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Final communication and connectedness v3

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Final communication and connectedness v3

  1. 1. Communication and Connectedness in Business Analysis Maria Horrigan Principal Consultant BA World Sept 2009<br />
  2. 2. Slideshare and blogs<br /><br /><br /><br />@miahorri<br /># BAWorld09 , #SNA<br />
  3. 3. Information and knowledge<br />Human absorptive capacity<br />Growth<br />Time<br />Cohen & Levinthal 1989<br />A world of rapidly growing knowledge ….<br />
  4. 4. ....that is increasingly connected<br />local<br />networks<br />old<br />colleagues<br />..and is just a click away<br />colleagues<br />at other offices<br />new friends<br />family<br />local<br />colleagues<br />old friends<br />virtual<br />communities <br />old classmates<br />
  5. 5. Modern IT Application Projects<br />People demand to be heard<br />People expect to be involved<br />People’s expectations of how good systems are is based on their experience of modern internet <br />..that means the Google World - Gmail, Google Search, Facebook, Flickr and YouTube of the “Nintendo” generation<br />
  6. 6. What does their expectation mean?<br />Project success hinges on communicating with people:<br />To understand what they want<br />To set expectations about what the project will actually deliver (and what it won’t)<br />To show them how the project will help them in their work<br />To uncover what they need . . .<br />
  7. 7. …sometimes they don’t know what they need<br />
  8. 8. What’s their requirement of you?<br />Knowing how to talk to people & get the info you need to write requirements<br />Effectively negotiating with important stakeholders<br />Getting the right messages to the right people at the right time<br />An understanding of both the ‘big picture’ and the detail <br />Understand the context & the situation<br />
  9. 9. Role of Business Analyst is key!<br />The Communicator <br />The Translator<br />The Juggler of technology and people’s needs<br />The one between the rock and a hard place<br />The Connector (bridge)<br />
  10. 10. How do we do all this Communications Stuff Effectively?<br />Analysethe stakeholders needs and wants, how they are connected and why<br />Understand how they communicate, their preference and style<br />Learnthe project in the context of people’s work and how this fits into the wider organisational context<br />
  11. 11. analyse stakeholders<br />Their needs and wants, their connections to others<br />
  12. 12. “It’s not what you know, it’s who you know”<br />Me and Bill Gates<br />Me and Brad<br />
  13. 13. Analysing “who is who in the zoo”<br />Who to talk to<br />Who has influence<br />Who knows the business needs <br />What drives & motivates people’s work behaviour <br />How to talk to them <br />How to tailor the communication to these different people<br />
  14. 14. Multiplicity of networks official vs. unofficial<br />Advice - Who do you go to for advice? <br />Who goes to you for advice?<br />Collaboration - Who do you collaborate with?<br />How do you collaborate (social media)<br />Trust - Who do you trust?<br />Who is your friend?<br />Conflict - Who is a blocker or gatekeeper?<br />
  15. 15. Social Networking Analysis<br />Mathematical, graphical, theoretical understanding of the social world<br />Mapping, understanding, analysing and measuring interactions across a network of people, groups, organisations, computers, and websites<br />Uncovers networks and their structures <br />Identifies flows of information & knowledge<br />Fosters knowledge sharing <br />
  16. 16. Understanding Social Networks <br />the location of actors in the network<br />the various roles and groupings in a network <br />Gives insight into:<br />who are the connectors, experts, leaders, bridges, isolates, the core or hub?<br />where are the clusters and who is in them?<br />who is on the periphery? <br />
  17. 17. Six Degrees of Separation<br />
  18. 18. Formal organization<br />Informalorganization<br />Uncovering networks in organisations<br />Teigland et al. 2005<br />
  19. 19. Centrality : revealing network structure <br />Very centralized network dominated by one or a few very central nodes, if removed, network fragments & fails <br />Less centralized network resilient in the face of attacks, many nodes can fail yet allow remaining to still reach each other <br />Boundary Spanners connect their group to others, positioned to be innovators as have access to ideas/info in other clusters <br />Periphery of a network may connect to networks not currently mapped, important sources for fresh information <br />
  20. 20. Dimensions to effective use of a Network <br />Knowledge - Knowing what someone knows<br />Access - Gaining timely access to that person<br />Engagement - Creating viable knowledge through cognitive engagement<br />Safety - Learning from a safe relationship<br />Cross, Parker and Borgatti, 2002<br />
  21. 21. Use of SNA to model users’ network and map the relationships between people, groups, organisations and information.<br />Case Study <br />
  22. 22. Context - New System to support assessment of applications for funding<br />Started with waterfall analysis (2 years of gathering requirements)<br />No idea what the end solution would be like (very political, high profile project)<br />Processes not well documented<br />Large organisational change project<br />External industry pressure for it to happen<br />
  23. 23. Problem to be solved<br />Multiple stakeholders across silos<br />Information flows between individuals and groups not well known<br />Limited documentation of information and processes (in people’s heads)<br />Terminology and Language issues <br />
  24. 24. What we did<br />Design team adopted an agile approach<br />Partnered BAs with IA to lead three streams of activities <br />SNA of key players (needed to know the information needs of these key users)<br />Needed “skinny” documentation to quickly convey understanding to stakeholders of the key features of the system and its processes and the flow of information <br />
  25. 25. Project Case Study<br /><br />
  26. 26. Degree of Centrality in Network<br />Hub has most connections – authority gained<br />It not the “more connections the better”, but where they lead to…<br />..and how they connect the otherwise unconnected<br />
  27. 27. Centrality and Betweenness<br />Great influence over what flows (and does not)<br />“location location location”<br />Broker role between <br />Business and IT<br />
  28. 28. Centrality and Closeness<br />Shortest path to all others – gives quick access<br />Excellent position to monitor info flows<br />Best visibility of what is happening in the network<br />
  29. 29. Project Case Study<br />Supporter<br />Key User<br />Gatekeeper<br />Influencer<br />Boundary Spanner<br />Project Champion<br />Key decision maker<br />Facilitator<br />Potential blocker<br />Trusted advisor<br />Periphery<br />Key User<br />
  30. 30. Access to more Knowledge and Info<br />… but of course these are just a subsection of the networked organisation<br />Map shows 1st & 2nd degree relationships <br />Someone on the periphery of your network may have access to many other networks within the organisation<br />
  31. 31. What did I learn<br />Getting the right people involved can be the difference between success & failure<br />Take the time to do upfront stakeholder analysis & plan the stakeholder activities <br />Build the team based on JIT assessment of what’s needed for the project – works well when you know who is who <br />Involve users in validation will increase adoption of and buy-in to the final solution<br />
  32. 32. Need to know the Team Capability & Tailor Communication to meet their needs<br />What competencies do they bring to the team<br />What is the role of the BA?<br />Who else in the wider network could help contribute to the solution?<br />
  33. 33. Communicate Lesson Learned<br />Lessons learned<br />
  34. 34. Project Six Degrees of Separation<br />You may only be one or two degrees away from some who know the info you need<br />Project teams can be connected and lessons learnt and reuse made possible<br />
  35. 35. Leveraging Centrality<br />Leverage project champions <br />Understand who might be “blockers” or “gatekeepers” <br />Find the “go to people” to elicit info<br />Don’t reinvent the wheel<br />Communicate - understand their lessons learnt to improve likelihood of success <br />Know who to communicate key messages <br />
  36. 36. Now we know who, we need to know how…..<br />How they communicate, their preference for style & communication channels<br />Understanding stakeholders<br />
  37. 37. Understanding ‘how’ to Communicate<br />Style preference<br />Person’s orientation towards process vs. results <br />Need for recognition vs. need for security<br />Communication Channels preference<br />Visual, Auditory, Kinaesthetic <br />What type of medium for the message <br />How best to document and display the information<br />
  38. 38. Style<br /><ul><li> People oriented
  39. 39. Animated
  40. 40. Creative
  41. 41. Outgoing
  42. 42. Goal oriented
  43. 43. Assertive
  44. 44. Task & information focused</li></ul>T<br />Talkers<br />D<br />Drivers<br />task<br />people<br />S<br />Supporters<br />C<br />Controllers<br /><ul><li> Logical
  45. 45. Information & task focus
  46. 46. Detail
  47. 47. Cautious & risk averse
  48. 48. People oriented
  49. 49. Team players
  50. 50. Dependable
  51. 51. Stable</li></li></ul><li>Know your own style & preference<br />Stakeholders may have a very different style to me <br />“Driver”/“Controller” – analytical & results focused, need to bring people along rather than trying to push too hard<br />Use the strengths of your style & adapt to the different stakeholders on a project<br />No particular style is better than another<br />Contextual and situational so be flexible<br />
  52. 52. Communication Channels<br />People learn different ways<br />V= Visual (Something ‘seen’ or visual stimulation)<br />Need a graphic representation <br />A= Auditory (A ‘sound’ memory or related to a sound<br />Need to hear the explanation of how things work<br />K= Kinaesthetic (Has a ‘doing’ memory, feeling the emotion or activity of the memory<br />Need to use the system to understand<br />
  53. 53. Activity<br />Write 5 words or phrases that relate to the words: Beach and Ocean<br />Place a V, an A, or a K against each:<br />V=visual (Something ‘seen’ or had visual stimulation) e.g. See the blue sky, see children playing in the water<br />A=Auditory (A ‘sound’ memory or related to a sound e.g. Hear the waves against the shore<br />K=Kinaesthetic (Has a ‘doing’ memory & you thought of yourself feeling the emotion) e.g. Feel the sun and the sand, the taste of salt<br />
  54. 54. How to support learning in users<br />
  55. 55. V, A or K ? – Context Diagram<br />Visual<br />
  56. 56. V, A or ?- Prototypes<br />Visual<br />Exploring prototype in workshop is Kinaesthetic<br />
  57. 57. V, A or K? – Business Process Map<br />Visual<br />
  58. 58. V, A or K? – Presentation<br />Auditory<br />Can be Visual and Kinaesthetic<br />
  59. 59. V, A or K? – Storyboarding<br />Kinaesthetic<br />Visual<br />
  60. 60. V, A or K ? - Workshop<br />Kinaesthetic<br />
  61. 61. V, A or K ? - Use Cases<br />Visual<br />
  62. 62. storyboards<br />use case reference<br />user experience<br />business process<br />personas<br />system objects/<br />page types required<br />requirements lists<br />Agile - Requirements “On a Page”<br />Caters to most styles & channel preferences<br />
  63. 63. How they Learn<br />Best BA Tools:<br /><ul><li> Context Diagrams
  64. 64. Process maps
  65. 65. Presentations (animation and diagrams)
  66. 66. Prototypes
  67. 67. Storyboards</li></ul>Best BA Tools:<br /><ul><li> Discuss User scenarios (their story)
  68. 68. Presentations
  69. 69. Podcasts</li></ul>Best BA Tools:<br /><ul><li> Prototypes
  70. 70. Workshops
  71. 71. UAT (User Acceptance Testing)</li></li></ul><li>Know the project in the context of people’s work and how this fits into the wider organisational context<br />Learn the Context<br />
  72. 72. Business Context of the Project<br />Critical to understand business needs<br />Look at the project within context of the organisation and the business unit<br />Enterprise Analysis vs. Business Analysis<br />It’s not about You! It’s about Users<br />Always ask if what you are doing is adding value and how does it link back to the strategy<br />
  73. 73. Understanding the Business is Good Communication<br />IT is now part of the business - every program, every initiative, will have some touch point with technology<br />Success depends on anticipation of future trends , ability to sense upcoming developments and to design appropriate systems and processes <br />Resolving misunderstandings about requirements <br />Uncovering needs vs. wants<br />
  74. 74. What needs to be considered<br />Not just about the technology<br />
  75. 75. Take home messages<br />Conclusions<br />
  76. 76. Conclusions<br />
  77. 77. Take Home messages<br />Projects can be more successful if:<br />You take the time to analyse the people, relationships, connections between them<br />You understand communication preferences will vary amongst stakeholders<br />Are flexible and adapt your style and channel to you audience<br />Communicate as have a key role as translator to bridge the gap between technology and the work people need to do <br />Get the right people working on the solution<br />
  78. 78. Applying SNA and Communications<br />Choose the right channel based on users style and preferences<br />Makes sure you have the right team with the right skills<br />Makes sure your deliverables match these preferences<br />
  79. 79. ”No one knows everything, <br />everyone knows something, <br />all knowledge resides in humanity ”<br />Networks <br />Lévy 1997<br />
  80. 80. Fin.Maria Horrigan Principal @miahorri<br />