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CKD and anaemia

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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a gradual and usually permanent loss of kidney function over time. This happens gradually over time, usually months to years. Anemia develops when the kidneys fail to produce enough erythropoietin, EPO, the hormone that directs the bones to make red blood cells.

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CKD and anaemia

  1. 1. CKD and Anaemia Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a gradual and usually permanent loss of kidney function over time. This happens gradually over time, usually months to years.
  2. 2. CKD and Anaemia CKD is divided into 5 stages of increasing severity. Stage 5 chronic kidney failure is also referred to as end-stage renal disease. In Stage 5 there is total or near-total loss of kidney function and patients need dialysis or transplantation to stay alive. (http://www.aakp.org)
  3. 3. CKD and Anaemia CKD may be the result of physical injury or a disease that damages the kidneys, such as diabetes or high blood pressure. When the kidneys are damaged, they do not remove wastes and extra water from the blood as well as they should.
  4. 4. CKD and Anaemia Anemia develops when the kidneys fail to produce enough erythropoietin, EPO, the hormone that directs the bones to make red blood cells. Anemia tends to worsen as CKD progresses and can itself cause heart problems.
  5. 5. CKD and Anaemia CKD patients become anaemic primarily due to impaired absorption of iron, blood loss into the gastro-intestinal tract, and inadequate production of erythropoietin from the kidneys. The management of patients not undergoing dialysis involves stepwise treatment with oral iron, intravenous iron, and erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESA’s).
  6. 6. CKD and Anaemia Anemia develops during the early stages of CKD and is common in patients with End Stage Renal Disease. Anemia is an important cause of left ventricular hypertrophy and congestive heart failure. CKD and Anaemia Non-heme oral iron is of limited efficacy, poorly tolerated and often results in poor compliance. Intravenous iron is very effective but requires a hospital clinic visit. Intravenous iron is not without its risks. It is known to induce oxidative stress but is widely prescribed.
  7. 7. Solution The absorption of heme iron is several times higher and the side-effects rate significantly lower than for non-heme oral iron. Heme iron is absorbed through a separate pathway and does not have to be discontinued when intravenous treatment is started. This can allow for longer intervals between resource-heavy, inconvenient and painful injections. Oxidative stress is also avoided. Heme iron does not need to be discontinued during injection or EPO therapy like non-heme oral iron.
  8. 8. OptiFer® The OptiFer® series of iron food supplements are safe, efficient and very well tolerated, which is crucial for therapy success. They can be used over longer periods with no change in efficacy or tolerance.

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