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Gonbad Soltaniyeh is in Zanjan province in IRAN, the oldest & Greatest brick double-shell dome in the world. UNESCO listed Soltaniyeh as one of the World Heritage Sites in 2005.
Soltaniyeh was founded as capital of Ilkhanid rulers of Persia in the 14th century. The structure of Dome of Soltaniyeh as The mausoleum of Oljaytu, erected from 1302 until 1312. After the death of Oljaytu, city abounded & it was end point of capital of Ilkhanid empire in 1316. Timur invaded & plundered city & no one left alive in city in 1384. Miran Shah the mad son of Timur later ordered to destroy & level what remind after his father invasion, just the Dome of Soltaniyeh left. Soltaniyeh was command base of Iranian army during the Russo-Persian War in the 19th century.
Soltanieh Dome lies south west of the Cohan Dej (Royal citadel). It was constructed during the reign of Sultan Mohammad Khoda Bandeh (Oljaito) in the years 704-712 AH. (1304-1312). This structure has 8 elevated porticoes and about 50 chambers, including an area which is also similar to a chamber. The dome of this construction weighs 200 tons and is situated on pillars, bearing an area of 50 sq.m. each if separated or cut across. This structure is made of a mixture of gypsum and to a lesser proportion limestone. Gonbad Soltanieh is erected in three floors which are defined as follows. The ground floor consists of the eight portions. The first floor comprises of the halls which run throughout this floor.
On the third floor is the foundation column of the dome and the octagonal pillars supporting the minarets. The entrance to the cellar is from the southern portico. The layout or plan of this cellar is a complex one, consisting of 7 segregated sections, each part independent of the other. The principle factors regarding the artistic effects revealed in Gonbad Soltanieh are the inlayed brick-work, plaster moldings, engravings and tile works. All these together create harmony that is worth appreciation and artistic value. For example, the spectacular engraving here that stands 360 cm. high in which a verse from the Holy Qoran (Sureh Fath) has been inscribed in the beautiful script of 'tholth'. On the upper or second floor of this structure engravings can also be observed, one of these inscribed with the (Ayeh 125 Sureh Mobarakeh Baqareh) from the Holy Qoran inscribed in the &quot;Kufic' script.
Soltanieh is seventh Iranian site in the UNESCO List of World Heritage &quot;Soltanieh is the symbol of one the most glorious periods of Iranian history,&quot; added Jalali, &quot;and its registration on the world heritage list confirmed its international stance.&quot; Soltanieh dome with an elevation exceeding 54 meters is one of most wonderful pieces of architecture of &quot;Ilkhanid&quot; (a Mongol dynasty ruled over Iran) era. Construction of this ancient monument which is located 30 kilometers from Zanjan, a province capital in west of Iran, dates back to 700 years ago. This dome with its octagonal base, exquisite tile work, and magnificent architecture is one of the most unique examples of Islamic architecture. Soltanieh is the most important example of Ilkhanid architecture, which evidently influenced the architecture of lots of other historical constructions in Iran,&quot; said Seied Mohammad Beheshti, the deputy of Iran Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization Research Centre, &quot;this dome is the biggest in the world which is made of brick and regarding its elevation it is the third highest of the kind in the world.&quot;
Soltanieh dome is the seventh Iranian site which is registered in the list of World Heritage after Naqsh'e Jahan square, Perspolis, Tchogha Zanbil zigorat (a common form of multi-tier temple in ancient Elam), Takht'e Soleiman, Pasargadae, and Arg'e Bam (Bam citadel). Soltaniyeh (Persian: سلطانيه ) situated in the Zanjan Province of Iran, some 240 km to the north-west from Tehran, used to be the capital of Ilkhanid rulers of Persia in the 14th century. Its name translates as &quot;the Imperial&quot;. In 2005, UNESCO listed Soltaniyeh as one of the World Heritage Sites.
The central magnet of Soltaniyeh's several ruins is the Mausoleum of Il-khan Öljeitü (Persian اولجايتو ), traditionally known as the Dome of Soltaniyeh. The structure, erected from 1302 until 1312, boasts the oldest double-shell dome in the world. Its importance in the Muslim world may be compared to that of Brunelleschi's cupola for the Christian architecture. The Dome of Soltaniyeh paved the way for more daring Iranian-style cupola constructions in muslim world, such as the Mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasavi and Taj Mahal. Much of exterior decoration has been lost, but the interior retains superb mosaics, faience, and murals. Pope have described the building as &quot;anticipating the Taj Mahal.&quot; The estimated 200 ton dome stands 49 meters (161 ft) tall from its base, and is currently undergoing extensive renovation.
Domul de la Soltaniyeh, monument cunoscut si sub numele de Mausoleul lui Oljaitu (Sultanieh, fosta capitala a dinastiei Ilkhanide intemeiata de Khulagu Khan (Hulagu Han), cel care a fost nepotul lui Ginghis Han si fratele lui Kubilai Han). A fost construit in perioada 1302-1312 din porunca sultanului Oljaitu Mohammad Khodabandeh. Acest dom e considerat bijuteria arhitectonica a perioadei Ilkhanide si perla capitalei acestei dinastii de origine mongola. Peretii plini de scrijelituri lasate de asa zisii turisti , faceau sa ti se stringa inima de mila.
Soltaniyeh situated in theZanjan Province of Iran,some 240 km to the north-west from Tehran, used tobe the capital of Ilkhanidrulers of Persia in the 14thcentury. Its name translatesas "the Imperial".In 2005, UNESCO listedSoltaniyeh as one of theWorld Heritage Sites.Domul de la Soltanieh,monument cunoscut şi subnumele de Mausoleul luiOljaitu (Sultanieh, fostacapitală a dinastiei Ilkhanideîntemeiată de Khulagu Khan,cel care a fost nepotul luiGinghis Han şi fratele luiKubilai Han), a fost construitin perioada 1302-1312 dinporunca sultanului OljaituMohammad Khodabandeh.Acest dom e consideratbijuteria arhitectonică aperioadei Ilkhanide şi perlacapitalei acestei dinastii deorigine mongolă.Monument UNESCO
The central magnet of Soltaniyehs severalruins is the Mausoleum of Il-khan Öljeitu,traditionally known as the Dome ofSoltaniyeh.The structure, erected from 1302 until 1312,boasts the oldest double-shell dome in theworld. Its importance in the Muslim worldmay be compared to that of Brunelleschiscupola for the Christian architecture. TheDome of Soltaniyeh paved the way for moredaring Iranian-style cupola constructions inmuslim world. The greatest survivingIlkhanate building, its thought to have beenthe inspiration for Brunelleschis dome inFlorence.Domul are o structură octogonală, o înălţimede 50 m şi este făcut din pereţi dubli (peretecu membrană dublă). Aceşti pereţi dublireprezintă o inovaţie a perioadei Ilkhanide.Într-un studiu argumentat, Piero Sanpaolesidemonstrează faptul că Bruneleschi s-ainspirat din schiţele Domului de la Soltaniyeh(Gonbad-e Soltaniyeh), schiţe ce, după toateprobabilităţile, au ajuns în Europa aduse denegustorii genovezi, veneţieni sau arabi ceau vizitat capitala dinastiei Ilkhanide pevremea când Oljaitu era sultan, sau imediatdupă aceea.
The power vacuum left behind when the ruler ShahMohammad Reza Pahlavi fled the country in 1979 pavedthe way for Ayatollah Khomeinis Islamic Revolution.Khomeini made himself the Supreme Leader, and hispower was further consolidated by the Iran-Iraq (1980-88)war, started by Iraq. After his death the senior clerics chosethe current Supreme Leader, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei.Besides being the Supreme Leader he also belongs to theconservative faction of the Iranian leadership, trying tohead the country firmly back to the dark ages.Poza lor o poţi vedea aproape peste tot prin Iran. Chiar şiaici pe schelele din Dom: Ayatolahul Khomeini, liderulsuprem spiritual al Iranului şi urmaşul acestuia, AyatollahulAli Khamenei
Iran has gotten a bad reputation over last 25years, mainly due to its conservative rulingclerics. First-time visitors to Iran are in for abig surprise! The bruteness of the regime is instark contrast to its friendly population.Persian hospitality is second to none.
Iran Text : Internet Pictures: Sanda Foişoreanu Nicoleta Leu Arangement: Sanda FoişoreanuSound: Siavash Nazeri - Gahe Bi Gah - An Yar www.slideshare.net/michaelasanda