistically derived analysis concluded that gender and editing
usage do not appear to have significant effect upon exam scores. The
authors indicated they were not implying that causality existed between
editing usage and learning improvement; and additional research along
these lines should be supported.
Finally, a case was described at the University of Illinois at Chicago
within two graduate level courses: Introduction to Communication Research
(Comm 500) and Seminar in Media Studies (Comm 502). Elfving and
Menchen-Trevino (2008, p. 137) posed two questions within the context of
their case description that will ring true to any instructor wishing to experi-
ment with a wiki in the classroom:
1. Why did the same group of UIC students choose to use a wiki in one
class only to disregard it in another?
2. What factors contribute to the successful incorporation of a wiki into
the graduate classroom?
The results were a skeptic view of wikis within HE, and the need for
testing for other hypotheses (p. 143):
…the wiki was not used actively in Comm 500, it was a mismatch of the technology
and the circumstances rather than a failure of the technology or the people involved.
…The [Comm 500] course simply didn’t present a task requiring wiki collaboration…
the teaching styles of the professors and the nature of the assignments … shaped the
wiki. …minor differences in the nature of the classroom and the relationship between
students may result in radically different usage. …attempts to replicate the Comm 502
environment would be challenging, if not fruitless… A better approach lies in simply
making collaborative tools like the wiki available for student use. Vibrant collaboration
via wiki can emerge, given the right circumstances, but this collaboration can’t be forced
215Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
Changing Role of Teaching and Teachers
From an educational context, Conole and Alevizou (2010, p. 12) described
Web 2.0 tools and technologies from two dimensions: transformation and
…transformation [italics added], in terms of transcending formal educational contexts;
evolution, [italics added] in terms of facilitating more informal and non-formal learning
contexts which blur the boundaries between categories of learners (student, adult-
learner, or informal learner…). …learners are now able to become more active produ-
cers, authors, evaluators and commentators within the learning arena they are engaged
Thus, wikis, by their very nature, appear to change learning, learners,
and teachers in, heretofore, unanticipated ways. Wikis incorporate meth-
ods that many authors assert stimulates constructivist learning. Everett
(2011) in a Business Communications course discovered that if the purpose
of using a wiki is to enhance grade performance, then that might not be
the best application (p. 9):
four (44%) of the weekly assignments showed an increase in earned
points as compared to previous classes;
two (22%) showed a decrease in scores; and
one (11%) showed no change in grades.
Such results may not be the encouragement an instructor is searching
for when considering the use of a wiki in a course.
Hadjerrouit (2011) suggested that important pedagogical issues might
be aggravated by the use and architecture of the wiki. Hadjerrouit
described three cases associated with a collaborative writing (cowriting)
approach to MediaWiki use by three student teams who wrote on (p. 582)
(a) Information technologies and learning in secondary education;
(b) Data security and privacy for young computer users; and
(c) Food and health issues and the link between them for all categories of
Through self-evaluation and peer review, Hadjerrouit discovered that a
wiki tool, by itself, was not motivating enough to keep the attention of
the students and the functionality of the MediaWiki tool did not
support working collaboratively. The learners’ “contributions to collabo-
rative writing indicate a low level of engagement, shortcuts in information
216 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
analysis, heavy use of information found on Wikipedia and Internet,
poor writing and integration strategies, insufficient systematic testing, and
lack of deadline awareness” (p. 584). However, this was not the only
The students did not follow the phases of the collaborative writing
approach. The researcher discovered that the students needed significant
coaching and guidance to be able to collaborate successfully. Collabora-
tive writing is labor intensive and challenging to students who may not
possess higher order academic skills and cannot make critical judgments
about information content. The use of the wiki elicited the shaping of
knowledge based on the relationships of the participants. If learners had
not been exposed to and trained in active participative and collaborative
practices, then the use of a wiki would fail because of the incompatibil-
ity of individualistic, egoistic practices with participative and collabora-
tive practices. Hadjerrouit’s study suggested a consequent need to
transform instructors from the “sage on the stage” to the “guide on the
side” (Bassis, 2008); and that wikis could be useful in facilitating such a
transformation in order to move teachers to the constructivist learning
Bruns and Humphreys (2007) discovered that leaving open the topics
for an assignment for first and second-year undergraduate students hin-
dered their capability to focus on a subject. Alternatively, the authors of
the study constructed teams of two students who would select topics from
a predefined list. In addition, a more sophisticated approach to assessment
needed to be developed for the collaboration element (p. 7):
Over time: collaboration throughout project period,
Across team: communication and dialogue while collaborating in wiki,
Edit history [that] shows continuous work in updating content in the
weeks before the assignment due date,
Comments on the entry page used highly effectively and regularly to
enhance collaboration on content development.
Of course, this approach to assessment differed significantly from tradi-
tional assessment of group work on a project, but parallel to an assessment
approach developed by Reo (2006). Not surprisingly, without this unique
approach, students often will do their group work singularly, and within
only a few days of the assignment due date. Again, the two authors sug-
gested that wikis were a key example of moving traditional learning from
the ‘sage on the stage’ model, to the ‘guide on the side’ model, since a wiki
217Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
“invites users to become active co-producers of [course] content” (p. 8). An
insightful contradiction was uncovered when:
students noted the irony of being asked to work within a wiki environment in this sub-
ject, while in some other subjects lecturers were still warning them against using the
Wikipedia as a reference for their assignments. This points to a more general question
about the academic establishment’s response to user-led knowledge bases… (p. 9)
Finally, Bruns and Humphreys (2007) suggested that wikis had a critical
role in teaching, based on their experiences. The development of practice-
based tools and exercises for knowledge production in a digital environ-
ment would be a critical success factor in preparing students to integrate
themselves into the emerging knowledge-based economy, instead of finding
themselves at a disadvantage. Regardless, inconclusive studies do exist that
conclude “students enjoyed working in groups but they do not believe
group works have better quality neither that they learned more working in
teams than if they worked by themselves” (Coutinho Bottentuit Junior,
2007, p. 1).
CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
According to most of the studies reviewed in this investigation, the integra-
tion of wikis with learning experiences can demonstrate new and insightful
learning experiences and changes in learner behavior. However, according
to many of the authors, a significant investment by the instructor is
required to become intimately familiar with the opportunities as well as
limitations that a wiki affords as a complex instructional strategy and tool.
Instructors need to allocate rarely available time and effort in leading the
learners by example, since just “letting learning happen” has been proven a
quagmire for wikis. Finally, using a wiki requires the development and
application of new rubrics. Instructors need to allocate significant time to
evaluate and assess a grade for each learner in a wiki-mediated class.
During the analysis of the different studies, the authors synthesized a
number of useful conclusions that consistently demonstrated the successful
application of wikis in HE. The following descriptions provide a strong
foundation for taking unique and original steps in the future study of wikis
in HE. For convenience and organization, the authors broke down the con-
clusions into the five categories of Conole and Alevizou (2010) (see Table 2).
The natural future direction should be based on a deeper analysis on
research questions and of the experiences and expectations that learners
218 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
Table 2. Synthesized Conclusions.
# Category Conclusion
1. Theories of learning Wikis support social constructivist approaches to learning
and sensemaking, whether it is e-learning, project-based
learning, or traditional classroom-based learning
Application of a wiki in the classroom does not consistently
Wikis will not work with passive learners
Engaged wiki-based collaboration emerges from the learner
interaction, and cannot be forced
Assessment of experiential wiki activity must form a
substantial component of overall evaluation and grading,
or the learners will not remain engaged and motivated
2. New forms of learning Anecdotal evidence suggested that learners who might not
otherwise finish a traditional course successfully
demonstrated adequate learning to pass the course if a
wiki was involved
Wikis, by their very nature, do not appear to be
deterministic À every wiki instance can stimulate differing
learner experiences and interactions, regardless of whether
the course or tool are the same or different
Notable learning improvements based on experiential
approaches were reported, including enhanced writing
performance, strengthened self-organization skills, and
improved team-based interaction
Significant value could result from including nonclassroom
participants in the wiki, although many learners were
more reticent and cautious with their writing when
3. Patterns of technology use Wikis must demonstrate a rich user interface and access to
internal and external web-based material, facilitated by
easily deployed hyperlinking, as well as the capability to
identify orphaned and broken links
Successful evidence of collaborative and personal learning
was reported, when wikis accommodated multimedia
material, significant collaborative interaction, alerts, RSS
web-feeds, and rich text and object formatting
Learners found the repository function of wikis to be useful
as a container for locating the most current version of
material and an historical archive
Wikis demonstrated limited report presentation capability,
requiring learners to export the information to other tools
in order to prepare an acceptable final deliverable
Access control must be facilitated through simple group,
user, and page restrictions in order to ease administrative
219Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
Table 2. (Continued)
# Category Conclusion
Concept-based (semantic) search tools would be much more
effective than a text search tool
Logging histories of additions, modifications, and deletions
should be maintained for potential catastrophic failures or
to shore up nefarious, sabotage activities
Additional functionality, such as calendaring, scheduling,
tight email integration, and integrated blogging will need
to be developed by software firms in the near future to
keep the interest to learners
Learners could acquire significant, solitary, self-learning by
focusing on solving a wiki-enabled problem, so better
collaboration is not always the outcome
Different styles of writing necessitate different types of wiki
pages: material repository pages, discussion forum pages,
commenting pages, assignment instruction and review
pages, and deliverable feedback pages
Rigorous conventions for page formatting, proofreading,
grammar, and spelling checking, and file naming were
useful to increase consistency and quality in applying
multimedia and text to a deliverable
Openness and transparency within a collaborative
environment demonstrated positive outcomes in a number
of studies, which challenged the typical classroom
environment were personal privacy of information often
5. Changing role of
teaching and teachers
Instructors must become informed about the typology of
wikis, (resource wiki, presentation wiki, gateway wiki,
simulation wiki, or illuminated wiki), in order to apply the
correct wiki tool to a learning strategy
Rich, frequent, high quality, feedback by the instructor
increased student engagement and speed of acquisition of
new learning and knowledge
Training through instructor-led coaching in terminology,
active participation, and collaborative practices was a
critical to success in the classroom
Learners and instructors encountered audit trail difficulties
when changes were applied to the wiki, since the
attribution of an addition, changes, or modifications
to a specific learner could be no more specific than a
220 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
encounter when applying wiki technologies to support learning. In future
research, the chapter authors intend to review the corpus assembled in
much more detail to ascertain particular trends and other bibliometrics
that might become evident through a more thorough investigation.
Although ambitious, the authors propose to explore more deeply the fol-
lowing research questions during further investigation of wikis in learning
and teaching environments:
Q1: What are the unique characteristics of applied wiki technologies,
methods, and tools?
Q2: What are the theoretical foundations reported by the authors for
Q3: What are the major outcomes (benefits and strengths) to learners
and educators, respectively?
Q4: What are the issues, problems, disadvantages, concerns, and barriers
of using wikis within an experiential context?
Q5: What are the top 10 research questions that appear throughout the
majority of studies?
Q6: Which wiki technologies, methods, and tools could be recommended
for particular learning strategies and activities?
The authors previously studied wikis within the context of the emerging
fields of Knowledge Management/Knowledge Mobilization (KM/KMb)
and also intend to investigate the potential relationships between KM/
KMb and wikis in HE (Alavi, 2010/2011; Gonzalez-Reinhart,2005; Sarraf-
zadeh, Hazeri, Sutton, 2009b, 2010b; Raman et al., 2005; Wagner,
2004). Wikis are representative of KM technologies and tools, and thus,
KM models and frameworks could prove useful in the continued analyses
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