http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/michaelasanda-1376673-yazd7/
On the southern outskirts of                                                    Yazd, there are two hilltop               ...
Zoroastrians have always been populous inYazd. Even now roughly ten percent of thetowns population adhere to this ancientr...
The guardian of the sitePaznicul turnurilor tăcerii
Constructions for ritual death and mourning customsConstrucţii destinate ceremoniilor şi ritualurilor de pregătire şi jeli...
In the Iranian Zoroastrian tradition, the towers were built atop hills orlow mountains in desert locations distant from po...
A Tower of Silence or Dakhma is a circular, raised structure used by Zoroastrians for exposure of the dead.Turnurile tăcer...
In the early twentieth century, the IranianZoroastrians gradually discontinued their useand began to favor burial or crema...
The term "Tower of Silence" is a neologism attributed to Robert Murphy, who, in 1832, was a translator of the British colo...
Yazd with the area of 131,551 km² is situated at an oasis where the Dasht-e Kavir desert and the Dasht-e Lut desert meet, ...
Until this custom was forbidden in 1970, the Zoroastrians exposed their dead to the birds in "towers of silence“ (dakhmeh)...
There are two towers near Yazd, built in the nineteenth century according to a design from India, where many Zoroastrians ...
Although the towers date back to the nineteenth century, the custom to expose the dead on towers is mentioned in the lateS...
The towers, which are fairly uniform in their construction, have an almostflat roof, with the perimeter being slightly hig...
The custom to expose the dead on mountain summits still exists in modern Tibet, where it is called an "air burial”Obiceiul...
Inside the round walls at the top of the male Tower we found a circular hollow where thebodies were laid out for the birds...
At the base of the towers were a covered well and few buildings for the family of the dead to prepareand wash the body and...
concrete lined graves in the small graveyard near the Towers
The towers have not been used since the 1970s when the citys Muslim rulers decreed that havingbodies left around to be eat...
Houses of priests and nasasalarsAt the funeral ceremony, two priests in paiwand, that is, connected to each other by a whi...
Houses of priests and nasasalars
The after-life ceremonies reflect the doctrinal principals of the faith and the laws of purity are strictly adhered to, as...
Houses of priests and nasasalarsCasele preoţilor şi a cioclilor (singurii care mai aveauvoie să atingă mortul după ce aces...
Houses of priests and nasasalars
The semi-circular brick lined dome, visually much alike a Buddhist stupa, isa Water reservoirs, or ab anbar, as it is loca...
Zoroastrians believe that the sun, with its life-giving quality, has the powerful effect of destroying pollutants and disi...
DEATH, in Zoroastrianism, is seen as the temporary triumph of the Evil Spirit Ahriman whoseinherent nature, according to t...
Iran                                         Text: Internet                                         Pictures: Sanda Foişor...
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2
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Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2

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On the southern outskirts of Yazd, there are two hilltop circular building, known as Dakhmeh-ye-Zartushtioon or Towers of Silence. To preclude the pollution of earth or fire, the bodies of the dead are placed atop a tower—a tower of silence—and so exposed to the sun and to birds of prey. Thus, "putrefaction with all its concomitant evils... is most effectually prevented.“

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Iran Yazd7, towers of silence2

  1. 1. http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/michaelasanda-1376673-yazd7/
  2. 2. On the southern outskirts of Yazd, there are two hilltop circular building, known as Dakhmeh-ye-Zartushtioon or Towers of Silence. La periferia sudică a oraşului Yazd există două enorme turnuri circulare construite pe vârful celor două coline, cunoscute sub numele de Dakhmeh-ye-Zartushtioon sau turnurile tăcerii.Recognized by UNESCO as holding one of the oldestarchitecture all over the world Internet images
  3. 3. Zoroastrians have always been populous inYazd. Even now roughly ten percent of thetowns population adhere to this ancientreligion. To preclude the pollution of earth orfire the bodies of the dead are placed atop atower—a tower of silence—and so exposedto the sun and to birds of prey. Thus,"putrefaction with all its concomitant evils... ismosteffectually prevented.“Adepţii Zoroastrismului au fost totdeaunanumeroşi în Yazd, chiar şi acum depăşind10% din populaţie. Pentru a excludepoluarea pământului sau a focului (sacru)cadavrele sunt aşezate în aşa numiteleturnuri ale tăcerii, expuse la soare şi oferitevulturilor ca hrană. În acest fel „putrefacţia,cu toate relele sale” este prevenită cel maieficient
  4. 4. The guardian of the sitePaznicul turnurilor tăcerii
  5. 5. Constructions for ritual death and mourning customsConstrucţii destinate ceremoniilor şi ritualurilor de pregătire şi jelire a morţilor
  6. 6. In the Iranian Zoroastrian tradition, the towers were built atop hills orlow mountains in desert locations distant from population centers.În tradiţia iraniană, turnurile tăcerii au fost construite pe culmi, înlocuri pustii, la distanţă de centrele populate.
  7. 7. A Tower of Silence or Dakhma is a circular, raised structure used by Zoroastrians for exposure of the dead.Turnurile tăcerii (Dakhma) sunt structuri circulare ridicate pe culmi, folosite de zoroastrieni pentru cei morţi
  8. 8. In the early twentieth century, the IranianZoroastrians gradually discontinued their useand began to favor burial or cremation. InYazd and Kerman, in addition to cemeteries,orthodox Zoroastrians continued to maintain adakhma until the 1970s when the dakhmaswere shut down by law.În secolul al XX-lea, zoroastrienii iranieni auîntrerupt treptat utilizarea turnurilor tăcerii şiau început să accepte înmormântarea sauincinerarea. În Yazd şi Kerman zoroastrieniiortodocşi au continuat să le folosească pânăîn 1970 când au fost interzise prin lege,devenind o atracţie turistică
  9. 9. The term "Tower of Silence" is a neologism attributed to Robert Murphy, who, in 1832, was a translator of the British colonialgovernment in India. It is not the literal meaning of "Avestan (sic) dakhma" as suggested by the Encyclopædia Britannica.Denumirea de „Turnul tăcerii” este un neologism atribuit lui Robert Murphy, care, in 1832, era translator la guvernul colonialbritanic din India.
  10. 10. Yazd with the area of 131,551 km² is situated at an oasis where the Dasht-e Kavir desert and the Dasht-e Lut desert meet, thecity is sometimes called "the bride of the Kavir" because of its location, in a valley between Shir Kuh, the tallest mountain in theregion at 4075 m. above sea level, and Kharaneq.Yazd, cu suprafata de 131,551 km ², este situat în oaza în care se întâlnesc deşerturile Dasht-e Kavir şi Dasht-e Lut. Oraşuleste uneori numit „mireasa din Kavir", din cauza aşezării sale, în valea dintre Shir Kuh, cel mai înalt munte din regiune (4075metri altitudine) şi Kharaneq.
  11. 11. Until this custom was forbidden in 1970, the Zoroastrians exposed their dead to the birds in "towers of silence“ (dakhmeh).Până când această practică a fost interzisă prin lege în 1970, zoroastrienii expuneau trupurile celor decedaţi în Turnurile Tăcerii(dakhmeh), lăsându-le pradă vulturilor şi soarelui.
  12. 12. There are two towers near Yazd, built in the nineteenth century according to a design from India, where many Zoroastrians live. Atthe terrace at the top, the dead were exposed, and devoured by birds. In this way, neither the earth nor the sacred fire were soiled.Lângă Yazd există încă două turnuri, construite în secolul XIX după planuri din India, unde trăiesc mulţi zoroastrieni. Pe terasasuperioară erau expuse trupurile pentru a fi devorate de păsări iar oasele albite de soare. În acest fel nu erau poluate saupângărite nici pământul nici focul.
  13. 13. Although the towers date back to the nineteenth century, the custom to expose the dead on towers is mentioned in the lateSasanian age. Exposure (without towers) is mentioned even earlier. The Greek researcher Herodotus of Halicarnassus wrotein the fifth century BCE that the bodies of the Magians (who were not necessarily Zoroastrians) were exposed.Deşi aceste turnuri datează din secolul al XIX-lea, obiceiul de a expune morţii în turnurile tăcerii este menţionat încă dinperioada sassanidă târzie. Expunerea (fără turnuri) este certificată chiar mai devreme. Istoricul Herodot din Halicarnas scriela sfârşitul secolului V î.Hr. despre cutuma expunerii cadavrelor
  14. 14. The towers, which are fairly uniform in their construction, have an almostflat roof, with the perimeter being slightly higher than the center.Turnurile, destul de uniforme în construcţia lor, au o platformă aproapeplată, puţin înclinată spre centru, unde este o groapă
  15. 15. The custom to expose the dead on mountain summits still exists in modern Tibet, where it is called an "air burial”Obiceiul de a expune morţii pe culmile munţilor există încă în Tibet unde este numită „înmormântare în aer”
  16. 16. Inside the round walls at the top of the male Tower we found a circular hollow where thebodies were laid out for the birds and the priest would have performed the rituals for thedead. The bodies would always have been laid out on stones so that they didnt directlytouch the earth and contaminate it. They would be placed in a sitting position and the priestwho oversaw the process would watch to see which of the bodies two eyes were pluckedout first - apparently its good luck if the right eye goes before the left. După depunerea mortului în dakhmas, membrii familiei trebuiau să facă o baie şi timp de 3 zile să nu mănânce carne. În ziua a patra se aduceau ofrande şi se făceau rugăciuni, deoarece se credea că sufletul se află în faţa lui Mithra pentru a-i fi puse în balanţă faptele. Nu era îngăduit să se plângă la morţi. Se făceau apoi slujbe de pomenire a sufletului la 10 zile, la 30 şi anual.
  17. 17. At the base of the towers were a covered well and few buildings for the family of the dead to prepareand wash the body and to stay during the mourning periodLa poalele dealului există o fântână acoperită cu dom şi câteva clădiri pentru familia celui decedatpentru pregătirea şi spălarea trupului şi pentru perioada de îndeplinire a ceremonialului
  18. 18. concrete lined graves in the small graveyard near the Towers
  19. 19. The towers have not been used since the 1970s when the citys Muslim rulers decreed that havingbodies left around to be eaten isnt exactly hygienic so today the dead of the Zoroastrian communityin Yazd are buried in concrete lined graves in the small graveyard near the Towers.Turnurile nu au mai fost folosite din anul 1970 când conducerea musulmană a oraşului a decretat cănu este igienic să laşi corpurile să fie devorate aşa că azi morţii comunităţii zoroastrienilor suntîngropaţi în micul cimitir de la poalele colinei în morminte de beton căptuşite
  20. 20. Houses of priests and nasasalarsAt the funeral ceremony, two priests in paiwand, that is, connected to each other by a white strip of cloth, stand three pacesaway from the corpse. The two nasasalars, (corpse-bearers) who sit near the body, are also in paiwand, connected to eachother, by an old kusti held in their hands. This connection is important as the ritual strength of two human beings is deemedto be greater than the pollution and contamination of the demons who are said to surround the body and cause it to putrefy.
  21. 21. Houses of priests and nasasalars
  22. 22. The after-life ceremonies reflect the doctrinal principals of the faith and the laws of purity are strictly adhered to, as any formof impurity is allied to the Evil Spirit. Hence, after the ritual bath is administered to the corpse, no person, except the nasalars(corpse-bearers) are allowed to touch the corpse for reasons of ritual contamination. All the prayers and rituals are gearedand directed to keep at bay the corpse demon, which attacks the body. The body is placed upon three flat stone slabs, for thefuneral ceremony, and a rectangular shallow line of sand is laid around it to cordon it off, ritually from the living attending thefuneral ceremony.
  23. 23. Houses of priests and nasasalarsCasele preoţilor şi a cioclilor (singurii care mai aveauvoie să atingă mortul după ce acesta era spălat şiîmbrăcat în alb)
  24. 24. Houses of priests and nasasalars
  25. 25. The semi-circular brick lined dome, visually much alike a Buddhist stupa, isa Water reservoirs, or ab anbar, as it is locally knownDomul semicircular căptuşit cu cărămidă care pare mai degrabă o stupăbudistă este un rezervoarele de apă (numit ab anbar de localnici)
  26. 26. Zoroastrians believe that the sun, with its life-giving quality, has the powerful effect of destroying pollutants and disintegratingthe flesh. After exposure to the sun and once the vultures have stripped the body of its flesh, the skeletal remains werecollected and placed in stone ossuaries by the early Iranians and later laid within specially erected structuresZoroastrienili au credinţa că soarele, cu puterea lui dătătoare de viaţă, are un puternic efect de distrugere a poluanţilor şi dedezintegrare a cărnii. După expunerea la soare şi după ce vulturii au curăţit trupul de carne, scheletul rămas şi albit de soareera colectat şi introdus în osuare de piatră
  27. 27. DEATH, in Zoroastrianism, is seen as the temporary triumph of the Evil Spirit Ahriman whoseinherent nature, according to the Good Religion, is to cause destruction in the physical world.MOARTEA, în zoroastrism, este văzută ca un triumf temporar a lui Ahriman, duhul cel rău, a căruinatură inerentă, conform Religiei Adevărate, este de a provoca distrugerea în lumea fizică.
  28. 28. Iran Text: Internet Pictures: Sanda Foişoreanu Nicoleta Leu Arangement: Sanda Foişoreanu www.slideshare.net/michaelasandaSound: Zoroastrian music - Sina Vodja

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