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Boston 2013


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Boston 2013

  1. 1. Non-Fiction Reading and Writing CCS Aimee Buckner, 2013
  2. 2. CCSS: Reading Informational Texts Note: The first standard is quite literal asking students to be able to read within the „four corners‟ of the text. It‟s looking for literal understanding. Standard 1 is the base on which the other standards build towards standard 10 referring to text complexity. ALL the standards (1- 9) build up to this last one. This is true at each grade level. CCSS Standards Reading Informational Texts (4th Grade) Key Ideas and Details - Ask and answer questions based on the text - Refer to details and examples from the text when explaining and/or inferring - Identify main idea / Summarize events - Explain events, ideas, or concepts including what happened and why Craft and Structure - Determine the meaning of general academic and domain specific words and/or phrases - Describe the overall structure (cause/effect; problem/solution; comparison, etc) - Compare and contrast different accounts – including first hand and second hand accounts Integration of Knowledge - Interpret information given visually (text features) or quantitatively (statistics) and how the information helps the reader’s overall understanding. - Explain how an author uses reasons and evidence to support points in a text - Integrate knowledge from two or more sources on the same topic to write or speak about the subject knowledgeably. (RESEARCH) Range of Reading and Text Level Complexity By the end of year, read and comprehend informational texts, including history/social studies, science, and technical texts, in the grades text complexity band proficiently, with scaffolding as needed at the high end of the range.
  3. 3. CCSS Suggests: Determining Text Level of Complexity **Qualitative Measures *Quantitative Measures (Lextile) Reader and Task Consideration (motivation and prior knowledge)
  4. 4. Teaching the NF Reading Stance • It‟s not about personal response or just reading for information. • It‟s a highly analytical mode of reading. • Can‟t be stop and go reading – stop and jot a fact kind of note taking. • Emphasis is synthesis, evaluation and comparing texts • Think: How do our kids read NF now? • What is the next move to help them meet a particular standard?
  5. 5. Charts for Non-Fiction Readers Similar to fiction but geared towards informational texts. (1,2,3,10) (1,2,3,4, 7,8,10) (3,5,6,8,10) (1,2,4,5,10)
  6. 6. Organizational Structures Text Structure / Organization What it looks like: Cue words Where to find it… Chronological or Sequence Facts or events are presented in order of occurrence. This can be organized by time or by steps in a process. First, Second, Third… Then, next, before, after, last, finally… history books, biographies, diaries/journal s Snowflake Bently (Jacqueline Martin) Cause / Effect Presents information to help the reader understand what caused an event to occur. If, so So that Because Since In order to Thank You, Sarah! The Woman Who Saved Thanksgiving. (Laurie Halse Anderson) Tornados (Seymour Simon) Compare and Contrast Presents information by similarities and/or differences among people, concepts, events, etc. The same as, Unlike, alike, Compared to, Resembles, yet, but… Who Would Win? Series (Jerry Pollata) I am the Dog. I am the Cat. (Donald Hall) Problem /Solution Information is presented to demonstrate a problem an its solution. Problem, solution, because, since, so that A River Ran Wild by Lynne Cherry • These are some of the more common patterns students will come across in their reading. There are many more. • It‟s helpful for students to have cues – other than the main idea – to determine the organization of a text.
  7. 7. Recomposition The act of recomposing information in a different format so as to demonstrate understanding without plagiarism. (Standards 1, 2, 3, 4, 5,6, 7, 8, 9*)
  8. 8. Recomposition and Summary Repletes start eating when regular worker ants have left overs. They regurgitate the food. Then, the repletes eat the food. They keep eating until they‟re full. Then, they climb to the roof. They stick on the roof for maybe months! When food is low ants gather their antennas like levers then, pop! The replete throws up honey! Repletes are some of the most important ants in the ant nest. People can eat them too. Some people pop them and crunch on them like mints. - Noah, grade 4 (Standards 1, 2, 3, 4, 7)
  9. 9. Hari, Grade 2
  10. 10. Hari, summary Standards 1, 2, 3, 4
  11. 11. CCSS Informational Writing
  12. 12. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.W.4.2 Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly A. Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. B. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic. C. Link ideas within categories of information using words and phrases (e.g., another, for example, also, because). D. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic. E. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the information or explanation presented.
  13. 13. CCSS: Informational Standards for Writing and Language CCSS Standards Writing and Language (Focused on NF) Text Types and Purposes - Opinion / Argument - Expository / Informational Production and Distribution of Writing - Produce clear, coherent writing appropriate for task and audience - Strengthen writing with the writing process including planning, revision and editing - Use technology Research to Build and Present Knowledge - Conduct SHORT – as well as sustained – research projects - Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital resources while avoiding plagiarism - Be able to quote/cite evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. Range of Writing - Write routinely over longer time frames (to include time for research, reflection and revision) and shorter time frames to accomplish a variety of tasks. Conventions of Standard English - Demonstrate command of conventions for standard English grammar, usage, mechanics and spelling Knowledge of Language - Apply knowledge of language to make effective choices for meaning or style
  14. 14. A closer look at RESEARCH TO BUILD AND PRESENT KNOWLEDGE - Conduct SHORT – as well as sustained – research projects - Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital resources while avoiding plagiarism - Be able to quote/cite evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
  15. 15. Informational Writing Informational writing will consist of about a third of all the writing children do in elementary school. Writing across the curriculum not only COUNTS towards this end, it is encouraged. WARNING: Informational writing should NOT be taught ONLY in content areas. It should be included in the writer’s workshop curriculum.
  16. 16. PHEW! Not everything has to be a huge research project!
  17. 17. Q/A Mentor Text (from HIGHLIGHTS November 2012) Do sharks eat fish? Sent in by Lester, Age 7 (by e-mail) The oceans have almost 400 kinds of sharks, some of them with unusual diets. Many types of sharks eat fish, including other sharks. The horn shark can eat crabs. Hammerhead sharks also eat fish and crabs, and squid, too. The whale shark doesn’t eat those kinds of prey. Instead, it eats millions of tiny plants and animals called plankton. Like some kinds of whales, it swims with its huge mouth open, filtering plankton from the water. The most famous shark is the great white. It eats many kinds of prey, including other sharks, but it seems to prefer seals.
  18. 18. Longer projects… Research Note taking Citing texts Quotations Graphics – diagrams, charts, graphs, illustrations The key to a longer project is in the prewriting – planning, envisioning, researching and trying things out
  19. 19. …teaching students to do the intellectual work involved in writing about a subject – any subject – means teaching them to organize and elaborate on facts and ideas, to decide on priorities, to look at information through different lenses and to entertain questions… Pathways to the Common Core, 153
  20. 20. Strategy: Topic Legs Much like LIST AND STAR for narrative work, students start with a topic they know a lot about or want to know a lot about it. They create a web of general information, starring the ones they about which they could write. Students write off the stars and then reread their work. They begin to jot questions down the margin of information they may need to research. Benefits: - Students sift out what they know and what they don‟t know. - Students begin to see a need for focused research. - Sifting through questions will help student begin to organize information
  21. 21. At The Heart of It Sometimes students love a topic – like cheetahs – but can‟t figure out how to focus their passion. This strategy allows students to get their love out and look for patterns or hot topics within their larger subject. Students then write sample entries exploring these ideas and reflecting on the further research that might be needed.
  22. 22. Entry from heart Conferring with Penny, we could help her tighten her focus for a larger piece: - What are poachers and why do they hurt animals? - What is being done to stop poachers? - How can people around the world help save cheetahs?
  23. 23. Planning, Grade 2 Boxes and bullets can help children as young as second grade begin to see if the facts they want to use actually match the main idea in their writing. Second graders need to introduce a topic and provide facts and definitions to develop points.
  24. 24. Planning revised Justin takes another shot at finding facts that will support his mina idea.
  25. 25. Planning Boxes and Bullets are a helpful way for Rebecca to begin planning her piece about whale sharks. Because she has experience with boxes and bullets for reading, she can use the same process for writing – making sure she has main ideas and supporting details. Eventually, a teacher would want to move her to a more sophisticated outline format. However, this shows her planning and serves the purpose for Rebecca‟s writing in fourth grade.
  26. 26. Moveable Outlines Using sticky notes to plan out a piece makes moving sections around easier. Kids use sticky notes to track their main idea and/or sub heading. They go through an oral rehearsal with their writing partner and one or two other friends. As they rehearse what they plan to write, they can try moving the sections around to see which way will make the most sense … before they commit anything to paper. This allows – hopefully – for revision to be more about craft and wording than restructuring a whole piece.
  27. 27. From Notebooks to Final Pieces - Study mentor texts Topic Structure Wording - Allow time to revise for creating voice through careful word choice - Carefully consider adding graphics to enhance the readers comprehension and to support the main idea(s) of the piece
  28. 28. Write often to write well. “If you write one story, it may be bad; if you write a hundred you have the odds in your favor.” - Edgar Rice Burroughs
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