Impact on society<br />People began to question their beliefs because of the newly found ‘science’ that could be physically proved.<br />Because of the expansion of science, belief of the place of humans in the universe was questioned.<br />There was a religious revival due to the general population’s adjusting understanding.<br />The rivalry between science, religion and the supernatural was paramount as new theories, ideas and explanations came forward.<br />There was increasing interest with death, and what happened to people (and their bodies) after they died.<br />Society’s obsession (even paranoia) regarding the new found interest even led them to truly believe that people could become ‘undead’.<br />Practices would then be performed to ensure that the supernatural would not affect people, such as; the dead being placed face-down in a coffin to prevent becoming the ‘undead’ and a knife to the heart of anyone who died of a plague to ensure death.<br />
Conflicting views of the time<br />During the time societies beliefs on ‘science’ and ‘religion’ changed dramatically.<br />Some people believed that the bible should be taken literally whilst others believed in the power of the supernatural and its presence.<br />Some people believed that the scriptures should be taken literally and that they were the basis for moral behavior.<br />Some forms of science began to contemplate the idea that God may not exist and that he played no role in the universe.<br />Most respectable men detested the idea that there was no God and lived their lives according to the scriptures.<br />However once advancements in science continued, especially as geological finds began to provide evidence for how structures were formed, people began to question their religious beliefs.<br />Many people strongly believed in the superstitions that surrounded them and fought to protect themselves from things such as demons.<br />
Historical Context And What was Happening<br />During the time of the Victorian Era, society (particularly British society) was in midst of a crisis. With the growing prominence of science, old religious beliefs were being questioned, threatening the power of the various churches.<br />Some of these scientific developments helped lead to the fascination with death, superstitions and the supernatural that is prevalent during this time.Public faith began to sway between choosing religious or scientific ideas.<br />Some people were convinced of the existence of the supernatural, filled with superstitions carried over from religious beliefs. Science would help to disprove this through fact and so on.<br />This is what made the Victorian Era different to previous generations, due to the growing acceptance of science.<br />
Historical Context And What was Happening (Con)<br />In the Victorian Era, when all of these changes were happening, it brought on great fascinations and new widespread cultural trends<br />Some of the things that were happening at this time include:<br />Grave robbing<br />New fields in medical science due to the study of the human anatomy after death<br />In London around this time, the average lifespan for an upper class male was 44. With tradesmen, it was 25 and for a laborer it was 22 years of age. 57 of every 100 children of working class families were dead by the age of 5. Because of all this death surrounding Victorian society, the fascination was justified and fueled the interest into the supernatural etc.<br />
what was the historical context?<br />1801 – Russia’s influence in the region grows<br />1802 – First library opened in Transylvania (present-day Romania).<br />1806-12 – Wallachia (part of present day Romania) is ruled by the Russians.<br />1813-14 - Caragea’s plague causes 60,000 deaths in Wallachia <br />1818 – The first modern code of law was introduced in Wallachia<br />1821 – Russian and Ottoman Empire sign a treaty to end the war <br />1826 - Moldavia is granted local leaders by the Ottoman and Russian Empires <br />1834 – The first Legislative Assembly is established in Wallachia<br />1844 – Slavery of Romanians ends<br />1848 – The Revolution hugely impacts and unions between Transylvania and Hungary are demanded. The Romanian-speaking Transylvanians form their own parallel revolution opposed to this union.<br />1847 – Moldavia and Wallachia establish a union<br />
1848 – The Revolution hits Moldavia but is unsuccessful in Wallachia and is quickly suppressed<br />1849 - GrigoreAlexandruGhica is crowned prince of Moldavia and brings many important reforms and helps to develop the economy and education<br />1854 - First railway line built on present-day Romanian territory opens<br />1856 - Crimean War spells an end to Russian power in Moldavia<br />1856 - The Treaty of Paris sees Wallachia and Moldavia come under the influence of Western Europe<br />1859 – The National Party is founded in Moldavia<br />1862 – Romania is formed combining Wallachia, Moldavia and Transylvania<br />1881 – Carol I is crowned as King of the new Kingdom of Romania<br />1882 - The Stock Exchange opens in Bucharest<br />1884 – First telephone is installed in Romania<br />1896 - Port of Constanta begins construction and is now the main port of Romania<br />1896- Cinema debuts in Romania<br />
What was happening at the time?<br /><ul><li>Romania just finished a war of Independence lasting for about one year, during 1877 to 1878. The war called the Russian-Romanian-Turkish war, which results in Romania being recognized as an independent country with no Russian and Turkish influence.
In the late 19th century King Carol 1 signed a secret treaty with the Triple Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy).
Interest in Western Europe culture began to grow as rich sons studied in Western countries. </li></li></ul><li>what was the effect or impact on society?<br /><ul><li>The Victorian Period was a time of great conflict and monumental change to the common values and beliefs within English society. Meanwhile in Eastern Europe the science revolution, which was taking place in England had not yet occurred and superstition was stronger than ever.
Superstition in Eastern Europe not only controlled people’s lives, but it also created false fear and threats within societies.
Uncontrolled belief in superstitions can have a negative impact on how people conduct their lives. When applied in extremes, such thoughts can become destructive to the point of debilitation.
Superstitious beliefs within the East were tied to the supernatural or unexplainable events that are in the scope of things otherwise beyond our control.</li></li></ul><li>Superstitions<br />The Victorian period form 1837 – 1901 was an age where customs and practices in relation to death were very important<br />Religion was tightly connected to the customs linked with the dying and death <br />In 19th century Europe the dead were carried out of the house feet first, so the deceased could not look back into the house and beckon other family members to follow <br />In Romania, they only wear pink on Wednesdays.<br />The use of flowers and scented candles were used to mask the unpleasant odors in the room before embalming became more common<br />Grave robbery, often doctors themselves, became a problem as the fascination with the dead became more evident<br />The fear of a loved one being accidentally buried alive arose the idea of attaching a bell on the grave which was connected by a chain to the inside of a coffin in cases of premature burial<br />Never wear anything new to a funeral, especially shoes<br />Large drops of rain warn that there has been a death<br />If you do not hold your breath while going past a graveyard you will not be buried<br />Victorian symbols of mourning included items of jewelry, memorial cards and photographs<br />Photographs of the deceased were called ‘memento mori’ which is Latin for, “Remember you will die.”<br />Women played a more interactive role than men in the 19th century customs associated with death<br />
Scientific advancements<br />Inventions were growing at a fast pace compared to previous years. Electric light, one of the main inventions of the Victorian era, helped light up the streets that were once dark and dull, to become bright and full of life as it allowed for nightlife. <br /> Medicine is said to have transformed over night in the 19th century. These advances occurred in chemistry, laboratory technique and precise medical equipment, which aided people with serious medical needs<br />
Scientific Advancements<br />Some advances; anaesthetic, the ophthalmoscope, the hypodermic syringe, antiseptics, discovery of tubercle bacillus and cholera bacillus, rabies vaccination, cholera vaccination, the contact lens and the x-ray<br />These advances in medicine and the introduction of new inventions allowed the Victorian era to thrive. Many great inventors, doctors and scientist came from this era. <br />
The English naturalist Charles Darwin was one of the most prominent people in the world of science that came from the Victorian Era. He produced a number of works that explain his theories and discoveries including On the Origin of Species. This book outlined his theory of evolution and this shook the ideas that most of society had about their place in the world.<br />Thomas Edison is a renowned scientist/inventor of the Victorian era, who invented the electric light bulb <br />Scientists of the time<br />
Scientists of the time<br />Other significant people were:<br /> Louis Agassaiz - palaeontologist and systematist<br /> George Combe – phrenologist<br /> Alexander Brain – psychologist<br />Britain was a nation that produced many great scientist during the Victorian Era and they had a large influence in the scientific society.<br />
Fascination with blood and death<br />Blood was seen as central to society, it was seen that British people had the same blood, and it was different from other races – blood was what made a race, what made them British and therefore superior<br />Blood was seen as more than physical item – symbol of identity, alliance and family<br />Blood was also seen as central to medical importance – very much an important role in society<br />
Fascination with blood and death<br />With advancements in science, death became more fascinating and scientists and fanatics delved deeper into understanding the human body and death<br />There were many superstitions that were often followed in the event of a death to ensure a clear passage to the afterlife<br />
Science and religion<br />In the beginning, religion and science were seen to be in accordance, not one or the other. This was reinforced by beliefs that nature ‘showed evidence of design’, implying God was creator.<br />However, as time progressed and more discoveries were made, the literal meaning of the Bible became threatened.<br />Expert scientists often preferred clergymen not to interfere with science, rather keeping the two seperate<br />
Science and religion<br />Science was slowly losing its connections with religion as some people, around the world as well as British men of science, were questioning the role God played in the creation and the “goings on” of the universe<br />Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution also challenged religion as it offered a scientific explanation of how humans came to be, which had merit and in some ways disproved teachings of the Bible<br />Faith in religion by the end of the Victorian era was not so concrete as it was in the beginning; it was being challenged and questioned by science<br />
Gender roles in society was a significant issue during the Victorian era. It is no secret that there was a large divide between the status of women and men. <br />The Victorian class system defined a woman’s role. Generally women existing within the lower classes were seen to be and treated no better than slaves.<br />The ideology of women during this time was that they were to be innocent, virtuous, dutiful and be ignorant of intellectual opinion.<br />Women were “groomed like a racehorse” for courtship and marriage.<br />Once married everything a woman owned belonged to her husband.<br />A woman’s sole purpose was to marry and reproduce, a single woman attracted disapproval and pity.<br />They were entitled to little education and particularly in the early years of the Victorian era women were barred from universities and could not follow a profession.<br />Even though it was an era of inequity for women, there were however some significant women of the time who helped shape history.<br />
The role of women<br />*The life of women in Victorian era was generally centered on family commitments. Women were seen as temples of love and purity- and so, could not be used for physical exertion or pleasurable sex. The only role of women in the Victorian era was to get married and look after the homely chores. The young ladies were groomed thoroughly to get married and had to be innocent, virtuous, biddable, and dutiful. <br />However women’s roles and duty’s in both the home and indeed that of society was vastly dependent upon their social status. The woman of the "high or elite class" enjoyed all the amenities and favors that one could think of. Dancing was a preferred pastime among most of the upper-class women and men. Those that were graced with high class dared not bother themselves with home chores but instead told others what to do. There soul purpose was to marry and raise children. On the other side of the spectrum however the women of lower class worked in the factories, garment industries, laundries or various other jobs to support themselves. Another employment for "Lower" working class women was the domestic service. the domestic servants were supposed to work seven days a week and twelve hours a day. A large percentage of women also worked as nurses in hospitals and were employed in offices during the later part of the century.<br />
Education<br />During the Victorian era a woman’s education was primarily taken in the home. Boarding schools were available but very few attended them.<br />Mainly only women in the upper and middle classes were granted the opportunity to be educated however the content of study was very different for girls than for boys.<br />Girls were only educated in areas such as French, drawing, dancing and use of globes, any other practical skills taught involved sewing or embroidery. There was a large emphasis on becoming a good house wife and mother in women’s education during this era as well.<br />Boy’s however were subjected to a wide range of academic subjects whilst growing up. Boys were required to learn ancient languages and literature, mathematics, law, philosophy and history. This evidently explains the divide between men and women’s education during the Victorian Era.<br />The later part of this period education for women began to be taken more seriously, in 1833 Oberlin college was founded which became the first university to accept women and black people and at the Seneca Falls Convention there was a push for women’s education and suffrage.<br />
Women’s Rights<br />In the Victorian Era, if a woman found a lover, she wasn’t to go public with the news, as she would be cut from society.<br />Until late 1887, married women had no rights to own property.<br />Ideology of women being seen as their husband’s property was reflected within the household.It was known that a husband was responsible for his wife and bound by law to protect her and that she was therefore supposed to obey him.<br />Women had no right to manage their own sexual activity or had any protection against physical abuse.<br />Any income that a woman earned was owned completely by her husband.<br />A woman was unable to draw up her own contract of rights, as she needed her husband’s agreement.<br />Additionally, a woman could not be punished for offences such as theft and burglary if she was acting under the command of her husband.<br />Changes concerning marriage laws and legal status of women took place in this era.<br />The introduction of the “Married Women’s Property Act” (1887), gave women of the Victorian Era the right to own their own property.<br />Women had no legal say in how many children they would have.<br />It was known that if a wife separated from her husband, she had no rights to seek access to her children as the husband had the right to refuse any contact between the mother and children.<br />The husband always received custody of their children, leaving the mother with no rights, although this started to change.<br />The change was due to the “Custody of Infants Act” in 1839.<br />The change in divorce law granted women access to their children in the event of divorce or separation.<br />From 1886, a woman could be made the sole guardian of her children if her husband died.<br />The “Matrimonial Causes Act” in 1857 gave women limited access to divorce.<br />Although a man only had to prove his wife’s adultery, a woman had to prove that her husband had committed incest, desertion or cruelty and bigamy, as well as the act of adultery.<br />Minor changes to women of the Victorian Era’s rights gave women the chance to be an individual, separate and independent person.<br /> <br />
Significant women during the Victorian Era<br />Queen Victoria 1819- 1901 <br />Queen Victoria was one of the youngest queens of England <br />She was crowned at the age of 18<br />England grew socially and economically under her rule<br />Elizabeth Garret Anderson 1836-1917<br />Elizabeth Anderson was the first woman to qualify as a doctor in Britain<br />She founded a hospital for poor women and children in London<br />She started a women’s discussion group called the Kensington Society<br />In 1864 the society organized a petition to grant women the vote. Parliament rejected it.<br />Florence Nightingale 1820-1910<br />She was the founder of modern nursing<br />“The lady with the lamp”<br />In 1854 she took charge of nursing soldiers wounded in the Crimean War<br />After organizing the cleaning of a rat infested military hospital and proper nursing the death rate dropped dramatically<br />
Bibliography<br />http://www.victorianweb.org/science/science&religion.html<br />http://berkeley.edu/news/berkeley/2000/04/05/death.html<br />Leslie S. Klinger: The Historical Context Of Dracula article<br />Dracula- The True Story video clip<br />http://www.fsmitha.com/h3/h29-fr.htm<br />