Chapter 11 Presentation: The Endocrine System and Hypercalcemia Michaelia Fosses Summer 2012
Endocrine System• The collection of glands in the endocrine system secrete hormones into the bloodstream• This is in contrast to the exocrine system, which secretes fluids into a duct• Hormones are chemicals secreted by a gland to control the function of a target tissue
Endocrine System• Hormones are secreted into the bloodstream and work on a target organ or tissue, increasing or decreasing its activity level• The endocrine system maintains homeostasis in the body—a stable internal environment
Hypercalcemia• A condition of excessive calcium in the blood• Mild hypercalcemia is often asymptomatic• Symptoms of moderate to severe hypercalcemia include nausea, excessive thirst, loss of appetite, frequent urination, muscle weakness and abdominal pain, among others
Hypercalcemia - Causes• Hypercalcemia can have several causes• Certain types of cancer can cause hypercalcemia• Primary hyperparathyroidism can cause hypercalcemia through excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH), which increases blood calcium levels
Hypercalcemia – Diagnosis/Treatment• Diagnosis of hypercalcemia is made by checking blood calcium levels• Treatment of the hypercalcemia is done to return calcium to a safe level• Treatment of the cause of the hypercalcemia depends on the cause
References• www.mayoclinic.com• Medical Terminology: A Living Language. Fregman, Bonnie F. and Suzanne S. Frucht. Pearson, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey. 2009.