Collaborative Reflection Support at
Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task
Michael Prilla
Information and Technology Manageme...
Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task
Reflection: Missing piece in organisational
learni...
Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task
Reflection: Transforming experiences into learning...
Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task
A Collaborative Reflection Support Blueprint
Artic...
Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task
A Collaborative Reflection Support Blueprint
Artic...
Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task
The TalkReflection App for Collaborative Reflection
Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task
Sharing and communicating in context
Referring to ...
Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task
The Studies
Study 1 and 3: Hospital, Stroke Unit
▪...
User and Group Behavior in Computer Support for Collaborative Reflection in Practice: An Explorative Data Analysis
User and Group Behavior in Computer Support for Collaborative Reflection in Practice: An Explorative Data Analysis
Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task
Usage figures
▪ Little use of comments (studies 1 ...
Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task
Ways of using the app
▪ Memory aid for synchronous...
Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task
Using the Talk Reflection App: Memory aid
Document...
Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task
Using the Talk Reflection App: Vehicle
Reflecting ...
Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task
User Roles
Example: Study 3, Hospital
Action U1 U2...
Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task
The impact of group size and composition:
Reflecti...
Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task
The need for socio-technical design of
collaborati...
Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task
An example of socio-technical integration:
Prompti...
Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task
An example of socio-technical integration:
Prompti...
Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task
Socio-technical support for collaborative
reflecti...
Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task
Current work and findings
▪ Prompting: Weak effect...
User and Group Behavior in Computer Support for Collaborative Reflection in Practice: An Explorative Data Analysis
Thanks ...
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Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task

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We present work on support for collaborative reflection. So far, most research has been on individual reflection or reflection in educational context and therefore, and little is known on designing support for collaborative reflection. In three studies of using an application for collaborative reflection support, we analyzed usage data as well as material from interviews and observations. Our results show that there were different ways in which the application impacted reflection in the workplace and that besides positive effects we found open issues in reflection support. Based on these results, in the paper we present insights on and design challenges for collaborative reflection support as well as potential solutions for these challenges. We relate these findings to a model of collaborative reflection support and emphasize that support needs to be understood as socio-technical support if it is to succeed in practice.

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  • Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task

    1. 1. Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task Michael Prilla Information and Technology Management, Ruhr University of Bochum
    2. 2. Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task Reflection: Missing piece in organisational learning ▪ Necessary practice at work (Schön, 1983) ▪ Enabling groups to create insights beyond individual capabilities (Hoyrup, 2004; Mercer & Wegerif, 1999) ▪ Support for single and double loop learning (Greenwood, 1998) ▪ Bottom-up work redesign (Prilla et al., 2013) BUT ▪ Basis for reflection often forgotten, not followed up ▪ Reflection not implied, often omitted in favour of primary work tasks
    3. 3. Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task Reflection: Transforming experiences into learning Behavior Ideas Feelings Returning to experience Attending to feelings Re-evaluating experience New perspectives Change in behavior Readiness for application Commitment to action Experience(s) Reflective process Outcomes Articulating, sharing (similar) experience(s) Articulating, sharing insights / outcomes Shared perspectives, shared understanding Coordinating and embedding group processes of reflection into work Critical / counterfactual thinking Inference, abstraction Boud (1985) Collaborative Reflection: Sharing, Communication
    4. 4. Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task A Collaborative Reflection Support Blueprint Articulation and Essential Steps (Prilla, Degeling and Herrmann 2012) work articulation
    5. 5. Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task A Collaborative Reflection Support Blueprint Articulation and Essential Steps (Prilla, Degeling and Herrmann 2012) work use documented experience share experiences with many others, document insights document and share outcomes plan / implement change articulation
    6. 6. Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task The TalkReflection App for Collaborative Reflection
    7. 7. Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task Sharing and communicating in context Referring to experiences Experience Report Comment
    8. 8. Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task The Studies Study 1 and 3: Hospital, Stroke Unit ▪ Assistant physicians and senior physician ▪ Good education, medium technology usage Study 2: Care Home, Dementia Care ▪ Caregivers with low education ▪ Low technology exposure Conversation as a burden ▪ Emotional stress vs. acting professionally Learning about conversations ▪ Not well covered in formal training, experience as major prerequisite
    9. 9. User and Group Behavior in Computer Support for Collaborative Reflection in Practice: An Explorative Data Analysis
    10. 10. User and Group Behavior in Computer Support for Collaborative Reflection in Practice: An Explorative Data Analysis
    11. 11. Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task Usage figures ▪ Little use of comments (studies 1 and 2): ▪ Time constraints: “You do not go to the app because you have a comment, but because you have an issue to write down” ▪ No guidance: “didn’t know what to write in the comment” ▪ Better integration and guidance in study 3 Type / Study Study 1 Study 2 Study 3 Duration (days) 12 33 49 Users 5 6 6 (7) Documented conversations 7 18 21 Documented results 3 2 3 Comments (own/others) 9 14 (11/3) 45(32/13)
    12. 12. Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task Ways of using the app ▪ Memory aid for synchronous reflection ▪ Description of experience, outcome (if at all) ▪ Feeding shared descriptions into meetings, f2f encounters ▪ Vehicle for reflection (asynchronous reflection cycle) ▪ Comments on shared experiences
    13. 13. Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task Using the Talk Reflection App: Memory aid Documenting experiences, discussing f2f Type Articulation Documented Conversation „The resident passed away suddenly, had been here long, was liked by all staff. Was ill in the morning and admitted her to hospital, Unfortunately she passed away [there]. This was very distressing to the staff as they felt it would have been more dignified for the client to be in familiar surrounding.“ Comments - Documented results „After discussing with the homes manager about the staff being upset, it was decided that staff who were most affected get together and discuss thoughts and feelings.“
    14. 14. Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task Using the Talk Reflection App: Vehicle Reflecting in the tool Type Articulation Documented Conversation “[Patient’s] therapy finished. Again relapse, palliative therapy. Prepared [relatives] for begin of home care, asked to seek professional support for care. Talk was very difficult, parts were not received or blocked out.” Own Comment “[Relative] conveys the feeling it is our fault. (…) Hears for the first time that [patient] is going to die” Comment by others “[From my experience] especially in the first talk it is important to take some time” Result “Problem: Conversation held alone. It should be known that a senior physician can be asked for support”
    15. 15. Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task User Roles Example: Study 3, Hospital Action U1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6 A Sum Log In 17 21 8 5 16 32 2 101 View Doc 21 33 12 14 20 45 1 146 Comment 7 5 12 3 3 13 2 45 Create Doc 2 1 1 4 7 6 0 21 ▪ Reflection participants: Balanced activity ▪ Commenters (“I commented where I thought it was necessary”) ▪ Documenters (“I documented what I thought was interesting for others”)
    16. 16. Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task The impact of group size and composition: Reflection communities ▪ Small groups with few users being active ▪ Value added decreases ▪ Role separation causes low activity in small groups ▪ Co-located groups ▪ Culture of communication ▪ “I already knew most of the cases documented by my colleagues”
    17. 17. Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task The need for socio-technical design of collaborative reflection support ▪ Usage: Potential for improvement ▪ Potential for sharing and commenting not tapped fully ▪ Hardly any documentation of insights ▪ But: Impact on reflection in the group (face-to-face) ▪ Needs: Closer integration into socio-technical context (processes, culture and tasks)
    18. 18. Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task An example of socio-technical integration: Prompting
    19. 19. Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task An example of socio-technical integration: Prompting
    20. 20. Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task Socio-technical support for collaborative reflection: A model support for documenting / capturing data support for individual reflection support for collaborative reflection support for sustaining results work individual reflection collaborative reflection create results / change
    21. 21. Collaborative Reflection Support at Work: A Socio-Technical Design Task Current work and findings ▪ Prompting: Weak effects on number of comments in experimental setting ▪ Varying effects for different prompts ▪ Findings underpinned by additional studies and analysis ▪ Comparison of four cases: care, hospital, public administration (Prilla, 2014) ▪ Content analysis on outcomes (Prilla and Renner, 2014) Reflection for job counsellors: EmployID http://employid.eu
    22. 22. User and Group Behavior in Computer Support for Collaborative Reflection in Practice: An Explorative Data Analysis Thanks for your attention. Questions? Michael Prilla michael.prilla@rub.de www.imtm-iaw.rub.de, www.mirror-project.eu michael.prilla imtm mirrorip

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