University Partnership for Educational Reform 1

University Partnership for Educational Reform and Development: Ferris Sta...
University Partnership for Educational Reform 2

Abstract

International comparative studies link educational attainment t...
University Partnership for Educational Reform 3
graduate courses. This paper describes the partnership and initial phases ...
University Partnership for Educational Reform 4

University Partnership for Educational Reform and Development: Ferris Sta...
University Partnership for Educational Reform 5
Mekong Delta. To that end, Ferris State University in Michigan (United Sta...
University Partnership for Educational Reform 6
Focusing specifically on the Mekong Delta, the secondary students applying...
University Partnership for Educational Reform 7
need to improve their pedagogic and content knowledge to redesign educatio...
University Partnership for Educational Reform 8
diplomats and ministers reviewed a document, Education for Innovative Soci...
University Partnership for Educational Reform 9
work requires the ability to elevate the public’s interest in education, i...
University Partnership for Educational Reform 10
flexibility and will enable them to transfer their knowledge from the gra...
University Partnership for Educational Reform 11
Specifically, Newman, Secada, and Wehlage (1995) found that students who ...
University Partnership for Educational Reform 12
PROPOSED SOLUTION. Ferris State University and An Giang University will b...
University Partnership for Educational Reform 13
Figure 2
Professional Development Model
Gaining and
Sharing
Expertise

Bu...
University Partnership for Educational Reform 14
teaching strategies, reflect on their practice, and test new methods. As ...
University Partnership for Educational Reform 15
deans and faculty members and Dr. Vo-Tong Xuan gave a poignant presentati...
University Partnership for Educational Reform 16
Figure 3
Proposed Course of Study

Proposed Vietnam Course of Study
Ferri...
University Partnership for Educational Reform 17
Throughout the Summer Semester of 2006, implementation committees met to
...
University Partnership for Educational Reform 18
6. Dr. Johnston met with educational consultants from the International R...
University Partnership for Educational Reform 19
References
Armitage, R. and Schriver, R. (2006). Trade with Vietnam.
http...
University Partnership for Educational Reform 20
Spiro, R. J. & Jehng, J. C. (1990). Cognitive flexibility and hypertext: ...
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University partnership for educational reform (international) presented by Michelle Johnston, Michael Harris, and Phillip Watson

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University Partnership for Educational Reform and Development: Ferris State University in Michigan and An Giang University in Vietnam Plan for Improving Student Achievement in the Mekong Delta Region
Michelle Johnston, Michael Harris, and Phillip Watson

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University partnership for educational reform (international) presented by Michelle Johnston, Michael Harris, and Phillip Watson

  1. 1. University Partnership for Educational Reform 1 University Partnership for Educational Reform and Development: Ferris State University in Michigan and An Giang University in Vietnam Plan for Improving Student Achievement in the Mekong Delta Region Michelle Johnston, Michael Harris, and Phillip Watson Ferris State University Presented at: Educational Research, Policy, and Practice in an Era of Globalization The Asia Pacific Perspectives and Beyond APERA 28-30 November 2006
  2. 2. University Partnership for Educational Reform 2 Abstract International comparative studies link educational attainment to economic growth and development by tying national economic power to the educational attainment of the labor force. Specifically, “human capital,” as measured by educational attainment, is an important resource for improving the economic potential of a nation. The link between education and economic growth is particularly significant in developing countries and in nations emerging from conflict like Vietnam and the regions within it. In Vietnam, high school students from the Mekong Delta, where economic progress is slow, perform lower on national tests than their peers across Vietnam. Concomitantly, their teachers demonstrate limited instructional repertoires, skills in curriculum development, and content discipline knowledge. To address those problems and improve student achievement, Ferris State University, a public university in Michigan, and An Giang University in the Mekong Delta created a partnership for educational reform. Through this partnership, Ferris State University, using mixed-delivery, hybrid, and distance learning technologies, will offer its Master of Education in Curriculum and Instruction with subject-area coursework concentrations in various sciences (e.g., Biology, Chemistry, and/or Physics), technology, and mathematics at An Giang University. While the Vietnamese teachers will gain expertise in their content disciplines as well as curriculum development and pedagogy, they will learn to align content to research-based best practices in instruction and assessment for the purpose of enhancing student achievement and educational quality. Further, the partnership recognizes that literacy is fundamental to academic success and proposes to integrate literacy concepts within the
  3. 3. University Partnership for Educational Reform 3 graduate courses. This paper describes the partnership and initial phases of its implementation using a data-based decision making model.
  4. 4. University Partnership for Educational Reform 4 University Partnership for Educational Reform and Development: Ferris State University in Michigan and An Giang University in Vietnam Plan for Improving Student Achievement in the Mekong Delta Region PROBLEM. According to Dr. Vo-Tong Xuan, Rector of An Giang University in Long Xuyen, Vietnam, poverty is rampant in the Mekong Delta, the “rice bowl” of Vietnam, which is the second largest rice exporting country in the world. 1 Furthermore, he reported that as a result of devastating floods and agricultural policies that uncovered the overwhelming poverty of the rural people of the Mekong Delta, the income of the rice farmers continually decreases even though rice production increases. When comparing the Mekong Delta to the seven other regions of Vietnam using socio-economic factors, it ranks sixth. The Mekong Delta region is marginalized by low educational attainment and minimal investment in infrastructures such as health care, insurance, and agriculture extension and is unable to respond adequately to the Vietnamese government’s call for modernization and industrialization as the country joins the regional and global economic. To join the global economy, Vietnam, particularly the Mekong Delta region, needs an educated workforce and skilled agricultural workers who can apply new technologies and implement new management skills. Yet, educating the citizens of the Mekong Delta is problematic. Dr. Vo-Tong Xuan reports that Vietnam faces a “serious challenge” with students, particularly rural students, demonstrating lower knowledge levels than in the past. Additionally, enrollments in post-secondary institutions are dropping in quantity and quality as measured by achievement. To move Vietnam forward and ensure that it can meet its economic goals and be a competitive nation, the quality of education must improve as well as the quality of educated citizens, particularly in the 1 Contained in the PowerPoint presentation and project proposal that Dr. Vo-Tong Xuan presented at Ferris State University in April 2006.
  5. 5. University Partnership for Educational Reform 5 Mekong Delta. To that end, Ferris State University in Michigan (United States) and An Giang University in the Mekong Delta proposed a partnership to reform teacher education and to elevate student achievement levels in the elementary and secondary schools in An Giang Province. Through this proposed education reform initiative, the partners, Ferris State University and An Gang, will focus on improving teacher pedagogy, content knowledge, technology infusion in instruction, and literacy instruction by implementing educational improvement and reform in two parallel strands. The Parallel Strands of the Proposed School Reform Initiative Strand I will focus on delivering a high Strand II will be the application phase to quality Master of Education in Curriculum implement educational improvement and Instruction with a subject matter initiatives in the elementary and secondary emphasis in science, mathematics, and schools by applying the knowledge, skills, technology with the inclusion of literacy and strategies in the courses in a rigorous and action research. and sustainable model for teacher improvement. In survey data compiled by Dr. Vo-Tong Xuan, 2 teachers in the Mekong Delta receive poor performance evaluations. The poor ratings on their performance evaluations are part of an overall degrading of education which perpetuates a vicious cycle that leads to decreases in student achievement, increases in the dropout rates, and victimizes students. It also creates a schism between the wealthy and poor students because wealthy students can afford private tutoring while the poor students languish in failing schools. 2 Presented at Ferris State University in April 2006.
  6. 6. University Partnership for Educational Reform 6 Focusing specifically on the Mekong Delta, the secondary students applying for admissions to universities have the lowest scores on a nationally administered, standardized university admissions test in the country. On the national admissions test, the mean score for all of Vietnam is seven with a standard deviation of 5.2. The mean score for An Giang Province is one with a standard deviation of 3.8 which is the lowest admission score of any province in the Mekong Delta. Figure 1 College Admission Test Average Scores Across Vietnam Specifically, the problems to be addressed through the partnership are: 1. An Giang University has the mission to prepare the teachers of An Giang Province where the student achievement scores are the lowest in the Mekong Delta as well as the country. The new teachers as well as the veteran teachers
  7. 7. University Partnership for Educational Reform 7 need to improve their pedagogic and content knowledge to redesign education to focus on student learning. 2. An Giang University has to respond to the pressures of growth going from 7,000 students in 2006 to a projected 12,000 students by 2010 and as many as 500 faculty. Because teacher education is the mission of the University, An Giang, and teacher preparation involves the entire faculty, all An Giang faculty members have to improve their pedagogic and content knowledge. 3. Many faculty members at An Giang do not have advanced degrees and tend to perpetuate old, rhetorical teaching techniques with limited content knowledge. 4. An Giang needs a cost effective 3 and efficient manner, using hybrid or mixed delivery systems, to bring professional, educational opportunities to its faculty to ensure that they have access to advanced degrees, improved pedagogy models, and enhanced curriculum preparation strategies to better prepare teachers. 5. An Giang faculty members need to become “trainers of trainers” to improve teaching to ultimately lead the reform in the elementary and secondary schools. 6. An Giang needs to begin an outreach program, which is an integral component of this proposed partnership to improve the teaching effectiveness of current teachers in the province. Ultimately, having a more effective teaching core will improve student performance on the national tests and future progress on the region. RATIONALE FOR SOLUTION. The rationale for this proposed project is based on documents, which emerged from the G8 Summits in Cologne and St. Petersburg, as well as research on international education, professional teacher education, and learning theory. During July, the G8 Summit2006 met in St. Petersburg, Russia where the 3 Proposed cost will be $5,700 per student per year.
  8. 8. University Partnership for Educational Reform 8 diplomats and ministers reviewed a document, Education for Innovative Societies in the 21st Century. 4 The document presented the following guiding principles that delineate the connection between education and economics emerged, which undergird the proposed project: 1. Education is the heart of human progress—economic and social prosperity are dependent on educating all citizens in a rapidly changing world. 2. Education enriches cultures—creates global understanding and respect for the rule of law…and is essential for the development of human capital…an engine for economic growth. 3. Development of a global innovation society—a society depends on the mobility and integration of knowledge and technologies for all nations. 4. Knowledge-based economies require innovative education systems—with frameworks in place to ensure reliability, competitiveness, and incentives for innovation. 5 In addition to these guiding principles promoted by the G8 Summit and UNESCO, the United States is securing Permanent Trade Relations with Vietnam (PNTR). Specifically, Richard Armitage stated, “This country needs stronger relationships in Southeast Asia, and to gain these the United States must demonstrate a genuine interest in the problems and challenges of our friends (2006).” The proposed partnership demonstrates that Ferris State University has a genuine interest in the faculty of An Giang as well as the people of An Giang Province. For Vietnam, specifically An Giang University in An Giang Province, promoting economic development through education requires that Vietnamese educators must provide a high quality basic education through implementing high quality post-secondary education programs, as well as promoting high standards and lifelong education. Such 4 Prepared by UNESCO and distributed Sunday, July 16, 2006 from the G8/2006 Russia. The first four guiding principles from Education for Innovative Societies in the 21st Century, G8/2006 Russia, St. Petersburg, Russia, July 16, 2006. These principles provide a foundation for the charge to develop innovation societies, building quality education structures, developing education for all, and advancing social cohesion. 5
  9. 9. University Partnership for Educational Reform 9 work requires the ability to elevate the public’s interest in education, invest in knowledge development, and to support programs which have as their goals developing highly qualified teachers. Furthermore, the educational reforms, which focus on improving standards and teacher quality, should be directed to literacy, mathematics, science, and technology. 6 The partnership proposes to improve the quality of veteran teachers’ and teacher educators’ instructional practice by offering the Master of Education in Curriculum and Instruction with courses on pedagogy and mathematics, science, or technology within a technology infused learning environment. By infusing technology in the delivery of the courses whether using distance learning models or accessing alternative sources of information, the partnership will be promoting cognitive flexibility which will redirect the Vietnamese teachers away from their linear model of teaching (Sprio and Jehng, 1990). The Vietnamese teachers, according to Dr. Vo-Tong Xuan, present information using a very linear model. The preferred instructional practices traditional rote methodologies that do not lead students to search for alternatives, find new applications for their learning, or transfer their knowledge beyond their learning environments. Through the infusion of technology, the teachers will learn to construct knowledge from their experiences, interpret various concepts while they actively engage in their learning, share their learning through various collaborations, find real-world applications for their learning, and monitor their learning through formative, integrated assessments (Spiro and Jehng, 1990). The concepts and activities that the teachers will learn come from the theoretical framework of cognitive 6 This description of the Vietnamese needs and proposed program align with the education-related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), Education for All (EFA) objectives, and G8 Cologne Summit educational principles.
  10. 10. University Partnership for Educational Reform 10 flexibility and will enable them to transfer their knowledge from the graduate program to the schools. Marlaine Lockheed (2006), who has written extensively about educational issues in developing countries, argues that “high-quality, equitable education is the driving force for development.” She bases her argument on the following beliefs: 1) an educated population is healthier; 2) schools build social cohesion and national integration; and 3) knowledge is essential for functioning modern societies (2006, ix). The students of An Giang Province and the Mekong Delta are receiving an education; however, the data suggest that the quality of their educational experiences need to improve. With an infusion of research-based pedagogy, including concepts such as cognitive flexibility, and content knowledge, teachers, who are teaching for learning, should have students who demonstrate higher levels of achievement and other skills necessary to contribute to the Vietnamese economic goals. The Brazilian scholar and educational reformer, Paulo Freire (1970) wrote extensively about literacy and the interactions between thought, language, and concepts of the world. With adult literacy woven as a theme through proposed Master of Education, the Ferris State University faculty and Vietnamese teachers, who will be the students, will engage in authentic dialogues about culture and communication as well as celebrating the local knowledge as a basis for future learning and communication. Specifically, the focus will be on real world reading and learning. Fred Newmann and his colleagues (1995) conducted research on improving student learning through alternative teaching and assessment and found that connecting learning to the real world was an essential variable for improving student achievement.
  11. 11. University Partnership for Educational Reform 11 Specifically, Newman, Secada, and Wehlage (1995) found that students who have opportunities to engage in activities that promote critical thinking, substantive conversations, acquisition of deep knowledge, and connections to the real world. By infusing these standards into the proposed program, the Vietnamese teachers will learn, practice, and review an entirely different pedagogy model. The Vietnamese teachers will learn to engage their students in interactions that promote learning rather than present rote knowledge which the students deposit for use at some unforeseen and future time. Freire (1970) described students as the depositories and teachers as the depositors in these antiquated and oppressive models in which students do not manipulate their learning, rethink, or make connections (53). Suzanne Grant Lewis (2006), who researches and writes about creating a bridge between academia and practice in the comparative and international educational venues, identifies strategies for creating change which is the purpose of the proposed project. The change that this project is seeking to make is significant reform and improvement in the quality of education for Vietnam; however, Lewis provides lessons learned that apply to this initiative. Those lessons include working in partnership to learn about the education and culture of Vietnam and the Mekong Delta, provide course content that is authentic and related to the lives of the students, and incorporate practices, objectives, and materials that are within the realistic structure of the Vietnamese educational framework and societal constraints. For example, in the proposed biology courses in ecology and biotechnology, the concepts and instruction relate the teaching and learning objectives and concepts to the current and future needs of the Mekong Delta.
  12. 12. University Partnership for Educational Reform 12 PROPOSED SOLUTION. Ferris State University and An Giang University will be partnering to offer the Master in Curriculum and Instruction with a subject matter option to teachers and teacher educators at An Giang University. The curriculum aligns with the G8 Cologne Summit guiding principles and promotes quality instruction in literacy, mathematics, science, and technology. However, the partners in this project also agree with Cuban (1993) that changing teacher practice is a difficult and daunting task. Specifically, merely sitting in a classroom, listening to a lecture, or interacting with a DVD will not change practice. Therefore, the partners plan to use the research-based, cyclical professional development model that the North Central Education Laboratory (NCREL) developed through its Strategic Teaching and Reading and Learning through Technology (1997-1999). Through this cyclical model, the Vietnamese teachers will grow professionally by: 1. Building a Knowledge Base—Build new knowledge, information, strategies, and skills in science or mathematics and pedagogy; 2. Observing Models and Cases—Explore instructional examples to generate practical understanding of the research-based knowledge and principles in content disciplines of mathematics or science and pedagogy. 3. Reflecting on Your Practice—Examine instructional methodologies, using action research strategies based on the new knowledge, information, strategies, and skills as they impact instructional change. 4. Changing Your Practice—Implement new instructional plans and revise them if necessary based on action research findings vis-à-vis student achievement. 5. Gaining and Sharing Expertise—Collaborate with colleagues to redesign instructional practice to focus on student learning. 7 This model is cyclical and provides a conceptual frame for delivering the courses, reflecting, changing instructional practices, and engaging in action research. 7 http://www.ncrtec.org/pd/lwtres/npdm.pdf (in a downloadable Adobe file.)
  13. 13. University Partnership for Educational Reform 13 Figure 2 Professional Development Model Gaining and Sharing Expertise Building Knowledge Ferris State University Courses Observing Models and Cases Available on DVDs Changing Practice Implement Change Reflecting on Practice Available & Begin Action Research Adult learning theory supports using a cyclic model for professional development to change the traditional instructional strategies of the Vietnamese teacher, because, according to Marsha Specks (1996), adults have difficulty transferring learning. Specifically, for adults the transfer is not automatic (pp. 36-37). In this case, for the Vietnamese teachers, the learning will be situated in their own working environments stressing local knowledge, and the support for implementing the new pedagogical strategies and content knowledge will be embedded in the proposed Master of Education program which will include the reflective practice and action research strategies addressed in the cyclical NCREL professional development model. Action research methodologies for teachers focus on improving practice and enhancing student performance. In this case, the Vietnamese teachers will examine their own practice, either individually or collaboratively, to assess the outcomes of their
  14. 14. University Partnership for Educational Reform 14 teaching strategies, reflect on their practice, and test new methods. As they implement new instructional strategies with enhanced content knowledge, they will report their experiences and findings to their colleagues with the intent of sharing practices that enhance student learning and improve their schools. The purpose of the proposed inclusion of action research is to give the Vietnamese teachers a model for examining instructional changes in an atmosphere of continuous improvement (Calhoun, 1994). Place-based education is an orientation to teaching that uses local resources and is especially relevant to this proposed project because it uses local resources to teach concepts. In the case of An Giang University and the Mekong Delta region, there are resources related to the growing of rice. Specifically, there is Cuu Long Rice Institute in Can Tho, Vietnam 8 . Using the resources of the Cuu Long Rice Institute and aligning biology content to rice, teachers can learn more about the content. Similarly, using the folklore, local history, and community resources for authentic experiences, the education core courses can provide venues in which the Vietnamese teachers can assist their students in finding relevant applications of knowledge which can enhance student achievement (Newmann, Secada, and Wehlage, 1995). PROGRESS. After hosting Dr. Watson for a semester of teaching and partnering with Ferris State University for several study abroad trips at An Giang, Dr. Vo-Tong Xuan invited a delegation from Ferris State University to visit his institution. In February, 2006, Dr. Michael Harris, Vice President for Academic Affairs, led a delegation that included a Ferris trustee and faculty member to An Giang where the initial proposal was developed to focus on teacher preparation. Subsequently in April 2006, Dr. Vo-Tong Xuan brought a delegation to Ferris State University where they met with the various 8 http://www.clrri.org/en/
  15. 15. University Partnership for Educational Reform 15 deans and faculty members and Dr. Vo-Tong Xuan gave a poignant presentation on the status of education in the An Giang Province. He also negotiated various aspects of the proposed project. Dr. Vo-Tong Xuan, Dr. Harris, and several members of the faculty and administrative staff, including deans, attended a reception at the Ferris State University President’s house to demonstrate university-wide support for the program. Specifically, while Dr. Vo-Tong Xuan and his delegation were at Ferris State University, they met with the Dean of the College of Education and Human Services, Dr. Michelle Johnston, and Interim Director of the School of Education, Dr. Liza Ing, as well as other education faculty members. Through their meetings, the representatives of the partnering universities developed a curriculum which is within the Master of Education of Curriculum and Instruction with the subject matter option. The curriculum includes eight core education courses and eliminates electives to ensure continuity in the program delivery and nine to twelve credits of a content discipline. Specifically, the nine to twelve credits would be in science (biology, chemistry, or physics) or mathematics.
  16. 16. University Partnership for Educational Reform 16 Figure 3 Proposed Course of Study Proposed Vietnam Course of Study Ferris State University College of Education and Human Services Master of Education—Curriculum and Instruction with a Subject Area Option Core Education Courses—(3 credits per course) • • • • • • • • EDUC 690 Principles and Theories of Teaching and Learning & Teaching/Learning Theories in the Classroom EDUC 620 Advanced Integrated Curriculum Design and Evaluation EDUC 511 Principles of Educational Evaluation and Design EDUC 616 Issues in Education ERLA 511 Literacy and Content Learning EDUC 660 Action Research EDUC 540 Educational Technology in the Classroom EDUC 601 Curriculum Leadership and Development Total Credits for Core Education Requirements 24 Credits Arts and Sciences and Technology Subject Discipline Electives 9-12 Credits Total 33-37 Credits The Vietnamese teachers, who will be the candidates for the Master of Education, will identify their subject area interests in mathematics, science, or technology to complete their degrees. In May, 2006, Drs. Klein and Watson were in Vietnam to engage in further discussions regarding the delivery of the program and the technology capacity necessary to support distance learning. Subsequently, they reported their findings to their colleagues at Ferris State University. Dr. Watson continued contact with Dr. Vo-Tong Xuan and met him in New York in November 2006.
  17. 17. University Partnership for Educational Reform 17 Throughout the Summer Semester of 2006, implementation committees met to determine the most efficient and cost effective way to offer distance learning classes in Vietnam without sacrificing quality. Essentially, they formulated the delivery structure for the proposed program. After the technology assessment, it was decided that online classes would not be appropriate considering the technology infrastructure at An Giang. The following decisions were made: 1. Classes will be offered in a mixed-delivery format using DVDs of the Ferris State University faculty teaching their classes. The Television and Digital Media Program, which is a department within the College of Education and Human Services, is responsible for developing the DVDs. Using DVDs is advantageous because they have a large storage capacity which can include videos, films, and documents. The students can have own their personal DVDs which they can replay. Some modules of the courses will be using tradition face-to-face teaching for modeling, and there will be e-mail exchanges between students and faculty. 2. The data collected and shared by Dr. Vo-Tong Xuan provided a benchmark for future formative and summative evaluations. 3. Course and program outcomes and assessment were established, including an electronic portfolio system for archiving evidence of teacher progress. 4. Dr. Watson wrote a proposal for a grant application and is searching for possible funding sources. 5. As a result of Drs. Watson and Vo-Tong Xuan met in New York City in November 2006,
  18. 18. University Partnership for Educational Reform 18 6. Dr. Johnston met with educational consultants from the International Rescue Committee about the feasibility of the plan. RESEARCH AGENDA: The partners, Ferris State University and An Giang, will formulate an evaluation plan to examine the impact of the educational plan and implementation of the Master Degree of Education—Curriculum and Instruction with a subject area emphasis. The impact studies will include the collection of institutional data as Dr. Xuan has begun to lead to a longitudinal collection of data as well as case studies, action research, which will be an integral component of the graduate studies, and rich life stories. SUMMARY. The developing educational partnership between Ferris State University and An Giang University is a first step in improving educational achievement for the underrepresented and underperforming students in An Giang Province. Specifically, the teachers who will participate in this proposed program, when implemented, possess the content knowledge and pedagogical skills to improve student achievement scores of the An Giang Province of the Mekong Delta. Furthermore, they will have the tools necessary to sustain the increases in achievement as well as monitoring their practice through action research strategies to promote continuous student improvement. Ferris State University and An Giang are developing a new model of collaboration that aligns to the G8 principles, addresses quality, and utilizes research on best practice. This new model is sustainable and able to be replicated.
  19. 19. University Partnership for Educational Reform 19 References Armitage, R. and Schriver, R. (2006). Trade with Vietnam. http://www.washingtontimes.com/op-ed/20060717-08432-9809r.htm Calhoun, E. (1994). How to use action research in the self-renewing school. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Cuban, L. (1993). How teachers taught. New York: Teachers College Press. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum Publishing Company. Lewis, S. G. (2006) “On teaching for social change: Creating a bridge between academia and practice. In B. Piper, S Dryden-Peterson, and Y. Kim (Eds.) International education for the millennium: Toward Access, Equity, and Quality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Educational Review Reprint Series No. 42. Lockheed, M. E. (2006). “Forward.” In B. Piper, S Dryden-Peterson, and Y. Kim (Eds.) International education for the millennium: Toward Access, Equity, and Quality. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Educational Review Reprint Series No. 42. Newmann, F.M., Secada, W.G. & Wehlage, G.G. (1995). A guide to authentic instruction and assessment: Vision, standards and scoring. Madison, WI: Document Service, Wisconsin Center for Education Research. The NCREL Professional Development Model. (1997-1999). http://www.ncrtec.org/pd/lwtres/npdm.pdf (in a downloadable Adobe file.) Specks, M. (1996, Spring). Best practice in professional development for sustained educational change. ERS Spectrum, 33-41.
  20. 20. University Partnership for Educational Reform 20 Spiro, R. J. & Jehng, J. C. (1990). Cognitive flexibility and hypertext: Theory and technology for the nonlinear and multidimensional traversal of complex subject matter. In D. Nix & R. Spiro (Eds.), Cognition, education, and multimedia: Exploring ideas in high technology (pp. 163-205). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

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