Organizational behavior is a field of study that
investigates the impact that individuals, groups
and structures have on behavior within an
organization for the purpose of applying such
knowledge towards improving an organization's
Individual behavior can be understood by
(a) Basic model of behavior
(b) S-R model of behavior
(c) MARS model of behavior
Responses pattern of behavior
Historical evolution of organizational
Developed by F.W Taylor at the beginning
of 20th century.
1. Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with
2. Scientifically select, train and develop
3. Cooperate with the workers
4. Divide work equally between managers
Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with
Scientifically select, train and develop each
Cooperate with the workers
Divide work equally between managers
The approach is presented by max weber.
Focus on how to structure the whole
organization more effectively.
The Hawthorne studies were conducted in
order to find out the role of human
resource in increasing the production of an
Conducted between 1924-1932
Conducted at WESTERN ELECTRIC
COMPANY, Chicago, USA
Provides opportunity to management.
To analyze why and how an individual
Organizational behavior integrates factors
to provide simplicity in understanding the
Controlling and directing behavior
Use of power and sanction
Personality is made up the characteristic
patterns of thoughts, feelings, and
behaviors that make a person unique. It
arises from within the individual and
remains fairly consistent throughout life.
A number of different theories have
emerged to explain different aspects of
personality. The following are just a few of
the major theories of personality proposed
by different psychologists……
In 1936,psychologist Gordon Allport found
that one english-language dictionary alone
contained more than 4000 words
describing different personality traits. He
categorized these traits into three levels :
Trait theorist Raymond Cattell reduced the
number of main personality traits from
allport’s list of over 4000 down to 171.
4. Emotional stability
Calm versus high
6. Openness to change
10. Rule consciousness
attached to the familiar.
Discreet versus open.
11. Self reliance
13. Social boldness
Uninhibited versus shy.
Impatient versus relaxed.
British psychologist hans eysenck
developed a model of personality based
upon just three universal traits.
These are three dimensions :
1. Introversion /extraversion
2. Neuroticism /emotional stability