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Cutting-edge Technologies in Higher Education
Emerald Book Chapter: Using the Wiki...
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USING THE WIKI AS AN
EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING TOOL
TO ENGAGE STUDENTS IN
UNDERGRADUAT...
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application in courses. The authors also outline numerous theories of
learning tha...
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many cases where wikis were specifically used in traditional and online
classes, c...
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Wikis became popular during the last decade as a software technology
and a locatio...
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self-learning and personal mastery of the elements required to create a busi-
ness...
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and Vieve Gore School of Business project-based programs adopted more
collaborativ...
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Yin (1994) outlined five characteristics of exemplary case studies: signifi-
cance...
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educational material covering the selected topic À wikis in HE. This illumi-
nativ...
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constrained the search to words or terms in the title, when possible, or oth-
erwi...
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researchers followed the research literature review steps outlined by Fink
(2005) ...
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 simulation wiki, or
 illuminated wiki.
The resource wiki was flexible and applied...
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audios, and images contained on the illuminated wiki, resulting in a corpus
that i...
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tool in the classroom in support of knowledge creation, representation,
sharing, a...
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Later, in a separate work, Cubric (2008) outlined a mapping of
the learning and te...
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almost 30% over the duration of the course. Not only were not-
able learning gains...
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 knowledge sharing on a public wiki gives students a sense of
empowerment.
Nonethe...
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 missed assumptions and inconsistent requirements were more easily
identified.
In ...
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Bruns and Humphreys (2007) stumbled upon a very insightful observa-
tion associate...
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This observation suggested that the process of using the wiki, which
is often prom...
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In the Columbia University case, Bossewitch et al. (2008) divided 80
learners into...
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Finally, the authors proposed evaluation criteria for a wiki-based proj-
ect that ...
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Changing Role of Teaching and Teachers
From an educational context, Conole and Ale...
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analysis, heavy use of information found on Wikipedia and Internet,
poor writing a...
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“invites users to become active co-producers of [course] content” (p. 8). An
insig...
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Table 2. Synthesized Conclusions.
# Category Conclusion
1. Theories of learning Wi...
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Table 2. (Continued)
# Category Conclusion
Concept-based (semantic) search tools w...
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encounter when applying wiki technologies to support learning. In future
research,...
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Bossewitch, J., Frankfurt, J., Sherman, A.,  Kelley, R. D. G. (2008). Wiki justice...
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Evans, C. (2005). Exploring wiki-based project learning in foreign cultures and li...
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Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning an...
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in applying reflection as a learning strategy for enhancing engagement. Internatio...
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Sutton - Using the Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool to Engage Students

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Sutton - Using the Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool to Engage Students

  1. 1. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited Cutting-edge Technologies in Higher Education Emerald Book Chapter: Using the Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool to Engage Students in Undergraduate and Graduate University Courses Michael J.D. Sutton, Afsaneh Hazeri Article information: To cite this document: Michael J.D. Sutton, Afsaneh Hazeri, "Using the Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool to Engage Students in Undergraduate and Graduate University Courses", Charles Wankel, Patrick Blessinger, in (ed.) Increasing Student Engagement and Retention Using Online Learning Activities (Cutting-edge Technologies in Higher Education, Volume 6), Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 195 - 225 Permanent link to this document: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/S2044-9968(2012)000006A010 Downloaded on: 04-01-2013 References: This document contains references to 33 other documents To copy this document: permissions@emeraldinsight.com This document has been downloaded 4 times since 2012. * Access to this document was granted through an Emerald subscription provided by Emerald Group Publishing Limited For Authors: If you would like to write for this, or any other Emerald publication, then please use our Emerald for Authors service. Information about how to choose which publication to write for and submission guidelines are available for all. Please visit www.emeraldinsight.com/authors for more information. About Emerald www.emeraldinsight.com With over forty years' experience, Emerald Group Publishing is a leading independent publisher of global research with impact in business, society, public policy and education. In total, Emerald publishes over 275 journals and more than 130 book series, as well as an extensive range of online products and services. Emerald is both COUNTER 3 and TRANSFER compliant. The organization is a partner of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) and also works with Portico and the LOCKSS initiative for digital archive preservation. *Related content and download information correct at time of download.
  2. 2. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited USING THE WIKI AS AN EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING TOOL TO ENGAGE STUDENTS IN UNDERGRADUATE AND GRADUATE UNIVERSITY COURSES Michael J. D. Sutton and Afsaneh Hazeri ABSTRACT This literature review explores the academic material comprising appli- cations, cases, courses, and classroom-based research in higher education where wiki tools appeared as an instructional technology. The authors define and describe the wiki concept, outlining a framework for wikis deployed as instructional technology tools. Additionally, analyses and syntheses of the findings are described from an interdisciplinary research literature search across many fields, along with a number of illustrative, exemplary cases demonstrating the application of this tool to teaching and learning. The authors also identify research evidence that outlines the benefits and strengths offered by new wiki technologies, while highlighting challenges, weaknesses, and issues encompassing their Increasing Student Engagement and Retention using Online Learning Activities: Wikis, Blogs and Webquests Cutting-edge Technologies in Higher Education, Volume 6A, 195À225 Copyright r 2012 by Emerald Group Publishing Limited All rights of reproduction in any form reserved ISSN: 2044-9968/doi:10.1108/S2044-9968(2012)000006A010 195
  3. 3. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited application in courses. The authors also outline numerous theories of learning that can be associated with wiki work; new forms of wiki-based learning; patterns of wiki technology use; characteristics of learners using wikis; and the changing role of teaching and teachers who instruct with wikis. Finally, we conclude with a summary of the findings and sug- gested future directions for studying wikis in higher education (HE). Although no broad, definitive prognosis yet exists that can point to a causeÀeffect relationship between the application of wikis and increases in learning, a significant body of evidence has emerged that suggests that wikis positively stimulate the learning environment and increase the col- laborative capabilities of learners when applied to course work. Keywords: Adult learning; andragogical; pedagogical; application of wikis; case(s); experiential learning; teaching framework; theory of learning; wikis; higher education; wiki-based learning INTRODUCTION This chapter is structured into five major sections and attempts to describe and highlight a number of research issues drawn from exemplary cases of wikis in higher education (HE). The first section, Background and Motiva- tion, consists of three critical subsections: definitions and descriptions of the wiki concept, wikis as an instructional technology tool, and goal of the liter- ature review. The second section, Methodology, describes the purpose of a research exemplary case review and the elements comprising a research liter- ature review. The third section, the Emergence of Wikis in Higher Education, outlines the evolution of wikis within HE. The fourth section, Transforming Teachers, Learners, and Learning, encompasses applicable theories of learn- ing, new forms of learning, patterns of technology use, characteristics of learners, and changing role of teaching and teachers. Finally, the Conclu- sions and Future Directions section brings together a synthesis of discoveries relevant to the literature review and future studies. BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION An initial round of searches furnished literature reviews, cases, book chap- ter descriptions, conference proceedings paper and presentations, and empirically-grounded studies associated with wikis in HE. We reviewed 196 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
  4. 4. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited many cases where wikis were specifically used in traditional and online classes, courses, or classrooms. Most noteworthy is the paucity of evidence suggesting or recommending the ways this relatively new technology could change learning and teaching practice. The source for the largest body of material comes from scholars, instructional designers, and educational technologists associated with traditional, e-learning, and distance learning initiatives. We consider wikis as experiential learning tools. Kolb (1984, p. 21) was an early proponent of experiential learning, “Knowledge is continuously derived from and tested out in the experiences of the learner.” Chickering (1977, pp. 86À87) proposed, “There is no question that issues raised by experiential learning go to the heart of the academic enterprise. Experien- tial learning leads us to question the assumptions and conventions underly- ing many of our practices.” Concomitantly, Kayes (2002) contended that “preserving experience-based approaches to … learning … [require instruc- tors to revise] the concept of experience to more closely account for the relationship between personal and social (i.e., tacit/explicit) knowledge” (p. 137). Lindeman (1961, p. 6) forecasted, “...the resource of highest value in adult education is the learner’s experience.” The dialogue on the value of experiential learning is widespread (Sutton, McFarland, Sanchez, & Vuyo- vich, 2012). As this chapter will assert, wikis formed a foundation for expe- riential learning across all disciplines and college departments creating significant positive advantages for both the learner and instructor of wiki- based classroom learning experiences. Definitions and Descriptions of the Wiki Concept Since wikis are most often applied in the classroom as experiential learning tools, let us look at how this came to be. Wikis are a collaboration soft- ware tool that gained notoriety and spawned a revolution, such as the phe- nomenon of Wikipedia (http://www.wikipedia.org). In Wikis: Tools for Information and Collaboration, Klobas (2006) outlines a very succinct his- tory of the wiki, beginning with a description of the Portland Pattern Repository established in 1995 by Ward Cunnigham, a virtual location for creating a sense of community and sharing information. Klobas goes on to mention SunirShah’s MeatballWiki founded in 2000, along with Jimmy Wales’ Wikipedia, which was launched in 2001. During the next five years, other commercial tools emerged in the marketplace: Socialtext, Conflu- ence, JotSpot, etc. Currently, there are probably over 100 different wiki engines, with a range of names (see Table 1). 197Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
  5. 5. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited Wikis became popular during the last decade as a software technology and a location (website) to collect and share a broad range of data and information, from recipes, travel information, and corporate project information to curricula, music lyrics, and movie material. Succinctly stated by Mader (2008), a “wiki is simply a website in which users can create and collaboratively edit pages, and easily link them together” (p. 4). The wiki pages can normally be accessed and used by individuals with little or no formal IT training. Wikis encompass a suite of common features that have been easily exploited for experiential learning (Klobas, 2006). The online services for a wiki application can execute from a local server or a remote server as a cloud-based computing application (Soft- ware as a Service À SaaS). A critical element of a wiki is the capability to store and sequence the history of each edited page, permitting an edited page to revert to a previous revision, if the user makes a request. Wikis also engage the collaborators in a set of discussions and exchanges, stimu- lating the formation, modification, and potential transformation of the data and information amongst a group of contributors, readers, and edi- tors. The formation (capture) and modification (alteration) of the data are easier concepts to grasp than transformation (transmutation), which is the mobilization of information into actionable knowledge by the user learner. Wikis evolved as learning platforms when instructors applied the tool to the goals of adult learning. Wikis demonstrate the transformative effect learners have on personal responsibility (experiential and self-directed) ver- sus hierarchical command and control (professor-centric) classroom situa- tions. For example, a project-based, low-residency MBA program founded upon a wiki of business topics (information), motivated learners to apply Table 1. Representative Names of Wikis (Not Exhaustive). @wiki InterWiki PHPWiki WackoWiki ClearWiki IpbWiki PikiePikie WagnWiki Corendal Wiki JAMWiki PmWiki Wetpaint DokuWiki LittleWiki QwikiWiki Wikia EclipseWiki MediaWiki ScribbleWiki Wikidot EditMe Mindtouch Seedwiki Wiki-Site EditThis.info MoinMoin Swiki.net Wikispaces eTouchSamePage Netcipia TikiWiki Wikka Wiki FlexWiki Ogham UseModWiki WikkiTikkiTavi GetWiki On-Wiki VeryQuickWiki XWiki Ikiwiki PBWiki ViaWiki XwikiWiki InstikiWiki PerspectiveWiki VimKi ZwiKi 198 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
  6. 6. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited self-learning and personal mastery of the elements required to create a busi- ness plan, when browsed and applied to specific business problems (Sutton, 2009a, 2010a). The information is mobilized into actionable knowledge by the learner, due to the network of links within the corpus of topics. The learner finds a path through the information in order to articulate and weave a story from the underlying topics. Moreover, because of the HE environment, wikis demonstrate a capability for construction of HE learning organizations that replace the status quo with nontraditional learning (Barkley, Cross, & Major, 2005; Fuchs-Kittowski & Kohler, 2002; Millis & Cottell, 1998; Raman, Ryan, & Olfman, 2005). A wiki may be metaphori- cally compared to the behavior of a tornado or maelstrom, pulling text and media from collaborators together into new configurations, where editing and wordsmithing can shape data and information into new knowledge that would not have been visible in solo, personal sources. Static information, when reworked by a community of learner-authors can take on the life of a dynamic entity (vis-a` -vis Wikipedia, to name the most prevalent today). Wikis are under continual improvement and technological development. The wiki has become a utilitarian electronic notebook tool, where the knowledge of the whole evolves to be greater than the knowledge in any single actor. Grant, Owen, Sayers, and Facer (2006) outlined fundamental shifts taking place in the relationship of practice-based knowledge with cre- ativity and innovation (an element where HE could benefit significantly with applications of wikis in educational environments): … our relationship with knowledge is changing, from one in which knowledge is orga- nised in strictly classified ‘disciplines’ and ‘subjects’, to a more fluid and responsive practice which allows us to organise knowledge in ways that are significant to us at dif- ferent times and in different places. … New forms of collaboration tools are also emerg- ing, where people can work together to build new documents or products. (pp. 3À4) Traditional disciplinary boundaries of knowledge and learning quickly erode, because the learner personalizes and appropriates knowledge nug- gets from a multitude of sources, regenerating new knowledge in the process. Wikis encourage new engagement patterns with classmates, knowl- edge, and learning. For example, Christensen and Eyring (2011) described the innovative nature and success of new competency-based, experiential, and project-based BBA and MBA programs founded upon a wiki knowl- edgebase coupled with faculty coaching of learners at Westminster College in Salt Lake City, UT, (see http://www.westminstercollege.edu/project- based/). Learning, knowledge production, and diffusion practices were being inexplicably altered by the presence of the wiki. Learners in the Bill 199Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
  7. 7. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited and Vieve Gore School of Business project-based programs adopted more collaborative and less solitary methods of inquiry and collaboration. Goal of the Literature Review The overall goal of the literature review was to explore a wide range of existing references within the existing body of international literature emerging through multidisciplinary and cross-disciplinary sources. The purpose of the review became an initial attempt to frame the new interdis- ciplinary educational field by analyzing emerging literature from many dif- ferent disciplines, subdisciplines, and fields of study. Approximately 500 references were originally identified, retrieved, and reviewed; the consensus on the impact of wikis appeared to be positive. Evidence provided in a minority of cases, studies, and course descriptions were inconsistent or did not reinforce the strengths of wiki tools in learning environments. The emergent body of knowledge associated with wikis in HE is predominantly focused on the experiences and learning outcomes of learners. The answer to the question of how educators integrate wikis appropriately in formal education appeared contradictory. For the purposes of this chapter, the authors decided to scope their review and identify exemplary cases with empirical evidence that could demonstrate the pros and cons of learner engagement of wiki tools within HE environments. Our case study review was executed from the viewpoint of educators who actually used wikis in undergraduate and graduate level programs. The authors felt that a review of exemplary cases could create the foundation for further case-based research, where common criteria and consistent evidence might emerge. Exemplary cases are loosely defined by Soy (1997) as …carefully select cases [that] carefully examine the choices available from among many research tools available in order to increase the valid- ity of the study… (para. 7); …deliberately sort[ing] the data in many different ways to expose or cre- ate new insights and will deliberately look for conflicting data to dis- confirm the analysis… (para. 18); …report[ing] the data in a way that transforms a complex issue into one that can be understood, allowing the reader to question and examine the study and reach an understanding independent of the researcher… (para. 20). 200 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
  8. 8. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited Yin (1994) outlined five characteristics of exemplary case studies: signifi- cance, completeness, consideration of alternative perspectives, reporting of sufficient evidence, and an engaging composition. This chapter will review and report information from published cases that satisfy a majority of the criteria outlined by Soy and Yin. The following section describes the meth- odology for the study. A number of authors proposed that learner engagement with wikis pro- vides significant opportunities for self-representation, personal reflection, and additional instances of organized forms of collaboration and knowl- edge construction. Content is often remixed, repurposed, and regenera- ted into more refined knowledge nuggets through collaborative activities creating “network effects through an ‘architecture of participation,’ and going beyond the page metaphor of Web 1.0 to deliver rich user experi- ences” (O’Reilly, 2005, para. 2). Open access collaboration spaces (Wheeler, Yeomans, Wheeler, 2008) and common wiki applications like collaborative writing (Ferris Wilder, 2006) have demonstrated this capa- bility. In the 2009 Horizon Report by Johnson, Levine, and Smith (as cited in Conole Alevizou, 2010, p. 10), described critical success factors for technology adoption in HE for the period 2010 to 2015, one of which was forecast to be “the work of students being seen as more collaborative in nature and therefore there is potential for more intra- and inter- institu- tional collaboration.” Conole and Alevizou (2010) also outlined a recent impulse of international reports describing the adoption and use of Web 2.0 technology in the educational sector and the role of wikis in the trans- formation of HE. The authors wished to extend the research with this compilation of exemplary cases. METHODOLOGY An exploratory and explanatory study exhibits the strengths and weak- nesses associated with an inductive mode of analysis. We engaged in an exploratory study in order to investigate an unexplored territory and estab- lish familiarity and a deeper understanding with a new subject. The focus of the research in an exploratory study is the what questions about the phe- nomenon. Such studies normally unearthed original insights in the results about what is going on that may advance theory associated with a new subject or raise new questions. The focus of the research in an explanatory study is the how and why questions about the phenomenon. The result was an illuminative evaluation (Parlett Hamilton, 1972) of a subset of the 201Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
  9. 9. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited educational material covering the selected topic À wikis in HE. This illumi- native evaluation did not conform to a pure meta-analysis, but instead encompassed descriptive and interpretative methods, rather than a predic- tive measurement. Our literature review accessed material available from the academic sources that identified educational and classroom situations using wikis as an element of the instructional technology and support. The researchers were satisfied that a significant corpus of material had been identified from the searches. The primary focus was wiki use and application in HE À (universities and colleges delivering undergraduate, graduate, doctoral degrees and postgraduate, and continuing education certificates). The scope of the material was reduced by excluding material that was not asso- ciated with HE À corporate and business environments, as well as K-12 institutions (primary, secondary, middle, or high schools). Evidence sug- gesting the impact of wikis upon learning and teaching were reviewed. Assertions made by numerous authors of the material were included in the selection to be reviewed. Research included in the review consisted of primary and secondary research material, including abstracts, books, book chapters, conference presentations, conference proceedings, dissertations, journal articles À (both peer reviewed and nonpeer reviewed), practice descriptions, research reports À (drafts as well as final form), and theses. The coverage was inter- national and consisted of English language material, or material explicitly translated into English that ranged from authors in Africa, Asia, China, Europe, and South America, to a predominance of material from Austra- lia, United Kingdom, and North America. Google Scholart searches were initially performed to identify the potential major sources for academically sound material available on the World Wide Web, private websites, portals, or Intranets where abstracts and titles might be accessible. When available, the Adobe pdf files, Microsoft Word documents, and Microsoft PowerPoint slides were down- loaded into a local repository. Following Google Scholart searches, plain Googlet searches were executed to try and locate material not available in Scholar. Finally, when private Intranets and portals showed up on a hit list, the authors procured access through the college/university library or interlibrary loan. The authors defined the search domain in terms of simple, separate, search queries formulated and executed to cast the widest possible net around the potential fields and disciplines where the concepts appeared. The search strategies consisted of keywords and Boolean searches that 202 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
  10. 10. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited constrained the search to words or terms in the title, when possible, or oth- erwise a string of keywords available within the document. The keywords encompassed a structured combination of the search terms: classroom, collaboration, education, higher education, learning, student, teaching, and wiki. In reviewing the downloaded material, over 75% of the identified mate- rial contained three of the suggested search terms as colocated words within the title or abstract, while over 90% of the identified material con- tained two of the previously suggested search terms as colocated words within the title or abstract. Subsequently, online academic sources were searched in-depth, where the subject area within the title of the sources, theme, goal, or objectives of the journal/conference proceedings suggested a high probability of useful material. These sources netted any additional material not available through Google Scholart or Googlet. The sample size of the originally retrieved material was approximately 500 documents, including a half a dozen dissertations and theses. Our approach to the study was qualitative and employed a document analysis method to review the contents of cases that described the applica- tion of wikis in HE. This research was posited within an educational para- digm, constructivism. This paradigm was chosen because it provided an overarching framework for exploring and interpreting a phenomenon, the wiki within an educational context. Constructivism is a paradigm for teaching and learning, which does not ignore the influence of personal rela- tionships, especially relationships fostered by an intimately collaborative technology like a wiki. We constructed an understanding of the phenome- non through experiences of the other researchers, who critically influenced the character of their experiences (Confrey, 1990). The authors combined a constructivist approach with Yin’s (1994) exploratory and explanatory case study approaches in order to report the findings. Since a systematic research literature review (Easterby-Smith, Thorpe, Jackson, 2008) exceeded the authors’ time and budget constraints, the 203Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
  11. 11. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited researchers followed the research literature review steps outlined by Fink (2005) where a descriptive review, (in terms of an illuminative evaluation of exemplary cases), was the anticipated deliverable. Although our abridged process may have been less rigorous in its application to a topic than a stric- ter systematic literature review, it was still a disciplined method to identify a narrow corpus of research material for exploration. The final screening criteria outlined below were used to ensure that the corpus of retrieved material addressed the research topic narrowly enough to proceed with case analyses: 1. Does a document address the use of wikis in an HE environment? 2. Does a paper discuss real-life experiences (cases) or “lessons learned” of using wiki-based practices for teaching or learning? 3. Does the objective of the paper clearly mention teaching or learning with the application and use of wikis? 4. Does the paper adequately discuss contextual factors of the case, which provided confidence that a retrieved document could make a valuable contribution to understanding the application and use of wikis in an HE environment? In the following section, the authors discuss cases that demonstrated the emergence of wikis as important loci of study. EMERGENCE OF WIKIS IN HIGHER EDUCATION Wikis in HE were reported in the research literature since the mid to late 1990s (Dillenbourg, 1999; Godwin-Jones, 2003; Gonza´ lez-Bueno, 1998; Warschauer, 1998). The initial occurrences of wikis on the Internet and World Wide Web were made available through online services whose pur- pose was group-based and team-centric collaboration, or what was called at that time computer-mediated collaboration (CMC), (Fabos Young, 1999; Koschmann, 1996; Krauss Fussell, 1991). As CMC tools grew in application, the emergence of the formal “wiki” came into existence. Phillipson (2008) proposed a typology to describe different kinds of wikis within HE: resource wiki, presentation wiki, gateway wiki, 204 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
  12. 12. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited simulation wiki, or illuminated wiki. The resource wiki was flexible and applied to a wide range of courses. The purpose of a resource wiki was a repository to collect a collabora- tive knowledgebase of information for access that could include a pleth- ora of subjects. Notwithstanding the course goal, a resource wiki furnished a platform for collective constructivism. Learners could piggy- back upon peers work in preceding courses as a large corpus of informa- tion was collected within a project. Instructors built upon previous work, such as the Wikipedia, soliciting and stimulating the creation of original, new material. On the other hand, a presentation wiki was con- structed for the sole purpose of a discussion forum, where peer evalua- tion might occur by crafting, retrieving, and modifying information. Presentation wikis built knowledge nuggets from the learners’ individual perspectives into large communities of practice for group review and constructive criticism. Next, Phillipson presented the framework for gateway and simulation wikis. The gateway wiki acted as a data repository for static information that could easily be referenced, once it had been fixed as facts, that is, “sci- entific measurements, statistics, calculations, survey results, metrics, and any number of other data sets” (p. 26). In a gateway wiki, the fixed data was the raw material of discussion and analysis. Additionally, a gateway wiki was a platform for logging results of experiments, sharing experiences, proposing well-formulated questions, and making connections between theory and practice. A simulation wiki presents an interactive experience: it is built as a world to explore. A simulation wiki was constructed to con- vey decision-making outcomes, where indiscriminate, unplanned, and illog- ical pathways were traversed by the learner. A simulation wiki could force a contrast and comparison of internal decisions versus real-life models. The subject of a simulation wiki could convey a doppelganger effect in terms of being a proxy for the real world problem. A simulation wiki cre- ated a foundation for constructing narrative paths. Therefore, a simulation wiki might be applicable to history projects, event tracking, or creative writing projects. Finally, Phillipson described the illuminated wiki À a wiki directed toward deciphering or elucidating a problem. In contrasting the illumi- nated wiki to the gateway wiki, the illuminated wiki mutated the topic under study, tightly incorporating it into the structure and architecture of the wiki. Learners individually and communally marked up text, videos, 205Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
  13. 13. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited audios, and images contained on the illuminated wiki, resulting in a corpus that integrated the original material with the discussion and comments generated by the learners. Thus, Phillipson’s proposed framework for iden- tifying the wiki types most suited to specific course and class tasks fur- nishes researchers and instructors with an a la carte menu to choose an appropriate wiki tool, based on the learning strategy and anticipated learn- ing outcomes. TRANSFORMING TEACHERS, LEARNERS, AND LEARNING In order to segment the information derived from the collected corpus of knowledge, we decided to adopt the same categories as Conole and Alevi- zou (2010, p. 2) established for a major section of their literature review entitled “Changing learning and learners.” The subsections outlined were theories of learning (associated with wiki applications), new forms of learn- ing, patterns of technology use, characteristics of learners, and changing role of teaching and teachers. The authors of this study felt that paralleling Conole and Alevizou’s study of Web 2.0 technology with our study would segment the material into logical elements and provide a basis for cross- comparison. Over 90% of this chapter’s cases were not addressed specifi- cally in the report by Conole and Alevizou. Theories of Learning (Associated with Wiki Applications) Barton (2008, p. 186) proposed to answer the question “What are key ped- agogical benefits of wikis?” in a philosophical treatise. His conclusions, which suggested a starting point for this section, were as follows: Wikis demonstrate, in a clear and obvious fashion, how knowledge is a function of communities engaged in ongoing discourse. [Wikis also] demonstrate and build upon the interconnectness of knowledge and illustrate plainly that no discourse exists in isolation from other discourse. …wikis make the fundamental importance of rhetoric clear to students. Ironically, Barton, using an undergraduate course in Computers and English as a case, described the challenges of deploying a knowledge-based 206 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
  14. 14. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited tool in the classroom in support of knowledge creation, representation, sharing, and diffusion. Barton proposed that his learners needed to incor- porate service learning and civic action within their wiki activism. He felt learners needed to inculcate the concept of “giving back to their commu- nity” in order to become shapers of the public space. Wikis … offer a democratic alternative to the mass society… Wikis are truly mass-pro- duced, many-to-many writing spaces whose very design prevents the corporate control structure so prevalent in the ‘culture industry.’ They allow the people to participate directly in making meaning. (p. 192) Visions of the world, society, and self appear to undergo transformation through the text and images projected by the different publics. Wikis, in Barton’s opinion could become an ideological tool for changing society beyond the classroom. Inquiry into the issues of applying wikis in the HE classroom is wide- spread, crossing many disciplines and subjects. Vie and deWinter (2008, p. 111) proposed a number of pedagogical reflection questions on the issues of ownership and collaboration within classroom wikis: 1. [What is] the way in which traditional authorship is upset by wikis? 2. How can wikis be used to explore fostering the challenge of collaboration? 3. How can wikis encourage students to move beyond traditional notions of ownership and academic writing and into more collaborative, public discursive activities? Cubric (2007) highlighted the value of a framework for supporting the use of wikis with a learning and teaching process framework. The theoreti- cal foundation for her study encompassed constructivist learning theories of Vygotsky (1978), Gravett and Petersen (2002), and Novak and Patter- son (1998). Cubric described 13 lessons learned from the two case studies. Cubric concluded, “...students’ engagement with wiki-based learning activi- ties is directly proportional to the quality and frequency of tutor’s feed- back and the clarity of the underlying learning and teaching process” (p. 11). The learning and teaching process frameworks consisted of Feedback-driven learning and teaching framework; On-line learning and teaching framework; Feed-forward JITT (Just-In-Time Teaching) process; and Facilitation and collaborative learning process. 207Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
  15. 15. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited Later, in a separate work, Cubric (2008) outlined a mapping of the learning and teaching process to the agile development process (Cohn, 2006) and SCRUM process (http://www.mountaingoatsoftware. com/presentations). The underlying andragogy described by Dalsgaard (2006) asserted that social software tools, such as wikis, support a social constructivist approach to e-learning. Learners incorporate collaborative tools in order to engage in social networking activities. Consequently, learners direct their personal problem-solving process within the context of a social environment. Social constructivism emphasizes the importance that the learner must be actively engaged in the learning process. Counter- prevailing viewpoints that are professor-centric suggest that the teacher is responsible and accountable for delivering knowledge, requiring only passive learning from the learner. In this study, the motivation for engaging communities in the application and use of wikis is scoped to the educational sector alone. Often, the findings within work and prac- tice-based environments do not stand up to the test of validity and reproducibility of empirical experiments. Content, communication, and collaboration comprise three critical dimensions to evaluate the value of learning within the social context of a wiki. New Forms of Learning Silverstein (2009) suggested increased learning absorption and retention by undergraduate students taking an engineering course in Material and Energy Balance. The learners were obligated to interact with a wiki after a lecture and reflect upon selected textbook chapter elements. Although many benefits were observed in the evolving student learning after lectures and through the interaction on the wiki, Silverstein did note two outcomes that were contradictory: Comparing exam performance by this semesters’ students with previous terms students show no statistically significant differences… Students that the instructor suspected at the start of the course would be unable to complete the course were successful early in the course and were able to demonstrate learning sufficient to pass the course with a ‘C’ or better. (para. 19) Tselios, Altanopoulou, and Katsanos (2011) confirmed this last obser- vation in their study involving 36 first-year students attending an Introduc- tion to Web Science course. The study consisted of a pretest-posttest design. In this study, learners who initially were poor performers improved 208 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
  16. 16. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited almost 30% over the duration of the course. Not only were not- able learning gains reported but the students also indicated better writing performance, increased self-organization skills, and improved collaborative group processes. The authors concluded “…that a properly designed, framed wiki-based activity could substantially facilitate students to achieve high levels of learning” (p. 5). Forte and Bruckman (2006) executed a detailed study of freshman lear- ners in an American government course at the Georgia Institute of Tech- nology. Three basic questions drove the study (p. 3): 1. To what extent do students’ interactions online affect their reasoning and writing? 2. How does publishing influence students’ beliefs about their writing and motivation to write well? 3. How does publishing influence the content and tone of students’ writing? Reasoning and learning was affected. The analysis of the first and final drafts of essays showed that 80% of the learners using peer evaluation in the wiki to revise papers and 90% received feedback associated with the argu- ment of the essay and its content. Most learners did not perceive the public nature of a wiki as a site that would be outward facing to the public, espe- cially after the course finished, when it would become a resource. Explicit permission was obtained from learners to reuse their material in the future, but learners were quite naı¨ve and did not comprehend the true nature of the wiki or the fact others (in the public) might find their work interesting. The pilot suggested that an online audience of a public wiki played a crucial role in creating meaningful and effective writing-to-learn. In conclusion, the authors described the basis for moving forward from this pilot (p. 6): …wiki-supported information resources … signal a unique opportunity for student wri- ters to enrich public discourse in a way that serves a real purpose and engages a real audience…Online publishing can encourage students to adopt the view that writing is one part of a collaborative process that involves both their efforts and the disposition and ability of their readers experiences. A sense of audience is a vital part of written communication. A study by Guth (2007) at the University of Padua confirmed the value Forte and Bruckman discovered for engaging learners on public, class- room-based wikis (p. 65): writing on a public wiki promotes collaboration beyond the classroom; publishing online leads to an increased sense of responsibility and more accurate writing; 209Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
  17. 17. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited knowledge sharing on a public wiki gives students a sense of empowerment. Nonetheless, Guth concluded that learners using a semipublic wiki, because they did not lose ownership of their pages to anonymous users, experienced a higher comfort level. Patterns of Technology Use Thomas and Minocha (2007) reported student feedback on the introduc- tion of a Moodle wiki in a Requirements Engineering (RE) course at the UK Open University. The authors proposed three questions to review the success of the wiki and the course (p. 2): Did the wiki activities facilitate collaborative learning as we intended? What other tools might support collaborative requirements development? What are the challenges in teaching collaborative RE using a wiki? A number of issues arose during the course. The design of the original course was based on independent learning by the students. The introduction of the wiki created a collaborative, group-based approach to fulfilling the assignments. The scoring system had to be revised to take into account both individual contributions and group activities. In addition, the andragogy moved from an independent learner to include numerous elements of social constructivism. Finally, one of the other issues revolved around moti- vation. In order to get the students to apply the wiki, numerous papers, and articles related to requirements engineering were used as the topics for dis- cussion. Those outcomes suggest that traditional courses should not just be changed with the introduction of a wiki, but need to be completely rede- signed, similar to problem discovered in moving traditional courses to online courses. Mixed methods for deriving answers to survey questions were used by the authors to query up approximately 117 students. Qualitative feedback from many of the open-ended questions suggested: the sharing of ideas, including constructive feedback, contributed to the students ability to reflect and modify their own views; collaborative authoring contributes to the iterative requirements engi- neering process; 210 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
  18. 18. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited missed assumptions and inconsistent requirements were more easily identified. In the next iteration of the RE course, Thomas and Minocha (2007) indicated that a number of initial problems encountered in the first offer- ing had been overcome. A significant problem was the lack of discussion capabilities within the version of the Moodle wiki, and enhanced capabili- ties would be included in the future. In a five-month course, the logistical challenges of getting students together to self-organize for meetings requires the application of a scheduler augmented to the wiki. Finally, the inability of the students to meet face-to-face and carry out other online socialization activities diminished the trust among group members who were relative strangers. Again, the insights we gain from these findings are the need to significant functionality as part of a wiki platform. Thomas, King, Minocha, and Taylor (2008) followed up this initial study and expanded it to include 250 students in two courses at the UK Open University encompassing 56 wikis. The two courses included a post- graduate Computing course, Software Requirements for Business Systems, which emulated the original Requirements Engineering course in 2007; and a postgraduate course in the Business School entitled Current Issues In Public Management And Social Enterprise. A qualitative inductive analysis was applied to identify emergent themes. The wikis were strictly text based and designed to be exceptionally simple in the toolset. The goal was to concentrate on content, not presentation. Even simple changes to a wiki page were not being tracked, since any modification by a new author may be captured at the page level, but the author of the change cannot nor- mally be associated with text changed within a wiki page. Simple wikis were defined as “a pull, not push, technology, which means that contributions are unknown unless one deliberately looks for them” (Thomas et al., 2008, p. 79). Constrained tools like a simple wiki exhibited many limitations. Simple wikis are strictly text-based, do not accommodate rich formatting, and cannot handle diagrams, images and photos. Richer, more complex wikis can accommodate multimedia material, provides alerts and subscriptions to modified pages, and has very rich features for format- ting text and data on the page. In conclusion, an attempt to utilize simple wikis failed because the students anticipated very rich formatting of con- tent as well as accurate presentation. Additionally, many of the logging and discussion forum features that would comprise function rich wikis were identified as very useful, again suggesting sophistication in the tools need to appropriately apply a wiki to a classroom situation. 211Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
  19. 19. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited Bruns and Humphreys (2007) stumbled upon a very insightful observa- tion associated with user interface. After noting that a sparse MediaWiki environment hindered the learners in a course, the Bruns and Humphreys introduced Atlassian Confluencet, which had much richer functionality. The correct technology appeared to effect adoption as well as learning. Schroeder (2008) suggested that the use of a wiki by learners required the development of best practices that need to be conveyed in order to success- fully overcome the challenges of using the wiki architecture by novice learners: 1. Create a culture of trust among wiki participants; 2. Set up conventions and require students to abide by these; 3. Have a common goal for all participants; 4. Assign meaningful, authentic activities; 5. Include explicit instructions and provide time for practice; 6. Remind students of course deadlines and schedules; 7. Define and identify roles for collaborative activities; 8. Provide clear and explicit course expectations; 9. Model examples of collaborative activities; and 10. Be patient with students and realize they may need help. Characteristics of Learners Evans (2005) described the experience of her learners with a wiki in a course entitled Introduction to the Culture and Literature of Quebec. She provided a platform to increase the quality of individual and group presen- tations encompassing cultural topics. Her previous course experience sug- gested that students lacked the application of knowledge associated with researching a topic and were not confident in their delivery of the presenta- tion. After the students engaged in their work using the wiki for five weeks, Evans (p. 3) noticed some remarkable qualitative effects: The instructor had envisioned several small groups of students working together on topics... Instead, every student in the class chose to work individually and there was very little visible or audible interaction during the in-class lab sessions devoted to the Wiki editing... The students became deeply involved in researching their subjects, and spent the majority of their time writing, revising, and reorganizing the content of their pages. Rather than focusing on the collective site, students were developing expertise in their own domains, schema building as they integrated new information and later sought connections between their work and other pages. 212 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
  20. 20. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited This observation suggested that the process of using the wiki, which is often promoted as collaborative, could still be quite useful for engag- ing individual learners with the research material. The wiki supported knowledge acquisition and transformation of information gathered from the library and external resources. Finally, the researcher con- cluded (p. 4): …the majority of the students demonstrated ease with the material in oral presenta- tions of their Wiki sites to the class. Unlike oral reports on cultural topics in previous classes, the presentations in this class were done entirely without notes as students spoke confidently about their area of expertise. The sociocultural notion of internaliza- tion provides a means of describing the manner in which learning occurred in the course of the project….It seems quite likely that by working with the authentic mate- rial, transforming and manipulating it to create their own Wiki sites, students were able to internalize a great deal of information. The learners communicated more confidently about the research topics and subject matter, and thus, their grade performance improved. Bossewitch, Frankfurt, Sherman, and Kelley (2008) proposed three sim- ple questions when deploying a wiki to 80 undergraduates in a Black Movements in the US course at Columbia University (pp. 44À45): 1. What is a wiki? 2. How do you teach with a wiki? 3. What is the point of a wiki, that is, how do the collaborative composi- tion experiences of [the] students compare with notable collaborations from history? The findings from the social justice case study were also insightful. Wikis, in the opinion of the three authors, created the “essence of engage- ment” amongst students, and between students and faculty. The authors suggested a new ideal category of wiki: a platonic wiki À one where “every- one can see anything that has been published, can edit anything they can see, and can easily create a new page” (p. 49). Of course, this ideal is actu- ally governed within each instance of a wiki type by business and technical rules, policies for interaction, and workflow processes that are applied to the content. Each wiki instance predicates different learner experiences and interaction models, and the experiences can vary across deployments of the same product in the same course or different courses. The flexibility of the wiki environment and social interface, (coupled with the imaginations of the learners), minimized the deterministic results that might be prescribed by a specific product. 213Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
  21. 21. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited In the Columbia University case, Bossewitch et al. (2008) divided 80 learners into groups of three to four. The goal was simple: build a website through learner collaboration that described critical social justice move- ments in New York City. The learners were asked to explore the (p. 53): broader political vision(s) of each of these movements (what they are trying to accomplish), the context for their emergence, their strategies and tactics, the impact they have had on the communities they serve as well as on struggles for social justice as a whole, and the kind of support they need to sustain the work they are doing. Interviews and historical library research were necessary, using the wiki as a repository for working collaboratively. Moreover, the instructor needed to review and furnish feedback to the learners over the course of the semester. Kelley identified four key benefits of using the wiki in a social justice context (Bossewitch et al., p. 55): 1. The ability to introduce a new technology into the course with minimal technical training. 2. The ability for students to work collaboratively. 3. The ability for [the instructor] to provide feedback throughout the semester. 4. The ability for [the instructor] to monitor the student projects and ensure they were being constructed collaboratively. As groups were fleshed out in detail, the learners developed an ad hoc taxonomy of categories to describe the different types of activism repre- sented by each organization. The bottom up approach promoted agree- ment amongst the learners in order to achieve a grade that was based on individual and team negotiation, discussion, and consensus. The result was the construction of collaborative stakeholders where the learners could immediately detect the result of their effort. Bossewitch et al. (2008, p. 55) concluded that: …wikis are well suited for collaborative projects where the intended outcome is a cohe- sive whole as opposed to a collection of independent or loosely related ideas. Wikis are also a good tool for iteratively developing ideas over time, allowing colla- borators to revise and reorganize their contributions as themes emerge. 214 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
  22. 22. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited Finally, the authors proposed evaluation criteria for a wiki-based proj- ect that could be applied in other cases: 1. Grade the content of each activist organization’s home page. 2. Grade the groups’ responses to instructor feedback during the semester. 3. Assess the level of collaboration within each team. 4. Assess the aesthetic of each organization’s home page and subpages to support learning about the organization described. Level of collaboration and aesthetic were not defined by a rubric within the reported case. Another case presented some insightful conclusions. In Wang et al. (2005), a statistically derived analysis concluded that gender and editing usage do not appear to have significant effect upon exam scores. The authors indicated they were not implying that causality existed between editing usage and learning improvement; and additional research along these lines should be supported. Finally, a case was described at the University of Illinois at Chicago within two graduate level courses: Introduction to Communication Research (Comm 500) and Seminar in Media Studies (Comm 502). Elfving and Menchen-Trevino (2008, p. 137) posed two questions within the context of their case description that will ring true to any instructor wishing to experi- ment with a wiki in the classroom: 1. Why did the same group of UIC students choose to use a wiki in one class only to disregard it in another? 2. What factors contribute to the successful incorporation of a wiki into the graduate classroom? The results were a skeptic view of wikis within HE, and the need for testing for other hypotheses (p. 143): …the wiki was not used actively in Comm 500, it was a mismatch of the technology and the circumstances rather than a failure of the technology or the people involved. …The [Comm 500] course simply didn’t present a task requiring wiki collaboration… the teaching styles of the professors and the nature of the assignments … shaped the wiki. …minor differences in the nature of the classroom and the relationship between students may result in radically different usage. …attempts to replicate the Comm 502 environment would be challenging, if not fruitless… A better approach lies in simply making collaborative tools like the wiki available for student use. Vibrant collaboration via wiki can emerge, given the right circumstances, but this collaboration can’t be forced [italics added]. 215Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
  23. 23. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited Changing Role of Teaching and Teachers From an educational context, Conole and Alevizou (2010, p. 12) described Web 2.0 tools and technologies from two dimensions: transformation and evolution: …transformation [italics added], in terms of transcending formal educational contexts; evolution, [italics added] in terms of facilitating more informal and non-formal learning contexts which blur the boundaries between categories of learners (student, adult- learner, or informal learner…). …learners are now able to become more active produ- cers, authors, evaluators and commentators within the learning arena they are engaged with. Thus, wikis, by their very nature, appear to change learning, learners, and teachers in, heretofore, unanticipated ways. Wikis incorporate meth- ods that many authors assert stimulates constructivist learning. Everett (2011) in a Business Communications course discovered that if the purpose of using a wiki is to enhance grade performance, then that might not be the best application (p. 9): four (44%) of the weekly assignments showed an increase in earned points as compared to previous classes; two (22%) showed a decrease in scores; and one (11%) showed no change in grades. Such results may not be the encouragement an instructor is searching for when considering the use of a wiki in a course. Hadjerrouit (2011) suggested that important pedagogical issues might be aggravated by the use and architecture of the wiki. Hadjerrouit described three cases associated with a collaborative writing (cowriting) approach to MediaWiki use by three student teams who wrote on (p. 582) (a) Information technologies and learning in secondary education; (b) Data security and privacy for young computer users; and (c) Food and health issues and the link between them for all categories of people. Through self-evaluation and peer review, Hadjerrouit discovered that a wiki tool, by itself, was not motivating enough to keep the attention of the students and the functionality of the MediaWiki tool did not support working collaboratively. The learners’ “contributions to collabo- rative writing indicate a low level of engagement, shortcuts in information 216 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
  24. 24. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited analysis, heavy use of information found on Wikipedia and Internet, poor writing and integration strategies, insufficient systematic testing, and lack of deadline awareness” (p. 584). However, this was not the only shortcoming. The students did not follow the phases of the collaborative writing approach. The researcher discovered that the students needed significant coaching and guidance to be able to collaborate successfully. Collabora- tive writing is labor intensive and challenging to students who may not possess higher order academic skills and cannot make critical judgments about information content. The use of the wiki elicited the shaping of knowledge based on the relationships of the participants. If learners had not been exposed to and trained in active participative and collaborative practices, then the use of a wiki would fail because of the incompatibil- ity of individualistic, egoistic practices with participative and collabora- tive practices. Hadjerrouit’s study suggested a consequent need to transform instructors from the “sage on the stage” to the “guide on the side” (Bassis, 2008); and that wikis could be useful in facilitating such a transformation in order to move teachers to the constructivist learning paradigm. Bruns and Humphreys (2007) discovered that leaving open the topics for an assignment for first and second-year undergraduate students hin- dered their capability to focus on a subject. Alternatively, the authors of the study constructed teams of two students who would select topics from a predefined list. In addition, a more sophisticated approach to assessment needed to be developed for the collaboration element (p. 7): Over time: collaboration throughout project period, Across team: communication and dialogue while collaborating in wiki, Edit history [that] shows continuous work in updating content in the weeks before the assignment due date, Comments on the entry page used highly effectively and regularly to enhance collaboration on content development. Of course, this approach to assessment differed significantly from tradi- tional assessment of group work on a project, but parallel to an assessment approach developed by Reo (2006). Not surprisingly, without this unique approach, students often will do their group work singularly, and within only a few days of the assignment due date. Again, the two authors sug- gested that wikis were a key example of moving traditional learning from the ‘sage on the stage’ model, to the ‘guide on the side’ model, since a wiki 217Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
  25. 25. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited “invites users to become active co-producers of [course] content” (p. 8). An insightful contradiction was uncovered when: students noted the irony of being asked to work within a wiki environment in this sub- ject, while in some other subjects lecturers were still warning them against using the Wikipedia as a reference for their assignments. This points to a more general question about the academic establishment’s response to user-led knowledge bases… (p. 9) Finally, Bruns and Humphreys (2007) suggested that wikis had a critical role in teaching, based on their experiences. The development of practice- based tools and exercises for knowledge production in a digital environ- ment would be a critical success factor in preparing students to integrate themselves into the emerging knowledge-based economy, instead of finding themselves at a disadvantage. Regardless, inconclusive studies do exist that conclude “students enjoyed working in groups but they do not believe group works have better quality neither that they learned more working in teams than if they worked by themselves” (Coutinho Bottentuit Junior, 2007, p. 1). CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS According to most of the studies reviewed in this investigation, the integra- tion of wikis with learning experiences can demonstrate new and insightful learning experiences and changes in learner behavior. However, according to many of the authors, a significant investment by the instructor is required to become intimately familiar with the opportunities as well as limitations that a wiki affords as a complex instructional strategy and tool. Instructors need to allocate rarely available time and effort in leading the learners by example, since just “letting learning happen” has been proven a quagmire for wikis. Finally, using a wiki requires the development and application of new rubrics. Instructors need to allocate significant time to evaluate and assess a grade for each learner in a wiki-mediated class. During the analysis of the different studies, the authors synthesized a number of useful conclusions that consistently demonstrated the successful application of wikis in HE. The following descriptions provide a strong foundation for taking unique and original steps in the future study of wikis in HE. For convenience and organization, the authors broke down the con- clusions into the five categories of Conole and Alevizou (2010) (see Table 2). The natural future direction should be based on a deeper analysis on research questions and of the experiences and expectations that learners 218 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
  26. 26. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited Table 2. Synthesized Conclusions. # Category Conclusion 1. Theories of learning Wikis support social constructivist approaches to learning and sensemaking, whether it is e-learning, project-based learning, or traditional classroom-based learning Application of a wiki in the classroom does not consistently enhance grades Wikis will not work with passive learners Engaged wiki-based collaboration emerges from the learner interaction, and cannot be forced Assessment of experiential wiki activity must form a substantial component of overall evaluation and grading, or the learners will not remain engaged and motivated 2. New forms of learning Anecdotal evidence suggested that learners who might not otherwise finish a traditional course successfully demonstrated adequate learning to pass the course if a wiki was involved Wikis, by their very nature, do not appear to be deterministic À every wiki instance can stimulate differing learner experiences and interactions, regardless of whether the course or tool are the same or different Notable learning improvements based on experiential approaches were reported, including enhanced writing performance, strengthened self-organization skills, and improved team-based interaction Significant value could result from including nonclassroom participants in the wiki, although many learners were more reticent and cautious with their writing when outsiders participated 3. Patterns of technology use Wikis must demonstrate a rich user interface and access to internal and external web-based material, facilitated by easily deployed hyperlinking, as well as the capability to identify orphaned and broken links Successful evidence of collaborative and personal learning was reported, when wikis accommodated multimedia material, significant collaborative interaction, alerts, RSS web-feeds, and rich text and object formatting Learners found the repository function of wikis to be useful as a container for locating the most current version of material and an historical archive Wikis demonstrated limited report presentation capability, requiring learners to export the information to other tools in order to prepare an acceptable final deliverable Access control must be facilitated through simple group, user, and page restrictions in order to ease administrative requirements 219Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
  27. 27. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited Table 2. (Continued) # Category Conclusion Concept-based (semantic) search tools would be much more effective than a text search tool Logging histories of additions, modifications, and deletions should be maintained for potential catastrophic failures or to shore up nefarious, sabotage activities Additional functionality, such as calendaring, scheduling, tight email integration, and integrated blogging will need to be developed by software firms in the near future to keep the interest to learners 4. Characteristics of learners Learners could acquire significant, solitary, self-learning by focusing on solving a wiki-enabled problem, so better collaboration is not always the outcome Different styles of writing necessitate different types of wiki pages: material repository pages, discussion forum pages, commenting pages, assignment instruction and review pages, and deliverable feedback pages Rigorous conventions for page formatting, proofreading, grammar, and spelling checking, and file naming were useful to increase consistency and quality in applying multimedia and text to a deliverable Openness and transparency within a collaborative environment demonstrated positive outcomes in a number of studies, which challenged the typical classroom environment were personal privacy of information often reigns 5. Changing role of teaching and teachers Instructors must become informed about the typology of wikis, (resource wiki, presentation wiki, gateway wiki, simulation wiki, or illuminated wiki), in order to apply the correct wiki tool to a learning strategy Rich, frequent, high quality, feedback by the instructor increased student engagement and speed of acquisition of new learning and knowledge Training through instructor-led coaching in terminology, active participation, and collaborative practices was a critical to success in the classroom Learners and instructors encountered audit trail difficulties when changes were applied to the wiki, since the attribution of an addition, changes, or modifications to a specific learner could be no more specific than a wiki page 220 MICHAEL J.D. SUTTON AND AFSANEH HAZERI
  28. 28. (C )Em erald G roup Publishing Lim ited encounter when applying wiki technologies to support learning. In future research, the chapter authors intend to review the corpus assembled in much more detail to ascertain particular trends and other bibliometrics that might become evident through a more thorough investigation. Although ambitious, the authors propose to explore more deeply the fol- lowing research questions during further investigation of wikis in learning and teaching environments: Q1: What are the unique characteristics of applied wiki technologies, methods, and tools? Q2: What are the theoretical foundations reported by the authors for wiki success? Q3: What are the major outcomes (benefits and strengths) to learners and educators, respectively? Q4: What are the issues, problems, disadvantages, concerns, and barriers of using wikis within an experiential context? Q5: What are the top 10 research questions that appear throughout the majority of studies? Q6: Which wiki technologies, methods, and tools could be recommended for particular learning strategies and activities? The authors previously studied wikis within the context of the emerging fields of Knowledge Management/Knowledge Mobilization (KM/KMb) and also intend to investigate the potential relationships between KM/ KMb and wikis in HE (Alavi, 2010/2011; Gonzalez-Reinhart,2005; Sarraf- zadeh, Hazeri, Sutton, 2009b, 2010b; Raman et al., 2005; Wagner, 2004). Wikis are representative of KM technologies and tools, and thus, KM models and frameworks could prove useful in the continued analyses of exemplary cases. REFERENCES Barkley, E. F., Cross, K. P., Major, C. H. (2005). Collaborative learning techniques: A hand- book for college faculty. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers. Barton, M. (2008). Is there a wiki in this class? Wikibooks and the future of Higher Education. In R. Cummings, M. Barton (Eds.), Wiki writing: Collaborative learning in the college classroom (pp. 175À193). Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. Retrieved from http://quod.lib.umich.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=dcbooks;idno=5871848.0001.001; rgn=div1;view=text;cc=dcbooks;xc=1;g=dculture;node=5871848.0001.001%3A6 Bassis, M. S. (2008). From teaching to learning: Moving from the “Sage on the Stage” to the “Guide on the Side”. Westminster Matters, 5(1), 1–11. 221Wiki as an Experiential Learning Tool
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