Bali 17 The holy water

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Holy water is the element of purification, blessings and godliness ever-present at Balinese rituals and ceremonies. Along with flowers (offerings) and fire (incense), holy water, or tirta in Balinese, is an essential part of Hindu rituals and ceremonies. There is no ritual considered complete without holy water. Given the importance of tirta at Balinese rituals and ceremonies, the religion is also known as 'the religion of holy water' or agama tirta, a name that also brings Hindu's closer to nature.
The Pushan mudra demonstrates the understanding that life energy moves with ebb and flow motion. This mudra symbolizes accepting and receiving with the gesture of one hand and letting things flow, giving, and letting go with the gesture of the other.

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  • InfrastructureWhile one might be surprised at the deeply democratic nature of the island, despite it appearing rigidly hierarchical, the reasons behind the intense cooperation would be even harder to pick up on. Interestingly, it is the threat of pests that holds everyone accountable. As pests are deterred when fields are flooded, if an upstream neighbor decided to take more water, and diverted less to the downstream neighbor, then pests would attack crops upstream. Stephen Lansing, an anthropologist who spent years studying the water system and Balinese society, developed a computer simulation of the system on a large scale, and described how it worked, adjusting variables to show how the system would develop, optimize, and collapse. As he and his colleagues ran the simulation, they determined that as farmers would observe their neighbors farms, they would copy and synchronize each others cropping patterns, and a synchrony would develop across the whole island. While the model showed mathematically how the infrastructure self-organized, Lansing observed and studied the superstructure of Balinese society to explain much deeper synchrony. While the belief-system, rituals and time-keeping systems of the Balinese might seem cumbersome and superstitious to outsiders, Lansing showed how they have deep functional significance in the island-wide production system.
  • In a yearly holiday, farmers across the entire island gather at the temples upstream. People from over 200 villages gather at the temple furthest upstream, the supreme temple of Dewi Danu. The temple sits on the edge of a Mount Batur, an active volcano, flanked by Lake Batur, a massive freshwater crater lake. Mount Batur is key to the ecology of Bali, as rain dissolves phosphate along the edges, and enters the water, which combined with the nitrogen-fixing azolla provides constant sustenance for agriculture throughout the island. Visitors collect holywater from the steam of the volcano, which is brought back to their respective villages, where more rituals are performed. In this way, each subak and the entire island maintain ongoing synchrony. While in the Western calendar there are two concurrent layers of weeks and months, in the Balinese calendar there are 8 concurrent weeks that correspond with rituals, markets, and even social identities. As the solar cycle is of little relevance in the perennially warm climate, the 210 day growing cycle of rice forms the basis of a year. Their calendar is in turn synchronized with the Indian Ashaka calendar, and the modern Western calendar.
  • SuperstructureWhile they are identified as Hindus, the Balinese call their belief-system* ĀgamaTirta, or “Belief-system of Water”. Along every major point of diversion along the irrigation system is a water temple devoted to the Water Goddess, Dewi Danu. All the farms downstream of a temple form a Subak, the most basic self-governing unit in Balinese society. The temple is the public space where gatherings happen constantly, whether for practical matters or for festivals and celebrations. When agricultural matters are discussed, all farmers participate and must abandon all rules of interaction based on caste or be reprimanded with fines. The Balinese devote tremendous amounts of time to temple activities, where everyone expresses themselves and the arts flourish to an unparalleled degree, and around 50 holidays and more festivals happen in a year.
  • Bali is a lesson learned in that there is much more than meets the eye, and one must not judge until a society is understood wisely. The example that Bali demonstrates, that a hierarchical system does not imply a hierarchical society, carries profound meaning that we can all learn from. It also demonstrates that societal balance can exist for hundreds or thousands of years, and only deepen and grow richer with age.J. Stephen Lansing: A Thousand Years in BaliThe Long Now Foundation
  • Coming AroundThough the Indonesian Green Revolution ripped and tore the complex fabric of Bali’s agricultural system, the island retained enough cohesion and rhythm to survive the onslaught. For good intentions, the Green Revolution was pushed throughout Indonesia to feed its expanding, crowded population. The use of chemical inputs was pushed on Bali as a patriotic duty, and farmers were advanced inputs. As the farmers used the inputs, the land became dependent on them, which in turn made them dependent on using the chemicals. This caused great harm to the ecological balance throughout the island, and offshore coral reefs were poisoned and suffocated. As the agricultural planners observed the sophistication of the ancient system and that fertility could be naturally maintained by the geology of the island, they withdrew aggressive promotion, and many now hold the traditional system in high esteem. While some farmers continue to be dependent on expensive inputs, the use seems to be gradually reducing.
  • Holy water-Bali Holy water is the element of purification, blessings and godliness ever-present at Balinese rituals and ceremonies. Along with flowers (offerings) and fire (incense), holy water, or tirta in Balinese, is an essential part of Hindu rituals and ceremonies. There is no ritual considered complete without holy water. Given the importance of tirta at Balinese rituals and ceremonies, the religion is also known as 'the religion of holy water' or agama tirta, a name that also brings Hindu's closer to nature.  Holy water is not only essential but also contributes to the various levels and complexities of ceremonies. Unlike the offerings displayed, the contribution of holy water to ritual complexities is not always easily observed. Holy water is usually kept in a ceramic or silver bowl of small to medium size that contains some flowers that contribute to its fragrance and sense of holiness. Different types of rituals require different types of holy water. There is holy water provided at a particular ritual by a priest (sulinggih, pemangku) at a family temple and also by ritual officiators such as shadow puppeteers or mask dancers. Each 'tirta' has its own function.
  • There is also specific holy water taken from various temples, ranging from family temples, seaside temples, lake temples, or mountain temples, all gathered by priests or laymen. Each clan group in Balinese society has their own priest and clan temples from where tirta is obtained for a particular ceremony. Although such alliances and hierarchy is not always fixed or static, for sure, tirta cannot be obtained from just any temple or just any priest.  The bigger the ritual then the more different types of holy water are required from different temples. During the first Bali bombing cleansing ceremony, named 'Pamarisudha Karipubhaya', at ground zero in November 2002, holy water was taken from as far away from the temple of Mount Semeru in East Java as well as Mount Rinjani in Lombok. In addition to holy water taken from temples outside of Bali and that provided by priests, holy water is also made at the actual ritual site by mask dancers and puppet masters. Holy water is used to purify the ritual site, to bless sacrificed animals so that their souls will go to heaven, to purify offerings and to bless prayers.
  • At a big or special cleansing ritual for the whole of Bali, such as the one held after the Bali bombings in 2002, holy water was distributed through hierarchical structures from the Hindu council for customary affairs at a district level to sub-district and village levels before then being distributed to each member of society. At each distribution point, the holy water is mixed up with purified water to ensure enough for every one. Such distribution is meant to help people to get tirta without needing to come and join rituals held far from their residence.  Tirta is also important at cremation ceremonies. Cremations can be long, laborious, and complicated processes that can take days and weeks if not months. During the process, dozens of various tirta is needed starting from a small every day ceremony to the end of the cremation process. One significant importance is called tirta pangentas that cuts off the relationship between the body and soul of the deceased, so the soul can smoothly return to the afterworld. One hundred years ago, in September 1906, during 'the war to the end' that is locally known as puputan, which took place between the King of Badung and the Dutch colonial troops in Denpasar. The King's subjects were given tirta pangentas before going to war. This tirta was taken from the cremation ritual held for the old king who had died but had not been properly cremated due to the war.
  • This tirta was taken from the cremation ritual held for the old king who had died but had not been properly cremated due to the war. The sprinkling of tirta on the king's followers was both symbolic of their readiness to die in struggle to defend their motherland as well as engaging their spirit to get ready for battle. When they finally died at battle, principally no proper ritual or cremation was therefore needed. In September 2005 last year, however, the offspring King of Badung (now called King of Denpasar) held a proper chain of cremation rituals in case any of the king's followers did not receive tirta pangentas prior to the war a century ago.
  • With prayers at home or at a temple festival, the use of holy water often begins when devotees enter a temple. A ceramic bowl of medium size filled with holy water is often placed in front of the temple gate. Devotees should take the holy water and sprinkle it on their heads to purify their bodies and minds before entering the temple. Devotees are also required to cleanse their hands using holy water or incense smoke to commence prayers. After praying, holy water is sprinkled three times. Firstly on their heads signifying purification of their minds to promote wise thought (manacika). Secondly, on their hands then held to their mouths to sip signifying purification of their mouths as to promote wise thought (wacika). Lastly, on their face or body signifying purification of their bodies as to promote wise behaviour (kayika). Manacika, wacika, and kayika are called trikaya parisudha, and are one of the principles of the Hindu teachings to encourage people to think, speak, and behave astutely.  
  • It has become a habit for devotees to take holy water home in a can or plastic bag either to safeguard for upcoming relevant ceremonies or to distribute among family members. Members of the family who are unable to come to ceremonies or temple festivals (perhaps due to menstruation or being unable to afford long distance travel) can therefore still enjoy tirta and be blessed.
  • Tirta is a Sanskrit word meaning water, holy water, river, or bathing place. It also means the holy place for pilgrimage as in the word tirtayatra. Tirtayatra has recently become popular amongst the Balinese. They do not only practice tirtayatra around Bali but also at temples in Java and some places in India. Several Balinese tour companies offer packaged tirtayatra tours to India, although they are not demanded as highly as the annual Muslim pilgrimage to Mekka, have been steadily on the increase. Bathing in the River Ganges is always included on India's tirtayatra itinerary. Tirtayatra to India is affordable only by the upper-middle and upper class Balinese Hindus. The lower-middle and lower class people do tirtayatra on auspicious days, such as at the full moon (purnama) to holy places in Bali and Java. The goal of tirtayatra is not only to pray and receive holy water but also to immerse participants in the holy atmosphere of the visited temples. Participants of tirtayatra often like to bring some holy water home and give them as gift to their family. Receiving holy water from India or other temples is always an invaluable gift for those who appreciate them. The origin of holy water reflects both spiritual and social hierarchy. Although the types and origins of holy water is varied, their functions, both spiritually and philosophically, remain the same, which are to remove impurity, to perform purification, and to receive God's blessing.
  • Holy Water: The Backbone of Balinese HinduismThe most important part of all Balinese ceremony is a Holy water. Holy water accompanies every act of Hindu-Balinese worship from individual devotion at household shrine to island-wide ceremonies. Holy water acts as an agent of the power of a God, a container of a mysterious force. It can be cleanse spiritual impurities, fend off evil forces, and render the recipient immune to the attacks of the negative, or demonic, influences. In Bali, holy water is not a symbol, it a material container of mystical power, and as such, is sacred and holy in and of itself. The holy water strengthens and purifies everything it touches. Although there are many kinds and potencies of holy water, no matter where or by whom it is made and no matter whether its quantity is great or small, holy water is always a sacred and powerful agent.
  • The Balinese call holy water toya, from medium Balinese word for “water,” and often the High Balinese tirtha will be used. These are never confused with ordinary water, however, which everyone calls by its low Balinese name, yeh. The uses and potency of holy water vary according to how it is made, its source, and who makes it. The more powerful the mantra and the more elaborate the offering use to make it, the more mystic energy it contains. The more sacred the place from which it is obtain, the greater the sanctity of the holy water. The more exalted the status of the person who makes it, the greater its magical power.
  • Holy water is use in many different ways and need not always be the most powerful variety. The supply kept in the several shrines of family temples need not come from as remote or high as source as, say, the holy water needed for cremation or temple festival. And sometimes holy water from specific temple may be preferred because that temple emphasizes a particular manifestation the Hindu deity and that manifestation is the one to whom an appeal is being made. All holy water is sacred but some kinds are more powerful, more appropriate in a given situation than others.  Holy water requires special handling, it must be treated with respect and deference. The most powerful holy water from the most sacred source, prepared with the most magical mantras and most elaborate offerings by most exalted priest loses its power if treated casually or disrespectfully. On the other hand, clean water from the well of a house compound placed in a new container in the shrine of an ordinary family temple becomes powerful and effective holy water if the feeling of the user toward it are properly reverent.
  • The holy water must be kept in a clean container and must be handled with great respect. People often use a bungbung – a section of bamboo culm closed at one end and open at the other – to transport holy water. Ordinary large glass jars, with loose-fitting glass top, are quite commonly use. Villager often transport holy water in ordinary drinking glasses or bottles. These should theoretically be brand new and unused. Typical red clay pot are often use for temporary storage in temples where demand for holy water.  Any container of holy water is always held and passed to others using only the right hand. The container should be held as high as possible as it is being handled, preferably higher than heads of others nearby. If placed on the floor, step over, or handled excessively, holy water will loose its mystical power and be rendered in effective. Containers of holy water are usually store in the shrines of family and public temples.
  • Holy water is so essential of Balinese life that it is impossible to list all its uses. Those who are sick are made well by balians or pamangkus or pedandas who clean the spirits of their patients with holy water. A Balinese undergoes such as cleansing before and after any major trip. Everyone of the rites of passage involves the use of holy water. Shrines are sprinkled with it every day. Those who go in trance are bought back from this state with holy water.  And one of the most devastating things that can happen to a family is to be denied access to holy water from the village temples. This is a dreadful punishment for a person who has been expelled from his banjar because of failure to comply with the religious or customary laws. Because it is so serious, it is not a common punishment. It means, in effect, that the person so expelled is ritually dead. And this applies not only to him but also to all members of his family. Most of the materials for this writing are taken from Fred B. Eiseman, Jr’s Bali Sekala and Niskala Volume I.
  • Where to Get Holy Water: Natural SourcesHoly water, the most important part of a Balinese ceremony, no ceremony is considered to be complete without the presence of Holy water. Holy water can be obtained either from natural sources or from the peranda (high priest). The natural resources of holy waters range from klebutan (spring), tukad (river), campuan (meeting of two or more river), loloan (estuary), danu (lake), and segara (sea).   Klebutan, spring is the most popular holy water source for temple anniversary, and rites for God. Not all spring is fit as holy water source, spring that is used as a holy water source is usually located on the sacred spot or near a temple. A Beji temple or at least a shrine is built near the spring that is used as a holy water source. Balinese who want to get a holy water from this spring must present a set of offering to this temple or shrine and ask permission from the the God who resides in this temple or shrine.
  • Tukad, river, nowadays, is no longer used as a holy water source for God relating ceremony, only holy water for cremation purpose (toya penembak) is taken from the river. Not all river or part of a river is fit for cremation purpose holy water source, only part of river that is located near the cemetery and considered to be sacred is fit for a source of holy water. Campuan, meeting of two or more river is a unique source of holy water. It can provides holy water for all kind of ceremonial purpose. You can not obtain holy water from cremation purpose in the spring which is , for holy water source for God related ceremony, but from campuan people can obtain holy water either for a god related ceremony or human related ceremony. Campuan is also used as a place for melukat (cleansing body and soul as well as recharging spiritual power). Loloan, estuary nowadays is rarely used as a holy water source. Only a loloan with a campuan in it is usually used as a source of holy water. The diminishing popularity of loloan as holy water resource is due to the waste and pollution that is thrown to the river accumulated in the loloan and make it dirty and unfit for holy water source.
  • Danu, lake is a source of holy water for all purpose especially for the people who resides far away from the sea – people of Bangli regency. Holy water from the Danu is obligatory for a subak temple ceremony since danu is the ultimate source of water for farming in Bali. Each danu has a ulun danu temple in which the Goddess of the respective danu resides. People who wish to obtain holy water from the danu should pay homage and present a set of offering in this temple. Segara, sea is the main source of holy water for all kind ceremony especially big ceremonies. A pura Segara, or sea temple is built on the beach to house the God of the sea. But people who wish to obtain holy water from the segara do not have to pay homage or present a set of offering in this temple. Offering can be presented on the beach where they want to take the holy water. Segara is not just considered as a source of holy water but also the source elixir of life (tirtha amerta),
  • Each year, in Melasti ceremony, thousand of Balinese follow their deities to the sea in order to take the elixir of life for the welfare Bali. Sea also serve as the greatest purifier, after the cremation ceremony remnant of the deceased is thrown to the sea in order to purify the soul of the deceased. Thousand of Balinese also do melukat ritual in the sea to purify themselves.
  • A Never-Ending Quest for Holy WaterHoly Water is an indispensable part of Balinese Hinduism; the importance of Holy Water is shown by the older generation of Balinese who still calls the Balinese Hinduism as ‘Agama Tirtha‘, (the religion of Holy Water). No ceremony in Balinese Hinduism can be called perfect or finish without the presence of Holy Water. If a Balinese cannot attend a temple ceremony or other kind of ceremony, he simply asks for Holy Water that is obtained from the temple where the ceremony is held or the Holy Water that is distributed in other kind of ceremony. Obtaining Holy Water is an obligatory part of every ceremony in Bali. For a small ceremony in a household compound, the Holy Water is usually obtained from a high priest, for a bigger ceremony in a household compound the Holy Water is usually obtained from the nearby Holy spring (beji). For a small ceremony in a temple, the Holy Water is usually obtained from the nearby Holy spring (beji) but for a bigger ceremony, it is obtained from the sea. For a grand ceremony such as Eka Dasa Rudra (centennial purification of the universe), the Holy Water is not just obtained from the sea but also from the Mount Semeru in East Java and Mount Rinjani in Lombok.
  • A special Holy Water is needed for a special condition or ceremony. Holy Water from a puppet master (dalang wayang) is needed by a baby who born in 27th week of traditional Balinese Pawukon Cycle calendar. This week is called ‘Wuku Wayang‘ (’wuku‘ means week and ‘wayang‘ means puppet) and considered as dangerous week that brings a lot of misfortune to the people who born in this week. The Holy Water from a puppet master is believed by the Balinese to have a magical power to negate the misfortune of this week. A special Holy Water is also needed in cremation ceremony. This Holy Water is called ‘Toya Penembak’, or ’shooting water’. This Holy Water is obtained in a unique way, the quest for this Holy Water need a lot of courage and calmness. This Holy Water must be obtained from the river in the middle of the night by one of the family members of the deceased. Since the Balinese believes that the river especially at night is a spooky place, inhabited by the spiritual being from underworld and no Balinese will come to this place at night this quest for Holy Water is not an easy task. In Bali, sometimes the love of the family members to the deceased is measured by obtaining this Holy Water.
  • Holy Water also serves as a medicine for sickness caused by magical power, or the wrath of the God. A sickness caused by a magical power is cured by Holy Water from a witch doctor or shaman. For the sickness caused by the wrath of God, a Holy Water from the temple in which the angry God resides is needed to cure this kind sickness, this Holy Water is usually obtained by presenting some offerings in the respective temple.
  • Bali 17 The holy water

    1. 1. http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/michaelasanda-1547075-bali17-holy-water/
    2. 2. 17
    3. 3. The watermaidens of thecourtyardfountains at GoaGajah ElephantCave
    4. 4. Balinese soulspurified in a massmemukurceremony
    5. 5. Balinese souls purified in a mass memukur ceremony
    6. 6. Balinese souls purified in a mass memukur ceremony
    7. 7. Memukur Bali Hindu ceremony isto purify the human soul with theholy spirit. This ceremony is acontinuation of the Hinducremation ceremony in Bali. Massmemukur it held as low cost modelceremony because of economicalrelated.Memukur focal point is Sekah,sculpture decoration with bambooframe, representing to the soul ofa cremated. Sekah will be burnedas a symbol of the secondcremation to purify the soul inpreperation to climb to the top ofthe world. Ash from sekah thenplaced in coconut shells anddecorated with flowers, chinesecoins (sometimes replaced withpaper money that is still truetoday) and other decorative items.With the accompaniment ofgamelan angklung and baleganjur,sekah brought to sea and releasethere as a symbolic return of thesevere spirit to the creator.
    8. 8. Rice terraces
    9. 9. The Indonesian island of Bali,with around 1.6 millionestimated farmers, has adirect democratic system ofwater distribution despite itsirrigation system beingcompletely hierarchical. Watergovernance is deeplyintertwined in the rituals, thebelief-system, the identity, theinfrastructure, and even thenotion of time. With channelsand canals that are often overa thousand years old, theagricultural system and theecology of the island havebecome deeply intertwined,acting as one organism.Efforts to drastically changeBalinese agriculture in theseventies during the GreenRevolution in Indonesiawreaked great havoc on theancient and sophisticatedsystem, and over the yearsthe modernization efforts werewithdrawn.
    10. 10. Rice terraces
    11. 11. While they are identified asHindus, the Balinese calltheir belief-system ĀgamaTirta, or “Belief-system ofWater”. Along every majorpoint of diversion along theirrigation system is a watertemple devoted to the WaterGoddess, Dewi Danu.There is a proposal in theworks to make the irrigationsystem a world heritage site.Rice Terraces and WaterTemples of Bali: A Proposalto create a UNESCO WorldHeritage Cultural Landscape(This proposal wouldestablish a World Heritagesite in Bali to support andprotect Balinese farmers,subaks, water templenetworks, lakes, rivers andforests) Pura Tegeh Koripan
    12. 12. Pura Tirta Empul
    13. 13. Holy Water: The Backbone of Balinese Hinduism The most important part of all Balinese ceremony is the Holy water. Holy water accompanies every act of Hindu-Balinese worship from individual devotion at household shrine to island-wide ceremonies. Holy water acts as an agent of the power of a God, a container of a mysterious force. It can be cleanse spiritual impurities, fend off evil forces, and render the recipient immune to the attacks of the negative, or demonic, influences. In Bali, holy water is not a symbol, it a material container of mystical power, and as such, is sacred and holy in and of itself. The holy water strengthens and purifies everything it touches. Although there are many kinds and potencies of holy water, no matter where or by whom it is made and no matter whether its quantity is great or small, holy water is always a sacred and powerful agent. The Balinese call holy water toya, from medium Balinese word for “water,” and often the High Balinese tirtha will be used. These are never confused with ordinary water, however, which everyone calls by its low Balinese name, yeh. The uses and potency of holy water vary according to how it is made, its source, and who makes it. The more powerful the mantra and the more elaborate the offering use to make it, the more mystic energy it contains. The more sacred the place from which it is obtain, the greater the sanctity of the holy water. The more exalted the status of the person who makes it, the greater its magical power. Holy water is use in many different ways and need not always be the most powerful variety. All holy water is sacred but some kinds are more powerful, more appropriate in a given situation than others. Holy water requires special handling, it must be treated with respect and deference. Any container of holy water is always held and passed to others using only the right hand. For more than a thousand years, Balinese worshipers have been drawn to Pura Tirta Empul, whose sacred spring is said to have been created by Indra and to havePura Tirta Empul, curative properties. The tradition continues almost unchanged at the temple today.
    14. 14. Pura Tirta Empul,
    15. 15. Legend has it that the sacred spring was created by the god Indra. His forceshad been poisoned by Mayadanawa, so he pierced the earth to create a fountainof immortality to revive them.An inscription dates the founding of a temple at the site to 926 AD. Ever since -for more than a thousand years - the Balinese have come to bathe in the sacredwaters for healing and spiritual merit. Pura Tirta Empul is located in the village of Tampak Siring, Accessible from Ubud by public transportation. The souvenir stands outside the temple specialize in the local craft, carved bone jewelry.
    16. 16. Worshippers first make an offering at the temple,then climb into the main pool to bathe and pray.Many collect the holy water in bottles to take home.
    17. 17. Pura Tirta Empul
    18. 18. Holy Water is an indispensable part of Balinese Hinduism; theimportance of Holy Water is shown by the older generation of Balinesewho still calls the Balinese Hinduism as „Agama Tirtha„, (the religion ofHoly Water).No ceremony in Balinese Hinduism can be called perfect or finishwithout the presence of Holy Water. If a Balinese cannot attend atemple ceremony or other kind of ceremony, he simply asks for HolyWater that is obtained from the temple where the ceremony is held orthe Holy Water that is distributed in other kind of ceremony. The courtyard fountains at Goa Gajah Elephant Cave
    19. 19. Holy water can be obtainedeither from natural sources orfrom the peranda (high priest).The natural resources of holywaters range from klebutan(spring), tukad (river),campuan (meeting of two ormore river), loloan (estuary),danu (lake), and segara (sea).And one of the mostdevastating things that canhappen to a family is to bedenied access to holy waterfrom the village temples. Thisis a dreadful punishment for aperson who has beenexpelled from his banjarbecause of failure to complywith the religious orcustomary laws. Because it isso serious, it is not a commonpunishment. It means, ineffect, that the person soexpelled is ritually dead. Andthis applies not only to him butalso to all members of hisfamily. Pura Ulun Danu Bratan, or Pura Bratan, is a major Shivaite and water temple on Bali
    20. 20. Balinese daily offerings made to the HinduGods as a symbol for their gratitude
    21. 21. Obtaining Holy Water is anobligatory part of every ceremony Cocoa fruit
    22. 22. Udeng, male headband in Bali
    23. 23. Pura Ulun Danu Bratan, or Pura Bratan, is a major Shivaite and water temple on Bali
    24. 24. Pura Ulun Danu Batur (also known as "Pura Ulun Danu," "Pura Batur" or "Pura Bat") is the second most important temple in Bali, after Pura Besakih. Built in 1926, the temple is dedicated to Dewi Danu, goddess of lakes and rivers. "Ulun Danu" literally translates as "head of the lake".Pura Ulun featured in Indonesian banknotePura Ulun Danu Bratan, or Pura Bratan, is a major Shivaite and water temple onBali, Indonesia — the other major water temple being Pura Ulun Danu Batur.Water temples serve the entire region in the outflow area; downstream there aremany smaller water temples that are specific to each irrigation association (subak).Built in 1663, this temple is used for offerings ceremony to the Balinese water, lakeand river goddess Dewi Danu, due to the importance of Lake Bratan as a mainsource of irrigation in central Bali. The 11 stories of pelinggih meru dedicated forShiva and his consort Parvathi. Buddha statue also present inside this temple.Lake Bratan is known as the Lake of Holy Mountain due to the fertility of this area.Located 1200 m above sea level, it has a cold tropical climate.
    25. 25. Stone temple guardian
    26. 26. Each year, in Melasti ceremony, thousand of Balinese follow their deities to the sea in order to take the elixirof life for the welfare Bali. Sea also serve as the greatest purifier, after the cremation ceremony remnant ofthe deceased is thrown to the sea in order to purify the soul of the deceased. Thousand of Balinese also domelukat ritual in the sea to purify themselves.
    27. 27. Udeng, male headband in Bali
    28. 28. The colourful traditional fishing boats that line the coastal shores of Jimbaran and Sanur are known as jukung.
    29. 29. Pura Tanah Lot
    30. 30. Text & pictures: Internet Background: The Pushan or Acceptance Mudra Copyright: All the images belong to their authors Arangement: Sanda FoişoreanuSound: Bamboo Wind Harp - Bamboo Xylophone www.slideshare.net/michaelasanda

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