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Oz!a 2009 sna v0.2

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Oz!a 2009 sna v0.2

  1. 1. Social Networking Analysis: uncovering the secrets of information flow for our information architecture Maria Horrigan Principal Consultant OZIA October 09<br />
  2. 2. Slideshare and blogs<br /><br /><br /><br />@miahorri<br />#OZIA09 , #SNA<br />
  3. 3. Information and knowledge<br />Human absorptive capacity<br />Growth<br />Time<br />Cohen & Levinthal 1989<br />A world of rapidly growing knowledge ….<br />
  4. 4. ....that is increasingly connected<br />..and just a click away<br />local<br />networks<br />Old colleagues<br />colleagues<br />at other offices<br />new friends<br />family<br />local<br />colleagues<br />old friends<br />virtual<br />communities<br />old classmates<br />
  5. 5. Case study <br />Context: (very political, high profile project)<br />Started with waterfall analysis (2 years)<br />No idea what the end solution would be like<br />Lots of information, but in people’s heads<br />Multiple stakeholders across multiple silos<br />Information flows between individuals and groups not well known<br />External industry pressure for project to occur<br />How could we leverage the network for the benefit of the project?<br />
  6. 6. SNA - the six degrees of separation<br />
  7. 7. Social Networking Analysis (SNA)<br />Helped us explore questions such as:<br />How does information flow into the network?<br />Where does the information flow?<br />Who is involved and why?<br />What are they saying?<br />What do they know?<br />How do they interact?<br />Strength of relationships & interactions ?<br />Are there emergent sub-groups?<br />
  8. 8. What we did<br />Adopted an agile approach<br />Broke down huge project puzzle into smaller business issues to solve<br />Partnered IA+BAs to lead three streams of activities (IA had visualisation of all the different parts of the puzzle)<br />Used SNA in each stream to uncover the information needs of the users<br />Used “skinny” documentationto convey to stakeholders the key features of the system, its processes and the flow of information <br />
  9. 9. Into<br />informal organisation<br />Turned<br />formal Organisation<br />Uncovered organisational networks <br />Teigland et al. 2005<br />
  10. 10. Centrality : revealing network structure <br />Very centralized network - one or a few very central ‘nodes’. If removed, network quickly fragments and fails <br />Less centralized network - resilient. Many nodes can fail yet allow remaining nodes to still reach each other <br />Boundary Spanners - connect their group to others. Innovators as have access to ideas and information in other clusters <br />Periphery of a network -may connect to networks not currently mapped. Important sources of fresh information <br />
  11. 11. SNA – Revealing Network Centrality<br /><br />
  12. 12. What we found: Degree of Centrality<br />Hub has most connections – authority gained<br />It not the “more connections the better”, but where they lead to…<br />..and how they connect the otherwise unconnected<br />
  13. 13. What we found: Betweeness Centrality <br />Great influence over what flows (and does not)<br />“location location location”<br />Broker role between <br /> Industry and Organisation<br />
  14. 14. What we found: Closeness Centrality <br />Shortest path to all others – gives quick access<br />Excellent position to monitor info flows<br />Best visibility of what is happening in the network<br />
  15. 15. Formal vs Informal Info Flow<br />
  16. 16. Formalvs Informal Info Flow<br />
  17. 17. Formal vsInformal Info Flow<br />
  18. 18. User Profiles within the Organisation<br />Boundary Spanner<br />Potential blocker<br />Influencer<br />Key source<br />Key User<br />Project Champion<br />Gatekeeper<br />Key User<br />Key decision maker<br />Trusted advisor<br />Periphery<br />Key User<br />
  19. 19. Access to more Knowledge and Info<br />… but of course these are just a subsection of the networked organisation<br />Map shows 1st & 2nd degree relationships <br />Someone on the periphery of your network may have access to many other networks within the organisation<br />
  20. 20. Leveraged Centrality<br />Understood who might be “blockers” or “gatekeepers” of information and content<br />Found people to go to in order to elicit information <br />Minimised re-work & unnecessary consultation – meeting fatigue<br />Quickly identified who might know the answer, communicate with them, understand their lessons learned, improve likely success <br />Knew who and how to communicate key messages through use of targeted IA tools <br />
  21. 21. Captured SNA in personas<br />Started off with ‘skinny’ view of users gained thru workshops<br />Added to personas as info uncovered thru SNA – place in the network, information preferences, types, communication styles & channels<br />Built up personas as we went in our agile project iterations, rather than all-at-once<br />
  22. 22. From skinny to zen personas<br />As our project knowledge evolved, we added to our understanding of users:<br />Their information preferences<br />Their expectations<br />Their capabilities<br />Their information needs<br />Their social network profiles (Forrester’s Technographics)<br />Documented as ‘ZenAgile’ personas<br />
  23. 23. Added style preferences to personas<br /><ul><li> People oriented
  24. 24. Animated
  25. 25. Creative
  26. 26. Outgoing
  27. 27. Goal oriented
  28. 28. Assertive
  29. 29. Task & information focused</li></ul>T<br />Talkers<br />D<br />Drivers<br />task<br />people<br />S<br />Supporters<br />C<br />Controllers<br /><ul><li> Logical
  30. 30. Information & task focus
  31. 31. Detail orientated
  32. 32. Cautious & risk averse
  33. 33. People oriented
  34. 34. Team players
  35. 35. Dependable
  36. 36. Stable</li></li></ul><li>Added communication channel preferences<br />People learn different ways<br />V= Visual (Something ‘seen’ or visual stimulation)<br />Need a graphic representation <br />A= Auditory (A ‘sound’ memory or related to a sound<br />Need to hear the explanation of how things work<br />K= Kinaesthetic (Has a ‘doing’ memory, feeling the emotion or activity of the memory<br />Need to use the system to understand<br />
  37. 37. Activity<br />Write 5 words or phrases that relate to the words: Beach and Ocean<br />Place a V, an A, or a K against each:<br />V=visual (Something ‘seen’ or had visual stimulation) e.g. See the blue sky, see children playing in the water<br />A=Auditory (A ‘sound’ memory or related to a sound e.g. Hear the waves against the shore<br />K=Kinaesthetic(Has a ‘doing’ memory & you thought of yourself feeling the emotion) e.g. Feel the sun and the sand, the taste of salt<br />
  38. 38. How we supported user learning<br />Best IA Tools:<br /><ul><li> Personas
  39. 39. Presentations (animation & diagrams)
  40. 40. Prototypes
  41. 41. Storyboards</li></ul>Best IA Tools:<br /><ul><li> Discuss User scenarios (their story)
  42. 42. Presentations
  43. 43. Podcasts</li></ul>Best IA Tools:<br /><ul><li> Prototypes
  44. 44. Workshops
  45. 45. UAT (User Acceptance Testing)</li></li></ul><li>Added social network behavioural preferences<br />
  46. 46. The result: ZenAgile Personas!<br />Social Technographics<br />Centrality<br />Communication preferences<br />
  47. 47. What did I learn?<br />Found out who knows what and how the info flowed through the organisation<br />Personas good way to help convey and shape understanding of user’s info needs<br />Agile approach - build on “skinny” profile & flesh out personas as the project proceeds<br />Involving the right people with the right info can mean the difference between success & failure<br />
  48. 48. Conclusions<br />
  49. 49. IA & Six Degrees of Separation<br />You may only be one or two degrees away from some who know the info you need<br />Information networks can be connected and lessons learnt and reuse made possible<br />
  50. 50. Applying SNA and Communications<br />Makes sure you understand the user dynamics with the organisation<br />Choose the right channel based on users style and preferences<br />Build personas as you uncover more about the users<br />Makes sure your IA artefacts match these preferences<br />
  51. 51. ”No one knows everything, <br />everyone knows something, <br />all knowledge resides in humanity ”<br />Networks <br />Lévy 1997<br />
  52. 52. Fin.Maria Horrigan Principal @miahorri<br />