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# Perspective

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### Perspective

1. 1. Linear Perspective
2. 2. What is perspective? • A method of organizing forms in space • Used primarily to create the illusion of depth or space on a 2D surface • We tend to see perspective as a system of ordering pictorial space in terms of a single point • Lines converge to mark the diminishing size of forms as they recede into the distance
3. 3. Leonardo da Vinci "The Last Supper"
4. 4. Discovery of Perspective • Filippo Brunelleschi • Developed the mathematical system of linear perspective • Saw the picture plane as a transparent window through which the observer looks into the constructed, pictorial world • All lines perpendicular to the picture plane meet in a single point on the horizon line (eye line)
5. 5. • This discovery was enormously important to Renaissance artists for what was called the "rationalization of sight" • It brought infinitely various visual sensations under a simple rule that can be expressed mathematically • The combination of art, math and science is a hallmark of the Italian Renaissance • The artists of the Renaissance were often mathematicians...and it has been said that the most creative work done in mathematics in the 15th century was done by artists
6. 6. • Most early Renaissance artists were not primarily mathematicians but rather saw perspective as a way of organizing a composition • The use of perspective made paintings exact and space understandable • Plato said, "the excellence of beauty of every work of art is due to the observance of measure." • The "measure" or the ability to mathematically observe artworks was considered the height of beauty
7. 7. Raphael, "The School of Athens" 1509-1511
8. 8. Pierro Della Francesca,"The Flagellation of Christ", 1455
9. 9. Perugino, "Christ Delivering the Keys to the Kingdom", 1481-1483
10. 10. Andrea Mantegna, "The Dead Christ", 1501
11. 11. Andrea Mantegna, ceiling of the Camera degli Sposi, 1474
12. 12. Rules of Linear Perspective • A perspective drawing always has a horizon line, a vanishing point (point of convergence) and converging lines • Convergence: Lines or edges of objects which in reality are parallel appear to come together as they recede from the observer • In 1pt perspective, height is always vertical, width is always horizontal, depth always recedes to the vanishing point
13. 13. -Diminution: Things appear to become smaller as they go into the distance. -Foreshortening: Lines or surfaces parallel to the observers face show their maximum size. As they revolve away from the observer they appear increasingly shorter. -Convergence = Diminution + Foreshortening
14. 14. • Leonardo da Vinci added to the illusionistic effect of linear perspective by discovering "atmospheric perspective" • He said that as things go into the distance they become smaller, lose detail and colors lose intensity • da Vinci called it the "perspective of disappearance"
15. 15. Filippo Brunelleschi • 1377-1446 • Trained as a goldsmith but was well known as a sculptor • Began working with architecture after being rejected for a competition to design baptistry doors • He took several trips to Rome was very interested in the Roman ruins • In trying to accurately draw the ruins he developed linear perspective
16. 16. • His unique blend of architectural knowledge with an analytical and inventive mind permitted him to solve a problem no other 15-century architect could solve • Brunelleschi won the commission to design and build the dome for the huge crossing of the unfinished cathedral of Florence • Dedicated to Santa Maria del Fiore, the cathedral was built in 1367...10 years before Brunelleschi was born • The opening for the dome was left open until Brunelleschi's design was accepted in 1420 and completed in 1436
17. 17. Giorgio Vasari "The Last Judgement" 1572-1579
18. 18. • Span of the dome was 140 feet, too wide for traditional wooden construction • Brunelleschi devised new building methods and most of the tools necessary for construction • Designed the dome around an ogival section, which reduces the outward thrust around the dome's base • An ogival section is a pointed arch (based on Gothic architecture) • To reduce weight he designed a double- walled shell
19. 19. • The double shell is supported by 24 ribs, 8 of which are most prominent and visible from the exterior • To hold the 8 segments of the dome in place, Brunelleschi designed a heavy lantern the sits atop the dome and stops the ribs from separating • This was added after his death