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Indonesia Java2 Borobudur1

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YOU CAN WATCH THIS PRESENTATION IN MUSIC HERE:
http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/michaelasanda-3813769-indonesia-java2-SEE ALSO PLEASE: borobudur1/
YOU CAN DOWNLOAD THIS PRESENTATION as PPSX HERE:
https://ma-planete.com/pps/websiteview/catid_44/id_506157/title_Indonesia-Java2-Borobudur1/

SEE ALSO PLEASE:
https://www.slideshare.net/michaelasanda/indonesia-java4-borobudur3
https://www.slideshare.net/michaelasanda/indonesia-java3-borobudur2
https://www.slideshare.net/michaelasanda/indonesia-java1-mendut-pawon-temples


The Borobudur sanctuary is one of the jewels of the world cultural heritage. A vast Mahayana Buddhist monument in the form of a pyramid-shaped mandala, it was built in the heart of Java around 800 AD by the Sailendra dynasty and abandoned shortly after completion. It covers an area of almost one and a half hectares, with a central dome almost 35 metres above the base. It was built in three tiers: a pyramidal base with five concentric square terraces, then three circular platforms of 72 openwork stupas and, at the top, a monumental stupa. The walls and balustrades are decorated with approximately 2,670 individual bas reliefs and 432 statues of Buddha. Rediscovered in 1814, the site was cleared of rubble and vegetation, but since then was battered by earthquakes, the elements and the encroaching jungle.
UNESCO launched an international campaign for its restoration in 1972. Completed in 1983, the project, in which 27 countries took part, was the most important of its kind since the Nubian monuments campaign. Borobudur was inscribed on the World Heritage List in 1991.
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  • Thank you for the tour Michaela.
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  • Borobudur, aceasta imensa concretizare a viziunii abstracte a Universului, ma poate gazdui cat timp vei face inconjurul lumii! Fatadele si balustradele superpopulate prind viata prin basoreliefurile care, slefuite de Cronos, poarta patina timpului cu fala. Protejata de Kala- Makara, voi avea timp sa descifrez in liniste diversitatea de Mudre, in timp ce tu vei fi cucerita de cultura iberica. Te voi astepta la divina umbra a lui Kalpataru!
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  • YOU CAN WATCH THIS PRESENTATION IN MUSIC HERE: http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/michaelasanda-3813769-indonesia-java2-borobudur1/ YOU CAN DOWNLOAD THIS PRESENTATION as PPSX HERE: https://ma-planete.com/pps/websiteview/catid_44/id_506157/title_Indonesia-Java2-Borobudur1/
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Indonesia Java2 Borobudur1

  1. 1. The Borobudur Temple Compounds is one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world, and was built in the 8th and 9th centuries AD during the reign of the Syailendra Dynasty. The monument located in the Kedu Valley, in the southern part of Central Java, Indonesia, is considered as one of the Seven Wonders of the World
  2. 2. The Borobudur sanctuary is one of the jewels of the world cultural heritage. A vast Mahayana Buddhist monument in the form of a pyramid-shaped mandala, covers an area of almost one and a half hectares, with a central dome almost 35 metres above the base. It was built in three tiers: a pyramidal base with five concentric square terraces, then three circular platforms of 72 openwork stupas and, at the top, a monumental stupa
  3. 3. The main temple is a stupa built in three tiers around a hill which was a natural centre: a pyramidal base with five concentric square terraces, the trunk of a cone with three circular platforms and, at the top, a monumental stupa The vertical division of Borobudur Temple into base, body, and superstructure perfectly accords with the conception of the Universe in Buddhist cosmology. It is believed that the universe is divided into three superimposing spheres, kamadhatu, rupadhatu, and arupadhatu, representing respectively the sphere of desires where we are bound to our desires, the sphere of forms where we abandon our desires but are still bound to name and form, and the sphere of formlessness where there is no longer either name or form
  4. 4. Ruellia simplex (Mexican petunia)
  5. 5. The original base was decorated with 160 relief panels depicting the law of cause and effect (karma); unable to support the rest of the building, this collapsed during construction and was replaced by a more substantial platform that covered the original reliefs. Four of the original karma panels have been re-exposed at the southeast corner
  6. 6. The temple was used as a Buddhist temple from its construction until sometime between the 10th and 15th centuries when it was abandoned. Since its re-discovery in the 19th century and restoration in the 20th century, it has been brought back into a Buddhist archaeological site
  7. 7. The original materials were used to reconstruct the temple in two phases in the 20th century: after the turn of the century and more recently (1973-1983)
  8. 8. Mostly original materials were used with some additions to consolidate the monument and ensure proper drainage which has not had any significant adverse impact on the value of the property
  9. 9. Though the present state of Borobudur Temple is the result of restorations, it retained more than enough original material when re- discovered to make a reconstruction possible.
  10. 10. The facade of the building is decorated with carvings that include makaras, guardian figures, and 432 Buddha statues (108 on each side) that are set into niches
  11. 11. Headless Buddha statue, since its discovery numbers of Buddha's head has been stolen and ended up in museums abroad. Some of these Buddha heads are now displayed in numbers of museums, such as the Tropenmuseum in Amsterdam, Musée Guimet in Paris, and The British Museum in London
  12. 12. The buddhas on the lower four levels of each side display a characteristic directional mudra: bhumisparsa on the east, varada on the south, dhyana on the west, and abhaya on the north
  13. 13. Bhumisparsa mudra (calling the earth to witness) on the east side
  14. 14. Abhaya mudra (frightening the fear, courage), on the north side Dhyana mudra (concentration and meditation) on the west Varada mudra (charity, benevolence, alms giving), on the south side Buddha statues (108 on each side) are set into niches. 108 is the number of physical marks (such as urna, ushnisha, etc.) that distinguish a Buddha, and also has numerological significance as the product of 27x4 = 3x3x3x2x2 = three threes times two twos.) The buddhas on the lower four levels of each side display a characteristic directional mudra. On all four sides of the top row, the statues are in vitarka mudra.
  15. 15. Vitarka Mudra (gesture of judgment, reasoning and virtue) - Similar to Abhaya Mudra, this gesture symbolizes 'deliberation'. The right palm faces outwards and the forefinger touches the thumb
  16. 16. Makara is a sea-creature in Hindu culture
  17. 17. Makara (generally depicted as half terrestrial animal in the frontal part and half aquatic animal) are considered guardians of gateways and thresholds, protecting throne rooms as well as entryways to temples; it is the most commonly recurring creature in Hindu and Buddhist temple iconography
  18. 18. The first four terrace walls are showcases for bas-relief sculptures. These are exquisite, considered to be the most elegant and graceful in the ancient Buddhist world
  19. 19. Borobudur contains approximately 2,670 individual bas reliefs (1,460 narrative and 1,212 decorative panels), which cover the façades and balustrades. The total relief surface is 2,500 square metres and they are distributed at the hidden foot (Kāmadhātu) and the five square platforms (Rupadhatu)
  20. 20. Stairs through arches of Kala. The gates are adorned with Kala's head carved on top of each and Makaras projecting from each side. This Kala-Makara motif is commonly found on the gates of Javanese temples 
  21. 21. Lion gate guardian Makara
  22. 22. Kalpataru, the divine tree of life
  23. 23. Kalpataru, the divine tree of life
  24. 24. Kalpataru, the divine tree of life
  25. 25. Text: Internet Pictures: Sanda Foişoreanu Internet Copyright: All the images belong to their authors Presentation: Sanda Foişoreanu www.slideshare.net/michaelasanda https://ma-planete.com/michaelasanda Sound: Kalpataru Tree - Mysternium 2019 to be continued

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