http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/michaelasanda-1461057-naqsh-rustam2/
The practice of rock carving as a form of artisticexpression, already known in ancient Persia, found a newand splendid lea...
Naqsh-i Rostam is a precipitouscliff at the south side of the HusainKuh, located north of Persepolis,Iran, with rock relie...
Naqsh-i Rustam, probably the ancient Nupistaš, is situated about five kilometers northwest of Persepolis, the capital of t...
Known locally as the Persian Crosses, these are the tombs of Achaemenid                            monarchs. This realm, a...
Achaemenid Empire around                                                                                               the...
The stairs from the palace of Darius in Persepolis tothe interconnecting terrace belong to the best-preserved part of the ...
Tomb III Darius the Great                                                                   Darius was buried at Naqš-i   ...
I am Darius the great king, king ofkings, king of countries containingall kinds of men, king in this greatearth far and wi...
The central part is very interesting because                        it shows what the columns discovered at,              ...
In the upper register Darius isstanding in front of an altar,praying      to     the      supremeAhuramazda and sacrificin...
Each tomb could contain three tonine     people.     The    laterAchaemenid kings, Artaxerxes IIMnemon, Artaxerxes III Och...
The entrance leads in to a small chamber inwhich the king would be laid in hissarcophagus. To indicate that it was aking’s...
Traces of stone    cutting
Traces of stone cutting
Text : Internet                                                                                  Pictures: Sanda Foişorean...
Iran Naqsh-i Rustam 2 Tomb of king Darius the Great
Iran Naqsh-i Rustam 2 Tomb of king Darius the Great
Iran Naqsh-i Rustam 2 Tomb of king Darius the Great
Iran Naqsh-i Rustam 2 Tomb of king Darius the Great
Iran Naqsh-i Rustam 2 Tomb of king Darius the Great
Iran Naqsh-i Rustam 2 Tomb of king Darius the Great
Iran Naqsh-i Rustam 2 Tomb of king Darius the Great
Iran Naqsh-i Rustam 2 Tomb of king Darius the Great
Iran Naqsh-i Rustam 2 Tomb of king Darius the Great
Iran Naqsh-i Rustam 2 Tomb of king Darius the Great
Iran Naqsh-i Rustam 2 Tomb of king Darius the Great
Iran Naqsh-i Rustam 2 Tomb of king Darius the Great
Iran Naqsh-i Rustam 2 Tomb of king Darius the Great
Iran Naqsh-i Rustam 2 Tomb of king Darius the Great
Iran Naqsh-i Rustam 2 Tomb of king Darius the Great
Iran Naqsh-i Rustam 2 Tomb of king Darius the Great
Iran Naqsh-i Rustam 2 Tomb of king Darius the Great
Iran Naqsh-i Rustam 2 Tomb of king Darius the Great
Iran Naqsh-i Rustam 2 Tomb of king Darius the Great
Iran Naqsh-i Rustam 2 Tomb of king Darius the Great
Iran Naqsh-i Rustam 2 Tomb of king Darius the Great
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Iran Naqsh-i Rustam 2 Tomb of king Darius the Great

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Naqsh-e Rustam, un fel de Vale a Regilor persani, un loc sacru unde sunt înmormântaţi Darius cel Mare şi succesorii săi. Mormintele sunt tăiate în stâncă şi amplasate la înălţime.
Located in Iranian Fars province, near Persepolis, Naqsh-e Rostam, a tentative candidate for UNESCO World Heritage status, contains four tombs belonging to Achaemenid kings which were carved out of the rock. An ensemble of historic, religious and artistic works from the Achaemenian and Sasanian periods located within a small perimeter near the monuments of Persepolis near the Polvar river. Naqsh-e Rustam, at the foot of Mt.Hosain, where Elamite remains are to be found, an important funerary ensemble of Achaemenian kings, particularly the graves of Darius I and Xerxes, exists. Their facades bear Achaemenian bas-reliefs and 6 important bas-reliefs from the first half of the Sasanian period are visible below them.

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  • The Royal Tombs and Other Monuments About 4.8 kilometers northwest of Persepolis lies the imposing site of Naqsh-i-Rustam in the mountain range of Husain Kuh, where Darius the Great and his successors had their monumental tombs carved into the cliff. Here in 1933 Herzfeld conducted a short survey and made soundings, but it was not until 1936 that Schmidt started to clear and document the royal tombs and to excavate the Ka'bah-i-Zardusht.
  • Only the tomb of Darius I can be identified beyond doubt by inscriptions. The three other tombs at Naqsh-i Rustam are attributed to his immediate successors, Xerxes, Artaxerxes I, and Darius II. Other royal tombs of similar form, thought to be those of the later Achaemenids, were built at Persepolis itself, cut into the rock face of the Kuh-i Rahmat, overlooking the Terrace. The two complete tombs are assigned to Artaxerxes II and Artaxerxes III; an incomplete tomb was perhaps meant for the last Achaemenid king, Darius III. About 2 km south of Naqsh-i Rustam, on the south bank of the river Pulvar, are the remains of an unfinished freestanding structure, perhaps the base of a tomb intended for Cambyses II, modeled on the imposing tomb of his father, Cyrus the Great, at Pasargadae, up the Pulvar 43 km northeast of Persepolis.
  • Upper inscription (DNa) A great god is Ahuramazda , who created this earth, who created yonder sky, who created man, who created happiness for man, who made Darius king, one king of many, one lord of many. Darius' tomb I am Darius the great king, king of kings, king of countries containing all kinds of men, king in this great earth far and wide, son of Hystaspes , an Achaemenid , a Persian, son of a Persian, an Aryan , having Aryan lineage. King Darius says: By the favor of Ahuramazda these are the countries which I seized outside of Persia; I ruled over them; they bore tribute to me; they did what was said to them by me; they held my law firmly; Media , Elam, Parthia , Aria , Bactria , Sogdia, Chorasmia , Drangiana , Arachosia , Sattagydia , Gandara , India, the haoma-drinking Scythians , the Scythians with pointed caps , Babylonia , Assyria , Arabia , Egypt, Armenia , Cappadocia , Lydia , the Greeks , the Scythians across the sea , Thrace, the sun hat-wearing Greeks, the Libyans, the Nubians, the men of Maka and the Carians .
  • King Darius says: Ahuramazda, when he saw this earth in commotion, thereafter bestowed it upon me, made me king; I am king. By the favor of Ahuramazda I put it down in its place; what I said to them, that they did, as was my desire. If now you shall think that "How many are the countries which King Darius held?" look at the sculptures [of those] who bear the throne, then shall you know, then shall it become known to you: the spear of a Persian man has gone forth far; then shall it become known to you: a Persian man has delivered battle far indeed from Persia. Darius the King says: This which has been done, all that by the will of Ahuramazda I did. Ahuramazda bore me aid, until I did the work. May Ahuramazda protect me from harm, and my royal house, and this land: this I pray of Ahuramazda, this may Ahuramazda give to me! O man, that which is the command of Ahuramazda, let this not seem repugnant to you; do not leave the right path; do not rise in rebellion!
  • Lower inscription (DNb) A great god is Ahuramazda, who created this excellent thing which is seen, who created happiness for man, who set wisdom and capability down upon King Darius. King Darius says: By the grace of Ahuramazda I am of such a sort, I am a friend of the right, of wrong I am not a friend. It is not my wish that the weak should have harm done him by the strong, nor is it my wish that the strong should have harm done him by the weak. The right, that is my desire. To the man who is a follower of the lie I am no friend. I am not hot-tempered. What things develop in my anger, I hold firmly under control by my thinking power. I am firmly ruling over my own impulses. The man who is cooperative, according to his cooperation thus I reward him. Who does harm, him according to the harm I punish. It is not my wish that a man should do harm; nor indeed is it my wish that if he does harm he should not be punished.
  • What a man says against a man, that does not convince me, until I hear the sworn statements of both.  What a man does or performs, according to his ability, by that I become satisfied with him, and it is much to my desire, and I am well pleased, and I give much to loyal men. Of such a sort are my understanding and my judgment: if what has been done by me you see or hear of, both in in the palace and in the expeditionary camp, this is my capability over will and understanding. This indeed my capability: that my body is strong. As a fighter of battles I am a good fighter of battles. When ever with my judgment in a place I determine whether I behold or do not behold an enemy, both with understanding and with judgment, then I think prior to panic, when I see an enemy as when I do not see one. I am skilled both in hands and in feet. As a horseman, I am a good horseman. As a bowman, I am a good bowman, both on foot and on horseback. As a spearman, I am a good spearman, both on foot and on horseback.
  • These skills that Ahuramazda set down upon me, and which I am strong enough to bear, by the will of Ahuramazda, what was done by me, with these skills I did, which Ahuramazda set down upon me. O man, vigorously make you known of what sort I am, and of what sort my skillfulnesses, and of what sort my superiority. Let not that seem false to you, which has been heard by your ears. Listen to what is said to you.  O man, let that not be made to seem false to you, which has been done by me. That do you behold, which has been inscribed. Let not the laws be disobeyed by you. Let not anyone be untrained in obedience. [The last line is unintelligible]
  • Iran Naqsh-i Rustam 2 Tomb of king Darius the Great

    1. 1. http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/michaelasanda-1461057-naqsh-rustam2/
    2. 2. The practice of rock carving as a form of artisticexpression, already known in ancient Persia, found a newand splendid lease of life during the Sassanid period.These carvings are notable not only for their great numberbut also for their enormous dimensions and compositionalexcellence.Basoreliefurile sculptate în stâncă, formă majoră deexprimare artistică practicată în Persia antică, a cunoscutîn perioada Sasanidă o înflorire deosebită. Acestesculpturi sunt notabile, nu numai datorită numărului mare,dar, de asemenea, pentru dimensiunile lor de-a dreptulenorme şi pentru excelenta realizare şi compoziţie
    3. 3. Naqsh-i Rostam is a precipitouscliff at the south side of the HusainKuh, located north of Persepolis,Iran, with rock reliefs ranging fromElamite (second millennium BCE)to Sasanian times (fifth centuryCE). Surrounding it are other rockinstallations and someAchaemenid and Sasanianarchitecture, most of which liesunder several meters of debrisand has not yet been excavated.Naqsh-i Rostam este o stâncăabruptă situată în partea de sud amunţilor Kuh Husain, la nord dePersepolis. Aici se găsescbasoreliefuri Elamite săpate înstâncă (mileniul II î.Hr.), morminteahemenide şi reliefuri Sasanide(secolul V d.Hr). Există şi altebasoreliefuri în împrejurimi precumşi unele construcţii ahemenide şisasanide la o adâncime de câţivametri în pământ, care nu au fostîncă scoase la lumină.
    4. 4. Naqsh-i Rustam, probably the ancient Nupistaš, is situated about five kilometers northwest of Persepolis, the capital of the ancient Achaemenid empire. As is shown by a pre-Achaemenid relief and several old graves, Naqsh-i Rustam was already a place of some importance when king Darius I the Great (522-486) ordered his monumental tomb to be carved into the cliff, which is known as the Huseyn Kuh. High above the ground there are four crosses carved in to the sheer rock face.Naqsh-i Rustam, probabil vechiul Nupistash, este situat la aproximativ cinci kilometrinord-vest de Persepolis, capitala imperiului antic ahemenid. După cum indică unbasorelief pre-ahemenid, Naqsh-i Rustam era deja un loc de o anumită importanţăatunci când regele Darius I cel Mare (522-486) a ordonat să-i fie sculptat în stâncanumită azi Kuh Husein mormântul monumental.Mult deasupra solului, există patru „cruci” sculptate în faţa stâncii.
    5. 5. Known locally as the Persian Crosses, these are the tombs of Achaemenid monarchs. This realm, also known as the Persian Empire, persisted until the third century BCE and its rulers included names we still recognize today, such as Cyrus, Xerxes and Darius (all referred to as The Great). At the center of each of the crosses the entrance to each of the tombs is still visible. Cunoscute pe plan local drept crucile persane, acestea sunt mormintele regilor ahemenizi. Acest Imperiu, cunoscut sub numele de Imperiul Persan a rezistat până în secolul III î.Hr când a fost cucerit de Alexandru cel Mare, devenind o parte a lumii elenistice. Printre conducătorii săi se numără nume pe care le recunoaştem şi astăzi, cum ar fi Cyrus, Xerxes sau Darius (toate denumite în continuare „cel Mare”). În centrul fiecărei cruci se vede intrarea în fiecare dintre morminte.Tomb III (Darius 522-486)
    6. 6. Achaemenid Empire around the time of Darius the Great and Xerxes Darius I king of ancient Persia, whose reign lasted from 522 to 486. He seized power after killing king Gaumâta, fought a civil war (described in the Behistun inscription), and was finally able to refound the Achaemenid empire, which had been very loosely organized until then. Darius fought several foreign wars, which brought him to India and Thrace. When he died, the Persian empire had reached its largest extent. He was succeeded by his son Xerxes. Darius I, regele Persiei antice, a cărui domnie a durat de la 522 la 486, a preluat puterea după uciderea regelui Gaumâta, a luptat într-un război civil (descris în inscripţia de la Bisotun), şi apoi a reorganizat administraţia regatului (foarte slab organizat înainte) şi a extins sistemul de satrapii. Întregul regat va fi împărţit în 20 de satrapii, a construit drumuri, a schimbat moneda de circulaţie, introducând una nouă - dareicul, a încurajat comerţul şi a mutat capitala la Persepolis. Darius a luptat în mai multe războaie, care l-au adus până în India sau Tracia dar cele două expediţii ale lui Darius care au vizat cucerirea Greciei din 492 şi 490 î.Hr. s-au încheiat cu un eşec. Când a murit, imperiul persan atinsese expansiunea maximă. ElDarius I of Persia, also known as Darius the Great, a fost succedat de fiul său, Xerxes.the one who established the Persian Empire
    7. 7. The stairs from the palace of Darius in Persepolis tothe interconnecting terrace belong to the best-preserved part of the complex. The central part ofthese stairs show Ahuramazda (not Faravahar, as isoften claimed), flanked by two sphinxes, aninscription and several soldiers, which aresometimes called "apple bearers" or Immortals.
    8. 8. Tomb III Darius the Great Darius was buried at Naqš-i Tomb III. Darius I Rustam. A double inscription on his tomb begin as follows: A great god is Ahuramazda, who created this earth, who created yonder sky, who created man, Tomb II. Artaxerxes I? who created happiness for man, who made Darius king, one king of many, one lord of many.Tomb I. Darius II? Mormântul III Darius cel Mare Darius a fost înmormântat la Naqsh-i Rustam. O inscripţie dublă pe mormântul lui începe, după cum urmează: Mare zeu este Ahuramazda, cel care a creat acest pământ, care a creat cerul minunat, care l-a creat pe om, care a creat fericirea pentru om, care l-a făcut pe Darius rege, un rege dintre cei mulţi, un domnitor dintre cei mulţi. ( Ahuramazda este considerat fondatorul Persiei, fiind socotit părintele luminii)
    9. 9. I am Darius the great king, king ofkings, king of countries containingall kinds of men, king in this greatearth far and wide, son ofHystaspes, an Achaemenid, aPersian, son of a Persian, anAryan, having Aryan lineage.King Darius says: By the favor ofAhuramazda these are thecountries which I seized outside ofPersia; I ruled over them; they boretribute to me; they did what wassaid to them by me; they held mylaw firmly; Media, Elam, Parthia,Aria, Bactria, Sogdia, Chorasmia,Drangiana, Arachosia, Sattagydia,Gandara, India, the haoma-drinkingScythians, the Scythians withpointed caps, Babylonia, Assyria,Arabia, Egypt, Armenia,Cappadocia, Lydia, the Greeks, theScythians across the sea, Thrace,the sun hat-wearing Greeks, theLibyans, the Nubians, the men ofMaka and the Carians.
    10. 10. The central part is very interesting because it shows what the columns discovered at, for instance, the Apadana of Persepolis must have looked like. Representations like these have helped archaeologists to reconstruct the façades of Achaemenid palaces. Partea centrală este foarte interesantă pentru că arată cum trebuie să fi fost coloanele de la Apadana din Persepolis. Reprezentări asemănătoare acestora au ajutat arheologii să reconstituie faţadele palatelor ahemenide.The lower inscription
    11. 11. In the upper register Darius isstanding in front of an altar,praying to the supremeAhuramazda and sacrificing tothe holy fire. In his right hand, theking has his bow, the royalattribute par excellence. Again,the plaform is carried by peoplethat represent the subject nations.În registrul superior Darius este înpicioare în faţa unui altar,rugându-se zeului supremAhuramazda şi aducând jertfefocului sacru. În mâna dreaptăare arcul, atribut regal prinexcelenţă. Plaforma pe care seaflă regele este purtată pe umeriioamenilor care reprezintăpopoarele supuse.
    12. 12. Each tomb could contain three tonine people. The laterAchaemenid kings, Artaxerxes IIMnemon, Artaxerxes III Ochusand Darius III Codomannus wereprobably buried in tombs atPersepolis.Archaeologists are almost certainthat the tombs were closed afterthe burial. After Alexander theGreat had overthrown theAchaemenid empire, the doorswere smashed and the tombswere looted.În fiecare mormânt s-au aflat trei,până la nouă persoane. Regiiahemenizi de mai târziu,Artaxerxes II Mnemon, ArtaxerxeIII Ochus şi Darius al III-leaCodomannus au fost probabilîngropaţi în mormintele de laPersepolis.Arheologii sunt aproape siguri căintrările în morminte au fost ziditedupă înmormântare.După ce Alexandru cel Mare acucerit imperiul ahemenid, uşilezidite au fost sparte, iarmormintele au fost jefuite.
    13. 13. The entrance leads in to a small chamber inwhich the king would be laid in hissarcophagus. To indicate that it was aking’s tomb, the horizontal arch at the top ofthe relief is thought to be a reproduction ofthe one which lay above the entrance to thepalace located in Persepolis. Yet thetombs are empty now – and have been fora considerable time. When the PersianEmpire was defeated by Alexander theGreat they were desecrated and theirprecious contents stolen. Perhaps theywere too obvious a target to remainunspoiled for long.Intrarea conduce la o încăpere mică undese afla sarcofagul regelui. În parteasuperioară a basoreliefului este un arcorizontal (considerat a fi o reproducere acelui aflat la intrarea în palatul dinPersepolis) care indică faptul că este vorbade un mormânt regal. În prezentmormintele sunt goale şi au fost aşa operioadă considerabilă de timp. Atunci cândImperiul Persan a fost cucerit de cătreAlexandru cel Mare ele au fost profanate şiconţinutul lor preţios jefuit. Poate au fost unobiectiv prea evident pentru a rămâneintact
    14. 14. Traces of stone cutting
    15. 15. Traces of stone cutting
    16. 16. Text : Internet Pictures: Sanda Foişoreanu Nicoleta Leu Internet Copyright: All the images belong to their authors Arangement: Sanda Foişoreanu www.slideshare.net/michaelasandaSound: Shahmirza Moradi & Reza Moradi - The Music Of Lorestan - Sangin Se Paa

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