Third pillar: Improve rail efficiency This aim should be reached by opening the Swiss rail network and thus introduce competition. Regarding competition in the rail sector, two barriers must be overcome. Operational barriers: Rail systems in Europe are all different therefore, interoperability of the railways is needed. Switzerland is part of the ERTMS corridor 1 Rotterdam – Genua and introducing ETCS on this link. Institutional barriers: For a long time European rail-networks were closed national infrastructures. Switzerland has opened its rail network with the rail reform 1999. However, Switzerland has not yet adopted the Europan rail packages. This is in preparation.
the aim of this briefing tour is to show you in theory but also in practice several instruments of this policy and also present you our latest innovation to shift goods form road to rail, the Alpine Crossing Exchange. As you can see on these pictures we already brought the mountains to Brussels more then 15 years ago, our “balloon-mountain” was standing on the Place Schuhman in 1994. We are very happy to show you tomorrow the real mountains.
Toni Aschwanden (Alpen-Initiative)
Toni Aschwanden, International Transport Policy Alpine-Initiative Switzerland Warsaw, 28th June 2011 From road to rail - The Swiss experience 1 •
Negative effects accidents fragmentation of landscape noise pollution
Pollution & noise: increased negative effects Source: ALPNAP In a valley the dispersion concentration is 3x higher than in the flat region. Temperature inversion traps the air pollution: one lorry at night ~ six lorries during the day. Noise propagation in valleys: Echo effect.
Green house gas emission The road is the bad performer
The Alps: a warning system Other regions are fragile as well, but Alps are a “good” indicator for problems to come elsewhere! (limited physical and environmental capacity) Modal shift of goods from road to rail is part of the solution!
The Alpine Initiative and the Swiss Transport Policy
Alpine Initiative Swiss NGO: financed by membership & donations, actively involved in European transport policy (T&E, ITE, CIPRA) Objective: Protection of the Alps from the negative effects of road freight traffic 1994: Adoption of the “Alpine-Initiative” by the Swiss population and the cantons (20 th February 1994)
<ul><li>„ The Federal Constitution may be subjected to a total or partial revision at any time. „ (FC art. 192) Proposal by people or Parliament </li></ul><ul><li>Popular initiative: - more than 100‘000 valid signatures - to be collected within 18 months - completed worded text or general proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion of Parliament: - in both chambers - recommendation by Parliament and Government </li></ul><ul><li>Plebiscite: majority of people and cantons must adopt </li></ul>What is a popular initiative?
Content of the Article on the Protection of the Alps (Swiss Constitution Art. 84) <ul><li>The Confederation shall protect the alpine region from the negative effects of transit traffic. It shall limit the nuisance caused by such traffic to a level which is not harmful to persons, animals or plants, or their environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Transapine freight in border-to-border transit shall be transported by rail. (...) </li></ul><ul><li>The capacity of transit roads in the alpine region may not be increased. (...) </li></ul><ul><li>( adopted by the Swiss population and the cantons on the 20th Februar 1994) </li></ul>
Eleven referendums on transport policy in Switzerland <ul><li>1987 Rail 2000 56,7% yes </li></ul><ul><li>1992: New rail links through the Alps 63,6% yes </li></ul><ul><li>1994: Alpine Initiative 51,9% yes </li></ul><ul><li>1994: FC article on heavy vehicle fee 67,1% yes </li></ul><ul><li>1994: Continuation of existing lorry flat fee 72,2% yes </li></ul><ul><li>1994 Continuation of flat fee for cars 68,5% yes </li></ul><ul><li>1998: Law on heavy vehicle fee 57,2% yes </li></ul><ul><li>1998: New financing of railway infrastructure 63,5% yes </li></ul><ul><li>2000: Treaty with the EU on transport 67,2% yes </li></ul><ul><li>2004: Counter proposal to Avanti-Initiative 63,0% no </li></ul><ul><li>2011: Against second road tunnel (Uri) 56.9% / 68.6% no </li></ul>
User and polluter pays principle: Swiss HVF Supporting measures: promotion of intermodal transport, reduction of rail infrastructure charges 3 pillars of the Swiss Transport Policy Constituational obligation (Art. 84 CF) Freight Traffic Transfer Act Railway infrastructure: More capacity and productivity Alptransit (NRLA) More efficiency and quality: Railway Reform Source: Swiss federal office of transport BAV
Prix plus élevé pour l’utilisation de l’infrastructure routière: RPLP „ Polluter pays principle“ Heavy Vehicle Fee HVF The Swiss heavy vehicle fee
Chronologie of HVF <ul><li>1986: first vote </li></ul><ul><li>1994: Alpine Initiative 51,9% Yes </li></ul><ul><li>1994: Constituional Art. on HVF 67,1% Yes </li></ul><ul><li>1998: Law on HVF 57,2% Yes </li></ul><ul><li>1.1.2001 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Introduction of HVF (1.1 Ct/tkm) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Increase of weight limit from 28 to 34t </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1.1.2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Increase to 1,65 Ct/tkm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Increase weight limit from 34 to 40t </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1.1.2008 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Increase of level to 1.8 Ct/tkm </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>The external costs of road freight transport (pollution, noise, …) are being internalised. </li></ul><ul><li>Road freight transport has to pay for the costs it produces (otherwise transport is too cheap, disproportionate growth and an indirect subsidy) </li></ul><ul><li>The calculation of the fee is based on: </li></ul><ul><li>Distance </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>every kilometre on Swiss roads counts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>weight </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>> 3.5t ; maximum authorized weight of the truck </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>emission class of the truck </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Euro 0/1: 1,8 €Cts/tkm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Euro 2: 1,6 €Cts/tkm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Euro 3-5: 1.4 €Cts/tkm </li></ul></ul></ul>Characteristic of the Swiss heavy vehicle fee (HVF)
Switzerland : Currently, a 40-tonne truck pays about EUR 200 for a 300km journey across the country. Poland (from the 1st of July 2011 on): Not all roads included. Comparable distance of 300km is Warszawa – Krakow. According to: 96,9 km with toll, 204,0 km without. total cost 33zl ≈ EUR 8.50 Level of the fee (I)
Level of the fee (II) The level of the Swiss fee is high, also compared to other countries with already existing charging scheme such as Austria, the Czech Republic, Germany and Slovakia. W h y? The EU legal framework – the “Eurovignette directive” – does not allow internalization of external cost of road freight transport. Only infrastructure cost are permitted. The revision 2011 will allow parts of these costs to be integrated but not all external cost ( it still forbids to cover costs of EUR 60 billion of climate change, congestion and accidents caused by lorries). Germany Austria CH
Effects of the Swiss HVF <ul><li>fewer trucks driving empty </li></ul><ul><li>better capacity use </li></ul><ul><li>cleaner vehicle fleet </li></ul><ul><li>Effects on modal shift (road/rail) were diluted by the acceptance of 40t trucks instead of 28t (bilateral transport agreement with EU) </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, without the HVF and other measures, such as the support for combined traffic, there would be several hundred thousand more trucks on Alpine roads. </li></ul>
Use of the revenu <ul><li>The annual revenue goes to the public transport fund (and 1/3 to the cantons). </li></ul><ul><li>HVF (road charge) finances </li></ul><ul><li>Railway infrastructure </li></ul>More information in the brochure “Fair and efficient” / “Fair und effizient”
AlpTransit: bigger capacity, higher productivity Alptransit (base tunnels through the A l ps)
The 57-km long Gotthard base tunnel opening in 2016/2017 34-km long Lötschberg base tunnel, in service since 2007.
R ailway reform Railway reform Integration of european railway reform O pening of the railway market
Objective Integrations of operations of railway system in several countries (one European market, railway packages) Improvement of technology and logistics. Reality Problems of track maintenance in Europe Rail Freight in trouble Railway is still dominated by national reality (laws, technical requirements, etc.)
Not to forget: Controls of trucks <ul><li>A fair competition between transport modes also need the respect of existing norms : </li></ul><ul><li>- Controls of trucks (Safety) </li></ul><ul><li>Respect of working and rest periods (social standards!) </li></ul><ul><li>… </li></ul>
Conclusion A: lessons from the HVF <ul><li>The Swiss Heavy vehicle fee could be an inspiration for European decision-makers on the internalisation of external costs (see discussion Eurovignette Directive) </li></ul><ul><li>road charging is working </li></ul><ul><li>is accepted by the population </li></ul><ul><li>economy is still among the most competitive in the world, despite the fear campaign by the road transport lobby who predicted a downturn. </li></ul>
Conclusion B: Railway infrastructure <ul><li>Importance of performing railway infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>The Swiss people, who demanded a shift of freight transport from road to rail, decided on it in several popular referendums (incl. financing) </li></ul><ul><li>But as well use and maintain the existing infrastructure! </li></ul><ul><li>Access lines have to be finished and the network must work – not only new “high speed” projects! </li></ul><ul><li>‘ hardware’ needs to be accompanied by ‘software’ </li></ul>
Inspiration for Europe? « Explain our problems in Bruxelles »: Transport flows do not start and stop north and south of the A l ps and not at Polands boarders, but are european and global!
Alptransit Gotthard – Erstfeld Trucks control center Erstfeld A lot of information work needed
Risk for modal shift: longer and heavier trucks
Strong european alliances a nd involved citizens needed !
Thank you for your attention! www.alpine-initiative.ch (d, f, i, e) [email_address] Alpen-Initiative Herrengasse 2 Postfach 28 CH-6460 Altdorf Tel. +41 (0)41 870 97 81 Fax +41 (0)41 870 97 88 firstname.lastname@example.org www.alpeninitiative.ch
Alpine Crossing Exchange Another instrument in the future? Quelle BAV Continuation accompanying measures (financial support of intermodal transport, controls of trucks) Swiss HVF NRLA Railway Reform
Alpine Crossing Exchange (I) offer and demand balanced and regulated by an exchange sensitive Alps: a limited resource, limited capacity limited offer high demand of road crossing trips
Other transport modes have a d emand managment Planes: Airport slots F reight trains : Charges for railway paths Ferry: Tickets <ul><li>We would like that in the future the crossing of the Alps and other sensitive regions need a crossing right ! </li></ul>