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  1. 1. Psychology Topics to be discuss: • Types of perception • Errors of perception
  2. 2. Types of Perception
  3. 3. Goal Myth – Perception = Sensation Reality – Perception ≠ Sensation
  4. 4. Perception The sorting out, interpretation, analysis, and integration of stimuli by the sense organs and brain.
  5. 5. Visual Perception Visual perception is one of the senses, consisting of the ability to detect light and interpret (see) it as the perception known as sight or naked eye vision. Vision has a specific sensory system, the visual system.
  6. 6. Visual Perception The major problem in visual perception is that what people see is not simply a translation of retinal stimuli (i.e., the image on the retina). Thus people interested in perception have long struggled to explain what visual processing does to create what we actually see.
  7. 7. Auditory Perception Auditory perception is the ability to perceive and understand sounds, usually with specific organs, such as a human's ears. Sound exists in the form of vibrations that travel through the air or through other substances. Ears detect such vibrations and convert them into nerve impulses, which are then sent to the brain where they can be interpreted.
  8. 8. Auditory Perception Deafness describes a condition in which individuals have no auditory perception; deaf individuals are not capable of perceiving or interpreting sounds. Different animals can perceive different sounds; dogs, for example, are capable of perceiving very high-pitched sounds that humans cannot perceive.
  9. 9. Gustatory Perception It seems that interaction between olfaction (smell sensation) and gustation (taste sensation) will stronger than other interactions among five senses, although no one has ever confirmed psychophysically.
  10. 10. Gustatory Perception In this study, we utilized synchrony perception task to confirm this specificity comparing control condition, interaction between vision and olfaction and one between vision and gustation.
  11. 11. Tactual Perception Tactual perception or is the awareness of physical objects through the sense of touch which is mediated by the somatosensory system.
  12. 12. Tactual Perception Touch may be considered one of five human senses; however, when a person touches something or somebody this gives rise to various feelings: the perception of pressure (hence shape, softness, texture, vibration, etc.), relative temperature and sometimes pain. Thus the term "touch" is actually the combined term for several senses.
  13. 13. The Gestalt Law of Organization A series of principles that describes how we organize bits and pieces of information into meaningful wholes.
  14. 14. The Gestalt Law of Organization Organizing these various bits and pieces of information into meaningful wholes constitutes some of the basic processes of perception which summed up in the gestalt law of organization.
  15. 15. The Gestalt Law of Organization Gestalt psychologists focused on how we GROUP objects together. We innately look at things in groups and not as isolated elements. Proximity (group objects that are close together as being part of same group) Similarity (objects similar in appearance are perceived as being part of same group) Continuity (objects that form a continuous form are perceived as same group) Closure (like top-down processing…we fill gaps in if we can recognize it)
  16. 16. Figure - Ground Relationship Our first perceptual decision is what is the image is the figure and what is the background.
  17. 17. Grouping & Reality Although grouping principles usually help us construct reality, they may occasionally lead us astray.
  18. 18. Top – Down Processing Top-down processing refers to the use of contextual information in pattern recognition. For example, understanding difficult handwriting is easier when reading complete sentences than when reading single and isolated words. This is because the meaning of the surrounding words provide a context to aid understanding.
  19. 19. Top – Down Processing Ca- yo- re- d t- is -en-en-e, w-ic- ha- ev-ry -hi-d l-tt- r m-ss-ng?
  20. 20. Top – Down Processing Ca- yo- re- d t- is -en-en-e, w-ic- ha- ev-ry -hi-d l-tt-r m-ss-ng? Can you read this sentence, which has every third letter is missing?
  21. 21. Bottom – Up Processing Bottom-up processing is also known as data-driven processing, because perception begins with the stimulus itself. Processing is carried out in one direction from the retina to the visual cortex, with each successive stage in the visual pathway carrying out ever more complex analysis of the input.
  22. 22. Perceptual Constancy Phenomenon in which physical objects are perceived as unvarying and consistent despite changes in their appearance or in the physical environment.
  23. 23. Depth Perception The ability to view the world in three dimensions and to perceive distance.
  24. 24. Depth Perception • Eleanor Gibson and her Visual Cliff Experiment. • If you are old enough to crawl, you are old enough to see depth perception. • We see depth by using two cues that researchers have put in two categories: • Monocular Cues • Binocular Cues
  25. 25. Depth Perception Visual Cliff Experiment
  26. 26. Motion Perception Motion Perception depends on cues such as the perceived movement of an object across the retina and information about how the head and eyes are moving.
  27. 27. Perceptual Illusion Visual Illusions Physical stimuli that consistently produce errors in perception.
  28. 28. Extra Sensory Perception ESP refers to the ability to perceive stimuli that are outside the 5 senses Telepathy: the ability to read minds Clairvoyance: the ability to perceive objects or events Precognition: the ability to predict the future Psychokinesis: the ability to move objects
  29. 29. Errors Of perception
  30. 30. Illusion An illusion is a distortion of a sensory perception. Each of the human senses can be deceived by illusions, but visual illusions are the most well known. Some illusions are subjective; different people may experience an illusion differently, or not at all.
  31. 31. Any movement you see is an illusion!
  32. 32. Hallucination Hallucination, the experience of perceiving objects or events that do not have an external source, such as hearing one’s name called by a voice that no one else seems to hear. A hallucination is distinguished from an illusion, which is a misinterpretation of an actual stimulus.
  33. 33. Delusion Delusion, in psychology, a rigid system of beliefs with which a person is preoccupied and to which the person firmly holds, despite the logical absurdity of the beliefs and a lack of supporting evidence. Delusions are symptomatic of such mental disorders as paranoia, schizophrenia, and major depression and of such physiological conditions as senile psychosis and delirium.
  34. 34. Miano, Jay-Vee M. Psychology - Types of Perception and Errors of Perception  Feldman. Psychology and Your Life. Mc Graw Hill Companies. 2010. THANK YOU FOR USING THIS AS A REFERENCE