TAXONOMY & CLASSIFICATIONTaxonomy, science of classifying organisms.Classification, in biology, identification, naming, grouping oforganisms into a formal system based on similarities such asinternal and external anatomy, physiological functions,genetic makeup and evolutionary history.The major categories in classification are Domain,Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus andSpecies.
In addition to classifying the organisms also scientists give it a scientific name. The scientific name composed of two parts (genus and species ) separated by normal space. Always the genus begins with capital letter and species with small letter . When it written by hand you have to underline it, and make it italic if typed . Such as Drosophila melanogaster (when it write by hand). Drosophila melanogaster (when it typed).
OLD CLASSIFICATION The major categories in the old classification were Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species. The major kingdoms were: Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, and Animalia.
NEW CLASSIFICATIONThe major categories in new classification areDomain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family,Genus and Species.
How to write these categories Domain Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species
Domains Living organisms are divided into three major Domains including Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Each domin further subdivided into separate Kingdoms.
Domain: Archaea Kingdom : Archaea (Archaeabacteria) Unicellular. Prokaryotes. Living in extreme environment (high temperature, acidic or deep areas). Examples :- Halobacteria sp.
Kingdom Plantae Eukaryotes. Multicellular. Autotrophic. e.g. all higher plants.
Classification of kingdom Plantae:Classified into two major groups:1- Non- vascular plants:have no system for transporting water or nutrients (e.g. mosses) .2- Vascular plants:have a system through which they can transport water andnutrient throughout the plant. This allowed the plants to betaller and live further from water.
Kingdom Animalia Eukaryotes. Multicellular. Heterotrophic nutrition. e.g. all animal groups.
Classification of Kingdom AnimaliaThe two major groups within the animal kingdom areinvertebrates and vertebrates.1- The invertebrates:The invertebrates include animals that have no backbone.Examples: sponges, worms, starfish, jellyfish, clams, andlobsters.2- The vertebrates:These are animals that do possess a backbone. Examples:fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals.