Computer Support for CollaborativeReflection on Captured Teamwork DataMichael Prilla1, Kristin Knipfer2, Martin Degeling1,...
The collaborative dimension of reflection atthe workplace▪ What do we mean by collaborative reflection?    ▪   It‘s two: A...
Slowly approaching collaborative reflectionIndicators, taken from van Woerkom and Croon, 2008                          Ask...
No sufficient insights into processes of collaborativereflection and potential support by data and othermeans▪ Which are t...
Getting to know collaborative reflection: OurStudiesCase              Interviews                                         M...
WP 6 User Studies on Collaborative ReflectionModes and Processes of Collaborative ReflectionType of occurrence /          ...
Modes of collaborative reflection: Examples▪ Planned, with distance: At the care home a senior carer  gathers other carers...
Modes of collaborative reflection: Examples▪ Spontaneous, with distance: At the IT company, 20 minutes  after a call about...
Dimensions of collaborative reflection▪ The Social Dimension    ▪ reflection on tasks to be done (individually or in teams...
Towards the support of collaborative reflection?▪ How can data be used to support collaborative reflection?▪ How can tools...
Using data to complement and support(collaborative) reflectionExample: Reflecting client interactions on a trade fair amon...
Means of support for collaborative reflection                                    Articulation: Explicating and sharing    ...
Applying support for collaborative reflectionOrganizational and technical means of support                 Scheduled      ...
Applying collaborative reflection support  Example: Reflecting on client talks during a fair about cloud computing.       ...
Applying collaborative reflection support  Example: Reflecting on client talks during a fair about cloud computing.       ...
How it could be: Learning from collaborativereflection                                                                    ...
Wrap-Up / discussion:Support for collaborative reflection▪ Interaction with and making sense of data representing work  pr...
Thanks for listening. Any questions?Michael Prilla                                            Kristin KnipferMartin Degeli...
Thanks for listening. Any questions?Michael PrillaIMTM/IAWRuhr University of Bochummichael.prilla@rub.dehttp://www.imtm-ia...
Modes of collaborative reflection: Examples▪ Scheduled: At the care home a senior carer gathers other carers to what  is c...
WP 6 User Studies on Collaborative ReflectionAdditional Key Findings ▪ Reflection is common on episodic and case-based lev...
WP 6 User Studies on Collaborative ReflectionChallenges for the Support of different ModesType of occurrence /           p...
WP 6 User Studies on Collaborative ReflectionImplications for Theory and Tool DevelopmentTheory (Reflection Model)        ...
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Computer Support for Collaborative Reflection on Captured Teamwork Data

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Talk on our work on collaborative reflection in the MIRROR project.

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Computer Support for Collaborative Reflection on Captured Teamwork Data

  1. 1. Computer Support for CollaborativeReflection on Captured Teamwork DataMichael Prilla1, Kristin Knipfer2, Martin Degeling1, Ulrike Cress2,Thomas Herrmann11Information and Technology Management, University of Bochum, Germany2Knowledge Media Research Center, Tuebingen© MIRROR Project - Co-Funded by EU IST FP7 – www.mirror-project.eu
  2. 2. The collaborative dimension of reflection atthe workplace▪ What do we mean by collaborative reflection? ▪ It‘s two: At least two people reflecting about their work ▪ It‘s similar: Same or comparable context ▪ It‘s on work: Informal learning, real/raw data ▪ It‘s both: Individual or shared outcomes (knowledge, ...)▪ Which are typical situations of collaborative reflection (Daudelin, 1996)? ▪ Meetings (debriefing, reviews, ...) ▪ Informal and feedback discussions© MIRROR Project - Co-Funded by EU IST FP7 – www.mirror-project.eu
  3. 3. Slowly approaching collaborative reflectionIndicators, taken from van Woerkom and Croon, 2008 Asking for feedback “the core processes in reflection (…) only can be realised in processes of interaction” (Collaborative) Reflection (Hoyrup 2004) Critical Challenging opinion groupthink sharing© MIRROR Project - Co-Funded by EU IST FP7 – www.mirror-project.eu
  4. 4. No sufficient insights into processes of collaborativereflection and potential support by data and othermeans▪ Which are the characteristics and needs of collaborative reflection in practice?▪ In which situations / modes does collaborative reflection happen in practice?▪ How can collaborative reflection be supported in practice?© MIRROR Project - Co-Funded by EU IST FP7 – www.mirror-project.eu
  5. 5. Getting to know collaborative reflection: OurStudiesCase Interviews MethodsCase 1: IT 3 (9) consultants: Observation of work:consulting Job and environment description, 2 consultants, 2 dayscompany learning on the job, individual and each collaborative reflection practiceCase 2: 4 (7) carers: Observation ofCare home Job and environment description, meetings: learning on the job, individual and Handover, “Reflective collaborative reflection practice meeting”Case 3: 2 nurses, 1 physician and 1 therapist: Observation of work:Hospital Job and environment description, 1 nurse, 1 physician; 2 learning on the job, individual and days each collaborative reflection practice© MIRROR Project - Co-Funded by EU IST FP7 – www.mirror-project.eu
  6. 6. WP 6 User Studies on Collaborative ReflectionModes and Processes of Collaborative ReflectionType of occurrence / planned spontaneousRelation to reflected workReflection with distance / Scheduled meetings in Breaks, talks betweenseparated from reflected which reflection is main task tasks or at the beginningwork (reflection on / afteraction) or may occur (e.g. status and end of work (e.g. meetings for consulting experience exchange after projects) call to customer)Reflection occurring Handover sessions as part Continuous experienceconcurrently to work: of daily work, in which exchange during work onintegrated reflection(reflection in / during reflection may occur (e.g. work (e.g. on a patientaction) telling the late shift about a while caring for her) service user’s day) © MIRROR Project - Co-Funded by EU IST FP7 – www.mirror-project.eu
  7. 7. Modes of collaborative reflection: Examples▪ Planned, with distance: At the care home a senior carer gathers other carers to what is called a „reflective meeting‟, asking them to talk about current / problematic topics. In one meeting, all carers reflected about avoiding emotional stress when dealing with difficult patients by sharing their experiences on such situations.▪ Plannend, during action: At a care home, a nurse uses a list of service users to hand over work between shifts. In one meeting, they talk about a resident‘s complaints. Carers shortly reflect on past interaction with the resident and how to avoid this issue in the future.© MIRROR Project - Co-Funded by EU IST FP7 – www.mirror-project.eu
  8. 8. Modes of collaborative reflection: Examples▪ Spontaneous, with distance: At the IT company, 20 minutes after a call about an on-going sales process talk one consultant visited a colleague in his office and wanted to discuss and re-think possible next steps as they had had different views on them before.▪ Spontaneous, during work: At the hospital, two nurses gathered around the patient documentation, iterate through care given and compare it to other patient care in order to re-assure the work done by the nurse in charge of the patient.© MIRROR Project - Co-Funded by EU IST FP7 – www.mirror-project.eu
  9. 9. Dimensions of collaborative reflection▪ The Social Dimension ▪ reflection on tasks to be done (individually or in teams) ▪ reflection on coordination in teams ▪ sharing and intertwining experiences can enhance learning on both levels▪ The Data Dimension (data representing work practice) ▪ enhance teams awareness on work practice ▪ make problems or good practice visible ▪ needs: gathering and interacting with data ▪ intended cycle: interpreting data, sense making and sharing individual understandings© MIRROR Project - Co-Funded by EU IST FP7 – www.mirror-project.eu
  10. 10. Towards the support of collaborative reflection?▪ How can data be used to support collaborative reflection?▪ How can tools support collaborative reflection?© MIRROR Project - Co-Funded by EU IST FP7 – www.mirror-project.eu
  11. 11. Using data to complement and support(collaborative) reflectionExample: Reflecting client interactions on a trade fair amongsales consultantsType of data Instance Reflection purposeSensor data Mood level measures Spontaneous assessments of stress and interesting talksWorkflow data Duration of conversations Analyze communication with clientsPictures and videos Pictures from the fair Recall / compare setting and customer interestApplication content Shared library or bookmarks Rebuild context of topics discussedExplicit notes Notes from individual Explicate personal learning reflection and topics discussedWork documentation Meeting / talk minutes Review conversations© MIRROR Project - Co-Funded by EU IST FP7 – www.mirror-project.eu
  12. 12. Means of support for collaborative reflection Articulation: Explicating and sharing experiences / reflection results / learnings, including rationales, ... Scaffolding / Guidance: Supporting collaborative reflection before, after and while it happens, connect people, roles and material Synergizing: Producing a common understanding from material and shared experiences© MIRROR Project - Co-Funded by EU IST FP7 – www.mirror-project.eu
  13. 13. Applying support for collaborative reflectionOrganizational and technical means of support Scheduled Concurrent Spontaneous AllArticulation Articulation of Articulation On-the-fly Culture of own results / integrated into / documentation documentation; experience: taken from accepted as valuable; stories, workflows enable sharing annotations, …Scaffolding / Sustainment of Keeping up the Recognizing Producing a bigguidance learnings, process and recurring picture, accessing including context preserving a topics, finding right context, and rebuilding; shared context, data, topic tags rebuilding of context next steps sharing results for sustaining from wf docsSynergizing Visualization Linking / Tagging Tagging topics Visualizing, Linking, work Tagging documentation© MIRROR Project - Co-Funded by EU IST FP7 – www.mirror-project.eu
  14. 14. Applying collaborative reflection support Example: Reflecting on client talks during a fair about cloud computing. Exchanging experience and reflection outcomes: articulation and guidance That happened to This one client me, too. I told him we asked me whether do it. Wait, I wrote we do cloud stuff. down what we talked about. Cloud. We do it. We did not have any statement on our cloud activities on our stand!© MIRROR Project - Co-Funded by EU IST FP7 – www.mirror-project.eu
  15. 15. Applying collaborative reflection support Example: Reflecting on client talks during a fair about cloud computing. Exchanging experience and reflection outcomes: articulation That happened to me, This one client too. I told him we do asked me whether it. Wait, I wrote down we do cloud stuff. what we talked about. Cloud. We do it. We did not have any statement on our cloud activities on our stand!© MIRROR Project - Co-Funded by EU IST FP7 – www.mirror-project.eu
  16. 16. How it could be: Learning from collaborativereflection ▪ Articulate ▪ experiences of different actors ▪ individual reflection results ▪ Guide the process of reflection, e.g. ▪ tell stories ▪ relate to other material ▪ Find synergies© MIRROR Project - Co-Funded by EU IST FP7 – www.mirror-project.eu
  17. 17. Wrap-Up / discussion:Support for collaborative reflection▪ Interaction with and making sense of data representing work practice can enhance collaborative reflection▪ Articulation before, after and during collaborative reflection and guidance for these phases are necessary elements of support and need to be adapted to different modes▪ Proposal: Understanding collaborative reflection as a network of communication (articulation) and artefacts (data)▪ Challenge: Enable support by data and other means without being obtrusive and imposing extra efforts© MIRROR Project - Co-Funded by EU IST FP7 – www.mirror-project.eu
  18. 18. Thanks for listening. Any questions?Michael Prilla Kristin KnipferMartin Degeling Ulrike CressThomas HerrmannIMTM/IAW KMRC, TuebingenRuhr University of Bochummichael.prilla@rub.de k.knipfer@iwm-kmrc.dehttp://www.imtm-iaw.rub.de http://iwm-kmrc.de© MIRROR Project - Co-Funded by EU IST FP7 – www.mirror-project.eu
  19. 19. Thanks for listening. Any questions?Michael PrillaIMTM/IAWRuhr University of Bochummichael.prilla@rub.dehttp://www.imtm-iaw.rub.de© MIRROR Project - Co-Funded by EU IST FP7 – www.mirror-project.eu
  20. 20. Modes of collaborative reflection: Examples▪ Scheduled: At the care home a senior carer gathers other carers to what is called a „reflective meeting‟, asking them to talk about current / problematic topics. In one meeting, all carers reflected about avoiding emotional stress when dealing with difficult patients by sharing their experiences on such situations.▪ Spontaneous: At the IT company, 20 minutes after a call about an on- going sales process talk one consultant visited a colleague in his office and wanted to discuss and re-think possible next steps as they had had different views on them before.▪ Concurrent: At the hospital, two nurses gathered around the patient documentation, iterate through care given and compare it to other patient care in order to re-assure the work done by the nurse in charge of the patient.© MIRROR Project - Co-Funded by EU IST FP7 – www.mirror-project.eu
  21. 21. WP 6 User Studies on Collaborative ReflectionAdditional Key Findings ▪ Reflection is common on episodic and case-based levels, but outcomes are only kept implicit ▪ Barriers: Time pressure, lacking support for instant documentation, no perceived value in explicit documentation of outcomes ▪ Group composition can have an influence on collaborative reflection ▪ Preferences for reflection partners (Competence, experience, social proximity, trust in conversational skills) ▪ Range of reflection participants: Narrow (local staff) vs. broad (remote and external) ▪ Support for different roles in collaborative reflection ▪ Roles from theory: Reflection {initiator, participant, helper} ▪ Roles from user studies: Topic {owner, aggregator}, reflection {sparring partner, executive}, session preparer ▪ Collaborative reflection has a close relation to artefacts ▪ Artefacts guiding collaborative reflection: e.g. guiding handover meetings by a list of residents and notes on their day ▪ Artefacts supporting collaborative reflection: e.g. pointing to patient documentation when reflecting treatment given for re-assurance© MIRROR Project - Co-Funded by EU IST FP7 – www.mirror-project.eu
  22. 22. WP 6 User Studies on Collaborative ReflectionChallenges for the Support of different ModesType of occurrence / planned spontaneousRelation to reflected workReflection with distance / Scheduled meetings in which Breaks, talks between tasks or atseparated from reflected reflection is main task or may occur the beginning and end of workwork (reflection on / after (e.g. status meetings for consulting (e.g. experience exchange afteraction) projects) call to customer) Challenge(s): Challenge(s): - Context rebuilding: Contextualizing - Instantaneous access to state of comprehensive topics reflection / available data (informal talk) - Topic aggregation: Building a rich picture - Sustaining / aggregating outcomes sustaining perspectivesReflection occurring Handover sessions as part of daily Continuous experience exchangeconcurrently to work: work, in which reflection may occur during work on work (e.g. on aintegrated reflection (e.g. telling the late shift about a patient while caring for her)(reflection in / during service user’s day)action) Challenge(s): Challenge(s): - Returning to experience (time) - Rebuilding / following up on / - Following up on measures / tasks aggregating state of reflection - Becoming aware of topics to be - Instantaneous, casual, low-effort reflected about (casualty) documentation - © MIRROR Project - Co-Funded by EU IST FP7 – www.mirror-project.eu
  23. 23. WP 6 User Studies on Collaborative ReflectionImplications for Theory and Tool DevelopmentTheory (Reflection Model) Tool Support for (Collaborative) ReflectionUnderstand reflection inputs and outcomes Support multi-perspective articulation:as a contextualized network of instant / “on the fly” and unobtrusive,communication and artefacts dedicated articulation support and cross- cutting articulation service (integration intoDifferentiate between processes and tasks and applications)topics levels: Intensity of returning toexperiences and creation of knowledge Support transitions: adopting andvaries withdrawing roles, combining modes and topical levels of reflection, changingIntegrate influences of roles (influence) participants of collaborative reflectionand group composition (expertise,experience, culture) Provide stimuli for collaborative reflection: Awareness for topics, prompts for action / methods, scripts for sessions, ...© MIRROR Project - Co-Funded by EU IST FP7 – www.mirror-project.eu

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