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Italia Paestum3 Archaeological museum


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Paestum is a unique archaeological site, not just due to the presence of the three exceptionally well-preserved temples, but also due to the historical landscape in which it is situated. With its three magnificent large Doric temples, Paestum became a well-known site thanks to the 18th century engravings by Piranesi and Goethe’s impressive descriptions in his Italian Journey. However Paestum is also renowned for its tombs decorated with painted scenes

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Italia Paestum3 Archaeological museum

  1. 1. Founded by Ancient Greeks, the site hosts three amazing ancient Greek temples There is also a splendid National Museum at Paestum, with many of the fine objects found in the neighborhood. However Paestum is also renowned for its tombs deco-rated with painted scenes, for the vase painters and also  for its red roses 
  2. 2. Paestum was a major ancient Greek city on the coast of the Tyrrhenian Sea in Magna Graecia. After its foundation by Greek colonists under the name of Poseidonia it was eventually conquered by the local Lucanians and later the Romans. The Lucanians renamed it to Paistos and the Romans gave the city its current name.  It was abandoned in the Early Middle Ages, and left undisturbed and largely forgotten until the eighteenth century. Paestum is a trove of innumerable archaeological finds and decorative artifacts – many of which can be viewed inside the National Archaeological Museum. UNESCO World Heritage site since 1998 380-370 BC
  3. 3. 380-370 BC, Tomb 102 Andriuolo, Paestum ©Dave & Margie Hill
  4. 4. Necropoli eneolitica del Gaudo (metà IV- metà III millenio aC)
  5. 5. Necropoli del Arenosola. Età del Ferro (seconda metà VIII secolo aC)
  6. 6. Tomb 33, pit (End of 6th C BC). Necropolis of Contrada Santa Venera
  7. 7. The reconstruction of the Sele treasury frieze seen from the first floor viewing platform Concurrently with the foundation of the city of Poseidonia, the Greek colonists created a series of sanctuaries in the countryside under their control. The most important temple was situated 9km north od Paestum at the mouth of the River Sele which marl ed the border between the teritory of Poseidonia and the territory of the Etruscan-Campanian city of Pontecagnano. The temple, which was located in a marshy area near to the harbour, was dedicated to the goddess Hera, wife of Zeus
  8. 8. A few kilometres from Paestum there was a temple complex at the mouth of the Sele river (Foce del Sele) dedicated to Hera. The temple is now all but destroyed, and little remains of several other buildings. About 70 of the sixth-century BC Archaic metope relief panels on the temple and another building at the site were recovered, however. The frize arranged in sculpted panels (“metopes”) with tripartite elements that separate them (“triglyphs”)
  9. 9. Seletemplefrieze-Metopereliefs,c.510BC
  10. 10. Heracles and the Cercopes Mid-6th century B.C
  11. 11. Heracles kills Alcyoneus
  12. 12. Orestes kills Aegisthus Mid-6th century B.C
  13. 13. Sele sculpted panel (“metope”) ©Dave & Margie Hill
  14. 14. Punishment of Sisyphus Metope from the temple of Hera at the mouth of the river Sele
  15. 15. The temple lay at the mouth of the River Sele – it is often known as being at the ‘Foce del Sele’ but unlike the three temples at Paestum itself, it was destroyed in the Middle Ages and was only rediscovered in the 1930s. However unlike the three well-known temples at Paestum, it was richly adorned with carvings: perhaps surprisingly, the temples at Paestum were all very plain, without any carvings Hera with a patera in her right hand and a pomegranate in the left (Sele)
  16. 16. Temple of Hera Heraion of the Sele (510 BC) ©Dave & Margie Hill
  17. 17. Southern Sanctuary Temple of Hera (2nd half of the 6th C BC)
  18. 18. Reconstruction of raking sima, from the façade of the temple of Hera I
  19. 19. Wedding Vase
  20. 20. Wedding Vase, in Tomb 69 of Lucinella (detail) ©Dave & Margie Hill
  21. 21. Statue of Zeus
  22. 22. Pelike from S Venera cemetery (storage jar). The main figure to the right is Dionysus, the God of wine, holding a drinking cup in his hand and with wine tendrels growing from his hair and looking decidedly squiffy
  23. 23. Neck-amphoradepictingthebirthofAphrodite,inTomb69ofLucinella. ©Dave&MargieHill TheabductionofEuropeGreek-redfiguredcalyxcrater Asteasc340BC
  24. 24. The abduction of Europe Greek-red figured calyx crater Asteas c 340 BC (detail) ©Egisto Sani
  25. 25. Veiled female clay figurines standing ©Dave & Margie Hill
  26. 26. Museum joke: Two ladies, in a state of déshabillé,  don’t quite know what to do with a laptop computer that is falling into their hands from heaven
  27. 27. Amphora from Athens which could be dated to between 520 and 500 BC
  28. 28. The bronze urns on display in the museum
  29. 29. Hydria,orwaterstoragejar fromthefounder’stombatPaestum Lion’sheadhandletooneoftheurns
  30. 30. Detail of the handle of one of the urns
  31. 31. A mounted Lucani warrior, fresco from a tomb c. 360 BC Sometime around 400 BC, Paestum or rather Poseidonia,  was conquered by the Lucanians.  The Lucanians  were one of the Samnite peoples who occupied much of  central Italy and were the greatest rivals to Rome. In the fourth century they were expanding and their expansion led them to conquer Poseidonia, though the exact date of this is unknown. Paestum remained Lucanian until 273 BC when it was conquered by Romans and became a Roman colony. Although Poseidonia now became Lucanian,  and the language spoken was Oscan rather than Greek, Greek culture continued to survive and even flourish with a lively vase painting industry in Paestum itself, with the vase  painters painting  vases in the Greek fashion and signing  their names in Greek. There are few architectural remains of the Lucanians within the city, but nevertheless occupation flourished in the countryside where the number of settlements increases significantly.
  32. 32. A mounted Lucani warrior, fresco from a tomb c. 360 BC © Carole Raddato The Lucanian period is best known from the considerable number of tombs that are found in the surrounding area often with elaborate wall paintings.
  33. 33. General view of one of the graves as reconstructed showing how it was laid out with the  walls painted in the interior
  34. 34. General view of the gallery containing the Lucanian wall paintings
  35. 35. Fresco from the Tomb of the Black Rider Lucanian period Paestum ©Dave & Margie Hill
  36. 36. Not all the tombs were of men:  this one was of a woman and here we see two women mourners at the end of the tomb Tomb of a warrior (IVth century BC) Lucanian wall paintings
  37. 37. © Jane Drumsara
  38. 38. Lucanianfrescotomb,340330BC
  39. 39. Lucanian fresco tomb painting depicting a quadriga, 340-330 BC
  40. 40. Tomb walls, Paestum ©Dave & Margie Hill
  41. 41. Tomb wall decorated with two Griffin and a panther ©Egisto Sani
  42. 42. The Tomb of the Diver (480/70 BC) is the only evidence for large-scale Greek painting, other than on vases prior to the fourth century BC
  43. 43. The Tomb of the Diver is also unique in terms of the theme portrayed on it: a naked young man dives into the ocean, a visual metaphor for the transition from life to death
  44. 44. The scene of the diver, who has given his name to the tomb, can be found on the inner side of the lid, directly facing the deceased
  45. 45. While the Greeks traditionally had an extremely negative view of the afterlife, new ideas spread during the fifth century BC, based on the hope of some sort of survival after death. In the wake of this tradition, Plato would subsequently define death as the “liberation of the soul”, thus anticipating later religious beliefs  
  46. 46. The tomb was found 2km south of Paestum inside a small cemetery dating to the sixth-fifth centuries BC
  47. 47. After the funeral, which was held in about 475 BC, the frescoes remained in darkness for almost two and a half millennia until their discovery in 1968
  48. 48. The walls of the box tomb, made of travertine slabs, are decorated with scenes of a symposium (banquet)
  49. 49. Sound: Petros Tabouris - Music of Greek Antiquity: Maktrismos; Epitaph of Seikilos; Lyra Text: Internet Pictures: Internet Sanda Foişoreanu All  copyrights  belong to their  respective owners Presentation: Sanda Foişoreanu 2018