Taxonomy & Classification course

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Taxonomy & Classification course

  1. 1. Taxonomy & Classification
  2. 2. TAXONOMY & CLASSIFICATIONTaxonomy, science of classifying organisms.Classification, in biology, identification, naming, grouping oforganisms into a formal system based on similarities such asinternal and external anatomy, physiological functions,genetic makeup and evolutionary history.The major categories in classification are Domain,Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus andSpecies.
  3. 3.  In addition to classifying the organisms also scientists give it a scientific name. The scientific name composed of two parts (genus and species ) separated by normal space. Always the genus begins with capital letter and species with small letter . When it written by hand you have to underline it, and make it italic if typed . Such as Drosophila melanogaster (when it write by hand). Drosophila melanogaster (when it typed).
  4. 4. OLD CLASSIFICATION The major categories in the old classification were Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species. The major kingdoms were: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.
  5. 5. NEW CLASSIFICATIONThe major categories in new classification areDomain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family,Genus and Species.
  6. 6. How to write these categories Domain  Kingdom  Phylum  Class  Order  Family  Genus  Species
  7. 7. Domains Living organisms are divided into three major Domains including Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Each domin further subdivided into separate Kingdoms.
  8. 8. Domain: Archaea Kingdom : Archaea (Archaeabacteria)  Unicellular.  Prokaryotes.  Living in extreme environment (high temperature, acidic or deep areas). Examples :-  Halobacteria sp.
  9. 9. Archaebacteria
  10. 10. Domain: Bacteria Kingdom: Bacteria (Eubacteria).  Unicellular.  Prokaryotes.  Found in wide range of habitats on earth. Examples :-  Bacteria.  Cyanobacteria.
  11. 11. Eubacteria
  12. 12. Domain: Eukarya Kingdom :Protista. Kingdom :Fungi. Kingdom :Plantae. Kingdom :Animalia.
  13. 13. Kingdom: Protista Eukaryotes. Unicellular. Heterotrophic (animal like protista), autotrophic (plant like protista). Examples:-  protozoa (Euglena sp., Paramecium sp., Ameoba sp. and algae).
  14. 14. Ameoba sp Paramecium sp. AlgaeTrypanosome sp. Euglena sp Protista
  15. 15. Kingdom Fungi Eukaryotes. Heterotrophic nutrition. Rigid cell walls made of chitin. Multicellular . Examples:-  Bread mould ,Penicillium ,yeast and mushroom.
  16. 16. Fungi
  17. 17. Kingdom Plantae Eukaryotes. Multicellular. Autotrophic. e.g. all higher plants.
  18. 18. Classification of kingdom Plantae:Classified into two major groups:1- Non- vascular plants:have no system for transporting water or nutrients (e.g. mosses) .2- Vascular plants:have a system through which they can transport water andnutrient throughout the plant. This allowed the plants to betaller and live further from water.
  19. 19. Plants
  20. 20. Kingdom Animalia Eukaryotes. Multicellular. Heterotrophic nutrition. e.g. all animal groups.
  21. 21. Classification of Kingdom AnimaliaThe two major groups within the animal kingdom areinvertebrates and vertebrates.1- The invertebrates:The invertebrates include animals that have no backbone.Examples: sponges, worms, starfish, jellyfish, clams, andlobsters.2- The vertebrates:These are animals that do possess a backbone. Examples:fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.
  22. 22. Animalia

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