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Mandalay is the second-largest city and the last royal capital of Burma. When it was founded in 1857, the royal city was officially named Yadanabon, the Burmese version of "(city) full of gems". Mandalay is Burma's cultural and religious center of Buddhism, having numerous monasteries and more than 700 pagodas.
"Mandalay" is a famous poem by Rudyard Kipling that was first published in the collection Barrack-Room Ballads, and Other Verses, the first series, published in 1892. The poem colourfully illustrates the nostalgia and longing of a soldier of the British Empire for Asia's exoticism and generally for the countries and cultures located "East of Suez", as compared to the cold, damp and foggy climates and to the social disciplines and conventions of the UK and Northern Europe. Kipling's text was adapted for the song "On the Road to Mandalay" by Oley Speaks (among others). The song was popularised by Peter Dawson. It appears in the album Come Fly with Me by Frank Sinatra.