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Environmental Impact Assessment of Sentosa Integrated Resort


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An assignment for a class on Environmental Management and Assessment, we are asked to conduct an Environmental Impact Assessment on the reclamation on Sentosa island for the construction of a integrated resort.

It is important to note that this is in many ways a hypothetical EIA. There were assumptions made and we did NOT do any baseline surveys or studies. Information were all taken from other sources and projected for this site.

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  • Hi there, I am Clifton, a student at Cambridge University conducting research on the economic, social, and environmental impact of the Integrated Resorts in Singapore. I was wondering if you could share your slides with me and your sources so I could reference your team in my dissertation. Best regards, Clifton
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    My name is Jenny and I'm a student at Berjaya College in Malaysia.
    I'm writing a report on the environmental impacts.... of the resorts World Sentosa Casino.
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Environmental Impact Assessment of Sentosa Integrated Resort

  1. 1. Environment Impact Assessment of Integrated Resort at Sentosa Island <ul><li>DE5106 Environmental Management and Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation by: </li></ul><ul><li>Abhineet Jain </li></ul><ul><li>Deepika Shrestha </li></ul><ul><li>Jaideep Singh Panwar </li></ul><ul><li>Joyce Koh Quee Hua </li></ul><ul><li>November Tan Peng Ting </li></ul><ul><li>Sujas Prasad Phuyal </li></ul><ul><li>Truong Manh Thang </li></ul>
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Assumptions </li></ul><ul><li>Description of Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigations </li></ul><ul><li>Alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Management Plan </li></ul><ul><li>Public Consultation & Disclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Inferences </li></ul>
  3. 3. Environmental Impact Assessment <ul><li>What it is? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Systematic examination of possible impact of proposed development activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why it is? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To Investigate likelihood of this activity in creating significant adverse effect to the surrounding environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When it is? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before the commencement of the proposed activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What it covers? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact to the Physical environment, Ecological unit, Ecosystem, Socio-economy, Public health etc… </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Project <ul><li>Singapore Government has announced the construction of integrated world class resort in Sentosa Island </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It includes construction of world’s largest Oceanarium, largest theme park in Asia and six world class five star hotels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other features includes: the Maritime Xperiential Museum, Equarius Water Park, The Spa by ESPA, FestiveWalk, Hotels and Casino </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The project will cover total of 49 hectare </li></ul><ul><li>The Genting International and Star Cruises consortium have won the bid for construction. </li></ul><ul><li>The resort is expected to be in operation by 2010 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Assumptions <ul><li>March 2006: Government announces a tender for the Integrated Resort </li></ul><ul><li>We were contracted by the Government to survey the environmental consultants to do initial scoping and survey of the environment </li></ul><ul><li>October 2006: A proposal from Genting International is received by the Government </li></ul><ul><li>The full EIA is conducted between Oct 06 and March 07 </li></ul><ul><li>November 2007, we make a special presentation on the EIA study </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>It is assumed that public consultation was carried out </li></ul><ul><li>An alternative site has not been considered given that the Government has pre-designated the present site </li></ul><ul><li>The information used in this study is limited mostly to secondary sources of information given practical limitations </li></ul>Assumptions
  7. 7. Description of Environment <ul><li>Physical Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Geology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topography </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecological Resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Marine Ecosystems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terrestrial Ecosystems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rare or Endangered Species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protected Area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industries and Tourism Facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social and Cultural Resources </li></ul>
  8. 9. Historical Map of Development area prior to 1970 (Source: URA) Cable Car Tower Tidal Creeks Mature Secondary Forest
  9. 10. Physical Resources <ul><li>Climate: uniform temperature, high humidity and rainfall; NE, SW monsoon </li></ul><ul><li>Soil: Sandy loam from deeply weathered sandstone; good for vegetation growth </li></ul><ul><li>Geology: Jurong Formation ( conglomerates, sandstones, mudstones and siltstones) and Kallang Formation (sediments found in low-lying swamp and estuarine areas, on beaches, mudflats and the inter-tidal rock platforms) </li></ul><ul><li>Topography: Mount Imbiah (61.8m), Pulau Selegu (18.3m) and Pulau Sarong (15.2m). Landscape altered by reclamation in 1970s of the foreshore at Kuchin Creek, Imbiah Bay, Pulau Selegu, Pulau Sarong and Telok Chumpang. Completed in 1979. There was also reclamation offshore for the extension of the main ferry terminal in 1976. </li></ul>
  10. 13. Ecological Resources <ul><li>Marine Ecosystems: Reduced coral reef size (339.35m 2 ) but still many >2m diameter corals. Consist 0.2-0.4% of Singapore’s total coral reefs area. Total of 8 different phyla of animals found (echinoderms, corals, crabs, sponges, mollusk, anemones and fishes) </li></ul><ul><li>Terrestrial Ecosystems : Mature secondary forest at foot of Mount Imbiah. More diverse than forest on hill slopes and top of hill developed. Disturbed forest due to construction of Mount Imbiah Nature Trail in 1986. </li></ul><ul><li>Rare or Endangered Animals: Based on Singapore Red Data Book (Ng & Wee eds., 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>Protected Areas: No protection status on Sentosa but initial development plans were to leave as much undisturbed as possible </li></ul>
  11. 15. Economic Development <ul><li>Industries: British Fort till WWII then earmarked for tourism in 1968 to date. </li></ul><ul><li>Tourism Facilities: Now defunct Asian Village, Enchanted Grove of Tembusu, Sentosa Food Centre, Orchid Gardens, Volcano Land, Lost Civilization, Ferry Terminal, Waterfront Promenade </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure: Causeway across Keppel Channel, Cable Car, Bus Services, Sentosa Express, Monorail and ferry terminal now defunct. Cruise centre and container port nearby </li></ul><ul><li>Utilities: Water supply and electricity from Singapore, local sewage lines and minor treatment facilities </li></ul>
  12. 17. Anticipated Environmental Impacts & Mitigation Measures <ul><li>Vegetation and Terrestrial Habitat (construction & operation) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Several important species ( few of them in red list) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Dragon Blood Tress and High residential area- Buffy Fish Owl. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Removal of air-shed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marine Water Quality, Reefs and Coastal Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil erosion and sedimentation, dredging activity, toxic substances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat of many corals, sea grasses & other species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endangered species like Holothuria leucospilota, Ateratis floridus, Cymodocea serulata etc. (Ng & Wee ed., 1994) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improper disposal of waste </li></ul></ul>
  13. 18. Environmental Impacts II <ul><li>Air Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Movements of vehicle, piling of excavated soils, loosen soil from the removal of forest </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in vehicle during operational phase </li></ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Moving of vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Use of heavy equipments for dredging and piling </li></ul>
  14. 19. Environmental Impacts III <ul><li>Hazard Vulnerability </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accident can occur –transportation of materials and use of heavy equipments. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Waste Generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid waste and construction debris </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid waste with the residential facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Littering problem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May lead to the pollution of water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Energy & Water Consumption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Running different facilities in the IR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure on existing water resource </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in the ambient temperature </li></ul></ul>
  15. 20. Environmental Impacts IV <ul><li>Socio-economic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both positive and negative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy, Business Environment and Employment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labor and suppliers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employment opportunities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boosting of business & economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ministry of Trade - add S$ 5.2 billion to GDP & 30,000 employments (,6019,) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase in gambling (Negative) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undesirable activities like taking loans, crimes and money laundering. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 21. Mitigation Measures <ul><li>Loss of Biodiversity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important species of the forest- transplant to other places. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A patch of forest -left intact or at least integrated with the resort in the design concept. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marine life forms - relocated to a suitable site elsewhere and measures are considered during the engineering design to protect the remaining on the site. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction methods used must ensure that intrusion into the seagrass/coral pavement areas be limited and carefully monitored. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 22. Mitigation Measures II <ul><li>Soil Erosion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical measures that bind the soil will work for the mitigation purpose. Ex, retaining walls like rock barriers, use of sand bags, silt retention barriers etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Area can be covered with the plastic blanket during the high wind period to prevent the drifting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of a drainage containment area further island where run-off could be channeled and held. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engineering for slope stabilization and reinforcement to prevent slope failure on steep slopes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent refuse (solid waste) and waste water produced during construction from entering into drains and sea. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 23. Mitigation Measures III <ul><li>Water Pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diversion of runoff channel other than sea. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control measures like use of mulch, jute blankets, plastic sheet, plastic filter cloth or straw to prevent the runoff. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filter material to retain the sediment and pass the water. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper disposal of construction waste to prevent from mixing with runoff. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proper management of solid waste during the construction and operation period. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforcement of strict regulation upon the littering near the sea area during the operation phase. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular monitoring in the operation site should to ensure the prevention of leaching of the waste to the sea. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 24. Mitigation Measures IV <ul><li>Energy & Water Consumption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of energy saving devices- fluorescent bulb light and automatic switching of lights or energy efficient devices. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of alternative source of energy such as solar energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recycling and reuse of water and appropriate sewerage treatment and disposal should be incorporated in the engineering design. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Setting an appropriate temperature for the air conditioner like at 25 deg C. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rational use of water like for flushing of toilets a water storage tank with flow check so the flushing can be done as per requirement. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular monitoring of leaking of water supply pipes and the electricity. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 25. Impact Matrix <ul><li>Scale (High to Low), </li></ul><ul><li>Extent (Regional to Local), </li></ul><ul><li>Likelihood (High to Low), </li></ul><ul><li>Duration (Long and Short) </li></ul><ul><li>Permanence (Reversible and Irreversible). </li></ul><ul><li>Impact beyond the project site -Regional. </li></ul><ul><li>High weightage given to scale (high), permanence (Irreversible) and duration (long). </li></ul><ul><li>Rest of the parameters - less weightage in the analyses, considering that the mitigation measures will be able to minimize the impact.  </li></ul>
  21. 28. Alternatives <ul><li>Alternative A - No Go </li></ul><ul><li>No additional environmental impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative B – Alternative Design </li></ul><ul><li>Development on the 3 ha forest patch is suggested on the lines of the Banyan Tree Resort on Bintan Island </li></ul><ul><li>Retention of the off shore coral formations as a natural attraction – no reclamation of land is required </li></ul>
  22. 29. Eco-sensitive resort design suggestion (Source: Banyan Tree Resort 1 ) 1 Banyan Tree Resort website – links to photos – http:// www.banyantree.comgreenimperativepop_bintan_villa.htm and http:// www.banyantree.comgreenimperativepop_bintan_pool.htm accessed on November 1, 2007
  23. 30. <ul><li>Inland stretches (Area Y) that would flood during high tides but which were later reclaimed are to be reinstated and redeveloped as semi-natural salt water lagoons </li></ul>Area Y is to be reinstated as a natural aquatic feature (Source – Earth Website 2 ) 2 Eart-h website hosted by Joseph Lai http://www.eart-h.comtextoldmap2.htm accessed on October 20, 2007
  24. 31. <ul><li>Restrictions are placed on personal transport to the resort. Facilities such as paddle-boat, mono-rail and ferries will be provided as alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Green building design and construction methods are to be implemented </li></ul>Major design changes (Picture Source: Wikimapia 3 ) 3 Sentosa island – Wikimapia - accessed on October 20, 2007
  25. 32. Suggestions <ul><li>It is evaluated that the design changes in Alternative B have minimal environmental impacts </li></ul><ul><li>In the light of the minor environmental impacts estimated in Alternative B, it is proposed over Alternative A </li></ul><ul><li>It is suggested that enhancement of another hotel or resort on Sentosa Island should be considered </li></ul>
  26. 33. Environmental Management Plan <ul><li>EMS Objectives 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Track </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1 Source: </li></ul>
  27. 34. 1. , and http:// 2. 1. Loss of Biodiversity and Habitat 1 2. Soil Erosion, Water, Noise and Air pollution 3. Energy and Water Management 2 4. Waste Management Environmental Management Committee Biodiversity Management Committee Energy & Water Management Committee Waste Management Committee Environmental Consultant Project Manager / Facilities Manager
  28. 35. Public Consultation <ul><li>Early and ongoing engagement of stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>High level of stakeholders involvement in EIA design and monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Involvement at every stage: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Preliminary Stage Scoping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interim EIA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Appraisal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Implementation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project Evaluation </li></ul></ul>
  29. 36. Preliminary Scoping March 2006: Call for Proposal by MTI Online Survey 5000 participants Stakeholders Identification: Nparks, MPA, MTI, SDC, NSS, BWV, NHC, RMBR Focus Group 50 participants 31 March 2006 Nominate experts, interested individuals Indicate Further Interest Identify areas of sensitivity Site Visit Identify areas of sensitivity EIA Scope Invited to send comments and data over next 6 months
  30. 37. Interim EIA April – Oct 2006: Baseline Survey Working group Identify areas of concern within proposed development Oct 2006: Receive Proposal Select focus group participants 20 persons EIA Design Alternatives Nov – Dec 2006: Conduct EIA Jan 2007: Interim EIA Presented to Working Group Public viewing & comment period 150 responses Comments addressed & incorporated into final EIA
  31. 38. Final EIA: Project Appraisal March 2007: Final EIA published Circulated for Information disclosure No commenting opportunities Opt in for citizen monitoring Online SDC
  32. 39. Project Implementation 2007 - 2010 Construction Begins Monitoring By developers Citizen Monitoring 2010 - 2015 Post Construction Monitoring By developers Citizen Monitoring
  33. 40. Project Evaluation 2010 Construction Completion Focus Group Negative Feedback Immediate Remediation
  34. 41. Inferences <ul><li>Significant adverse impact to the matured secondary forest and Marine eco-system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identified impacts: Loss of Biodiversity and Natural Habitat, soil erosion, Water contamination and marine water quality, waste generation and Energy and water consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Suggestions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance other resorts existing in Sentosa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radical change in current Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow the suggested EMP and mitigation measures </li></ul></ul>