What does this say about the pressures to succeed in US high schools and colleges?Has cheating become acceptable so long as you don’t get caught at it?
Most people think of copyright as applying only when you publish your work.And do you think that you have to mark your work with a C? You don’t.
So, in most cases you need permission from the C holder to do much of anything with other’s work BUT
It’s a balancing of all four factors.
Basically advise students of what plagiarism is, help them get the skills to avoid it and enforce penalties when it happens
Plagiarism and ELLs: More to the Issue than Meets the Eye
Plagiarism and ELLsMore to the Issue than Meets the Eye Michael Krauss
Shocking Statistics• Surveys in U.S. News and World Report: – 80 % of high achieving hs ss admit to cheating – 51% of h.s. ss did not believe cheating was wrong – 95% of those cheating said had not been caught – 75% of college students admitted cheating
Copyright and Plagiarism• You follow “Fair Use” (What is that??)• “Squishy” – 4 factors considered: – Purpose: For profit? No? Educational? – Nature of the copyrighted work? – Amount of work used compared to whole – Effect of use on value of copyrighted work
Copyright and Plagiarism• Generally. . . using materials for class paper or presentation = Fair Use! – No need to get permission – But you must properly cite source for text or media – If you don’t = Plagiarism!
What is Plagiarism?• Turning in someone else’s work as your own• Copying words or ideas without giving credit• Failing to put quotation marks around quotes• Giving incorrect information about a source
What is Plagiarism?• Paraphrasing without giving credit• Copying so much of a work that it is not really yours (whether you give credit or not)
Preventing Plagiarism• Make students aware of what plagiarism is• Let them know it’s a “strict liability” offense (no intent required)• Let students know the serious consequences• Help students learn the academic skills needed• Provide resources to help students cite correctly
From My Experience– Plagiarism caused by culture of ELL: • Books and authors are the experts, not students • Helping a fellow student in need is not optional • Memorizing and reciting verbatim is respected • Plagiarism is treated less seriously in home country • Internet sources are viewed as belonging to everyone
From My Experience• Plagiarism caused by lack of ELL knowledge and L2 skills: – Students lack background knowledge in topic – Students lack reading ability to comprehend – Students lack oral ability to discuss reading
From My Experience• Plagiarism occurs due to lack of ELL academic skills: – Students lack ability to take notes effectively – Students lack ability to summarize – Students lack ability to paraphrase – Students don’t know mechanics of citation
From My Experience• Plagiarism occurs due to teacher deficits: – Not explaining ramifications – Not guiding choice of student topic – Not showing ease of getting caught!
From My Experience• Plagiarism occurs due to teacher deficits: – Not conferencing with students – Not using process approach to writing – Not following through on announced penalties
Helpful Tools• Arcadia University Plagiarism Tutorial http://library.acadiau.ca/tutorials/plagiarism/• Google – copy and paste a suspect phrase. http://www.google.com• Son of Citation Machine http://citationmachine.net/index2.php
Helpful Tools• Creative Commons -Youtube introduction http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_P-bQB8zUSo• Photo Pin – Access Creative Commons images http://photopin.com/• Fair Use Checklist - Kenneth D. Crews (Columbia University) and Dwayne K. Buttler (University of Louisville). http://copyright.columbia.edu/copyright/files/2009/10/fairusechec klist.pdf
References• Columbia University Libraries/Information Services - Copyright Advisory Office http://copyright.columbia.edu/copyright/• Penn State University Library - Copyright and Plagiarism http://www.libraries.psu.edu/psul/lls/students/using_informa tion.html• Plagiarism.org http://www.plagiarism.org/index.html• Purdue OWL - Documenting Electronic Sources http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/owlprint/584/