Sleep Disorders


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One student's PPT from the Thinking Critically class at AES, summer 2007

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Sleep Disorders

  1. 1. Sleep Disorders Chi-Eun Kim
  2. 2. Parasomnias Sleep Disorders VS Dyssomnias Lack of Sleep Disturbed sleep Excessive Sleep
  3. 3. Lack of Sleep Sleep Deprivation Insomnia
  4. 4. Insomnia <ul><li>Insomnia is the inability to fall asleep. </li></ul><ul><li>It is common problem that most people </li></ul><ul><li>experience at least occasionally . </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why? <ul><li>Consequently, insomnia often disr u pts daily life. It can result from </li></ul>- Diet (intake of caffeine or alcohol) - Stress - Emotional Difficulties - Underlying Disease
  6. 6. Result <ul><li>When it occurs, people feel tired much </li></ul><ul><li>of the time and ofte n worry a lot about </li></ul><ul><li>not getting enough sleep. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Sleep Deprivation <ul><li>Actually sleep deprivation is not a </li></ul><ul><li>Disorder. It just indicates that a </li></ul><ul><li>person has not been getting enough </li></ul><ul><li>sleep. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Result <ul><li>It’ll affect person’s judgment, </li></ul><ul><li>reaction-time, hand-eye coordination, </li></ul><ul><li>memory, general well-being and immune </li></ul><ul><li>system. </li></ul>
  9. 9. How can I know that I am a Sleep Deprived patient? <ul><li>Feeling drowsy during the day? </li></ul><ul><li>Falling asleep for very short period of time(5 min or so) ? </li></ul><ul><li>Regularly falling asleep immediately after lying down? </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>It means you need more SLEEP!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Go to bed NOW !!! </li></ul>
  11. 11. Disturbed Sleep Sleep Apnea Restless Leg Syndrome(RLS) and Periodic limb movement Disorder REM sleep behavior Disorder
  12. 12. Sleep Apnea <ul><li>Sleep Apnea is interrupted breathing </li></ul><ul><li>during sleep. </li></ul><ul><li>It usually occurs because of a </li></ul><ul><li>mechanical problem in the windpipe. </li></ul><ul><li>But it also indicates a neurological </li></ul><ul><li>disorder involving nerve cells (neurons). </li></ul>
  13. 13. Process <ul><li>As people age, muscle tone relaxes, which may cause the windpipe to collapse. </li></ul><ul><li>This condition is called Obstructive Sleep Apnea. </li></ul><ul><li>It results in loud snoring and blocked air flow through the windpipe. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>It lasts from 10 to 60 seconds. </li></ul><ul><li>People may be gasping or snorting. </li></ul><ul><li>And then the brain quickly reacts to the sudden lack of oxygen, the muscles tighten. </li></ul><ul><li>Windpipe opens. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Why? <ul><li>Narrow nasal passages, enlarged </li></ul><ul><li>tonsils, and obesity are factors that </li></ul><ul><li>may contribute to obstructive sleep </li></ul><ul><li>apnea. It also may be re la ted to alcohol, </li></ul><ul><li>tobacco, or sedatives. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Result <ul><li>T he sleep cycle can be interrupted as many as 100 times a night. </li></ul><ul><li>E very time the windpipe closes, the brain is deprived of oxygen. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>This lack of oxygen eventually can cause problems morning headaches and decreased mental function. </li></ul><ul><li>High risk for heart disease and stroke </li></ul>
  18. 18. REM Sleep behavior disorder <ul><li>It causes disruptions </li></ul><ul><li>in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>during REM sleep. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Process Pons Signal Signal Cerebral Cortex Muscles Thinking & Organizing Information REM SLEEP
  20. 20. Result <ul><li>It caus es a type of temporary paralysis. </li></ul><ul><li>In a person with REM sleep behavior disorder, these signals translate into images that make up dreams. </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>If the signals are interfered with, the person may physically act out dreams during sleep. For example, if a patient with REM sleep behavior disorder dreams about running, he or she might actually get up and run. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result of this condition, patients may injure themselves or others. </li></ul><ul><li>BUT !!! REM sleep behavior disorder is rare. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Restless leg syndrome (RLS) and periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) <ul><li>It is a common sleep disorder, </li></ul><ul><li>especially in the elderly. </li></ul><ul><li>Also RLS is a genetic disorder </li></ul>
  23. 23. Result <ul><li>It cause s patients to want to move their legs. </li></ul><ul><li>It often results in insomnia. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>PLMD causes jerking in the legs or arms that occurs frequently during resting or sleeping. Jerking may occur as many as 3 times in a minute and each jerk can wake the patient. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Excessive Sleep Disorder Narcolepsy Cataplexy Sleep paralysis Hypnagogic hallucinations
  26. 26. Narcolepsy <ul><li>It is a condition that causes patients </li></ul><ul><li>to fall asleep uncontrollably throughout </li></ul><ul><li>the day for periods lasting less than a </li></ul><ul><li>minute to more than half an hour. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>These sleep attacks can occur </li></ul><ul><li>at anytime, </li></ul><ul><li>even while the person is </li></ul><ul><li>engaged in an activity !!! </li></ul>
  28. 28. Process <ul><li>During sleep, narcoleptics have an abnormal sleep pattern: </li></ul><ul><li>They enter REM sleep prematurely without going through the normal sequence of sleep stages. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Narcolepsy usually is a genetic (inherited) disorder, although it may be associated with brain damage or neurological disease. </li></ul>
  30. 30. When? <ul><li>age : 15 - 30 </li></ul><ul><li>When people get pregnant, ill, a fever, or stress. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Result <ul><li>often feel tired most of the time. </li></ul><ul><li>cataplexy, </li></ul><ul><li>and sleep paralysis. </li></ul>
  32. 32. Cataplexy <ul><li>Cataplexy is weakness or paralysis of the muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>When cataplexy occurs, persons who are standing may fall down. </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>In narcoleptic patients, it may be </li></ul><ul><li>triggered by tiredness and intense </li></ul><ul><li>emotions and may be accompanied by </li></ul><ul><li>short, sudden episodes of laughter or </li></ul><ul><li>anger. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Sleep paralysis <ul><li>Sleep paralysis is the inability to move the arms, legs, or entire body that occurs when a person is falling asleep or waking up. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Result <ul><li>People who experience sleep paralysis </li></ul><ul><li>may become very anxious and often </li></ul><ul><li>regain movement only if they hear a </li></ul><ul><li>loud noise or another stimulus. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Hypnagogic hallucinations or pre-sleep dreams <ul><li>Hypnagogic hallucinations or pre-sleep dreams, are dream-like hallucinations that occur in the transition between being awake and being asleep. </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Often, they are very vivid, frightening dreams. </li></ul>
  38. 38. BONUS
  39. 39. Sources: