Counseling is a science and an art . It is ascience because it applies techniques andprocedures that are utilized in helping aperson to understand their situations andemploy the most adequate solutions forproblem solving and life change; it is an artbecause it allows the therapist to use uniqueor own personality and experiences inassisting the client.
Counseling denotes a professional relationshipbetween a trained counselor and a client…tounderstand and clarify their views of their lifespace…and through resolution of problems ofand emotional or interpersonal nature (George,Cristiani p. 2)Counseling refers to the application of mentalhealth, psychological or human developmentprinciples, through cognitive, affective,behavioral or systematic intervention (Gladdingp. 6)
Counseling attempts to provideencouragement and guidance forthose who are facing losses, decisions,or disappointments…stimulatepersonality growth and development;help people cope more effectively withthe problems of living, with inner conflictand with crippling emotions… (Collins1988, p.16)
Christian Counseling may be defined as an art and ascience of applying Biblical principles to treat clients’issues with the use of all the rudiments of professionalcounseling. Class Definition (2010)Christian counseling draws upon psychology andChristian teaching. It is an effort to combineprofessional counseling with Christian or other religiousperspectives or approaches: “integration.”(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christian_counseling)Christian Counseling may be defined as an art and ascience of applying Biblical principles to treat clients’issues with the use of all the rudiments of professionalcounseling.
Sin is the primary focus of mankind’sdysfunction (Rom 5:12-14)Salvation, and transformation throughcounseling from the gospel is the primarysolution.Scripture is authoritative and necessary forChristian counseling because it is God’s soulcare guidebook
Triune GodSelf Others Material Universe A Four-Dimensional Relational Model
Unique Assumptions – Sin is the primary cause (fall of man) of man’s deprived state and that restoration/forgiveness of God through salvation and transformation will make man ‘totally whole’. Unique Goals – To stimulate spiritual growth by encouraging confession of sin, experience divine forgiveness and commit lives to Jesus Christ. Unique Methods – The application of prayer and faith in God are cornerstones of pastoral counseling. Unique Counselor-Characteristics – Demonstrate personal reliance upon the same factors of salvation, transformation and a relationship with God. Unique Giftedness – As believers we demonstrate the characteristics of God and equipped by God. Collins p. 19-20
Psychology Spirituality Focus on the mind • Focus on God • Describes the source Describe human of man experiences and • Applies Faith behaviors • Understand the Applies Logic meaning (source) of Understand the being structure of beingPsychology can not deduce the meaning or morality oflife while Theology/Spirituality is not equip to explore the dynamics of personality.
Is the process ofhelping people makeimportant choicesthat affect their lives.…(Gladding p.5)
Focuses on seriousproblemsassociated withintra-psychic,internal, personalissues/conflict (p.6)
The science thatsystematicallystudies behaviorand experiences
The service of assistingclients to manage theirproblems in living moreeffectively
The ability tostimulate a person tooperate or behave ina selected way
Operate as anagent between theclient and theirpersonal issue
The systematicprocess of trainingand assimilation inorder to confrontissues
An authoritativeentity thatdetermines how adispute is settled orapportioned
Guidance focuses on helping individuals choose what they value most. Counseling focuses on helping individuals make changes.
Psychotherapy focuses on causing change Counseling focuses on assisting the person to change They have different clients › Psychotherapist – deals with neurosis (mental dysfunctions) › Counselor – deals with persons with poor coping and decision making skills.
Psychology focuses on observing behavior Counseling focuses on behavior change Psychology is non-engaging Counseling is interactive and intimate Psychology focuses on the pattern of behavior Counseling focuses on the reasons/sources of behavior
Helping may bare the closes resemblance or comparison to counseling Helping is the process of assisting someone in an informal and non-technical/scientific manner Counseling provides a support system and provides technical/scientific skills Persons will seek help based on the competence of the person they seek out to help them Counseling is done by someone who is trained
Motivation stimulates a person through external influence and reward Counseling focuses on empowering the person to effect life change
Intervention is initiated by others Counseling is initiated by the person; even if there is external motivation Intervention uses external pressures to stimulate emotions to effect change Counseling uses personal/internal reflection and reasoning to effect change
Coaching provides premeditated or rehearsed action for future events Counseling addresses coping skills for present daily living Coaching is a form of education that assist in anticipating probable future circumstances Counseling educates persons in basis skills
Mediation involves a third-party making decisions Counseling requires the client to reach to a point of making decisions Mediation focuses on present issue only Counseling focuses on present issue and provide coping skills for the future
The actions of people are as a result of basic desires and needs. Basic Needs › Love › Acceptance/Belonging › Companionship/Support › Identity and Direction (who am I?)
If needs are not fulfilled people become dysfunctional . A dysfunction is the level of distress or impaired functioning experienced by the individual…from which the atypical behavior displayed varies from the culturally expected norm. (http://healthmad.com/mental- health/variance-in-psychological-dysfunction/)
S.A.L.T. stands for stressed, angry, lonely, and tired/ threatenedThe effect of an issue/problem on a person’s life:• View of Self• Choices• Response to situations• View of Others• Expectations• Relationships• Functioning• Health
Extravert Introvert (Closed) (Open)More is revealed More is hidden than hidden than revealed
Negative Motives Positive Motives• Emotional distress/displacement • Is adjusted (have an identity)– – unresolved issues, and using copes with personal issues someone elses problems to over shadow own. • Respect and appreciate self• Vicarious Coping – Live their lives • Objective (Open to Change) – through others ability to be open minded• Filling Void of Loneliness – a • Makes life oriented chooses since of feeling important to • Can admit to mistakes others • Appreciate the influence of• Desire Power – Ability to control culture others • Sincere interest in other• Need to Rescue – The counselor places self as the rescuer • Effective interpersonal skills (personal healing)
Goals of Counseling• Facilitating Behavior Change• Improve ability to develop healthy relationships• Enhance coping skills• Promote/ Improve decision making skills• Facilitating overall development of the client• Clients to develop a Christian/moral base (salvation and transformation)
Remedial › Functional Impairment Preventive › Anticipate and Accommodate Enhancement › Human Potential
What Counseling is Not! What Counseling Is!≠It is not about giving Providing a supportadvice≠It is not about thecoercion of people into base for peopleyour way of thinking It focuses on the≠It is not about working needs of the clientout someone’s problem Provides realisticfor them tools that can be used≠It is not telling the client by the clientwhat to do≠Not criticizing the client
Caught = the condition (sinfulness) Restore = the mission (heart transformed) Gently = the attitude/character (do no harm) Watch = the protection (watch self & ministry); see also I Tim. 4:16 Carry = daily goal (help bear burdens in personal relationships with people)
The PREACH principle for development: − Physical − Resources − Emotional − Action − Conceptual − Historical
In the Church In an Agency (Counselor: Pastor) (Counselor: Professional)• The counselor may only be trained • The counselor has received formal within a Biblical context, which will training in understanding behavior be used in guiding the counseling and approaches to counseling. process. • There is no defined demographic• Most persons who are counseled by (grouping) that comes for counseling this person are members of the at the agency. church/constituency. • Agency counselors do not have any• Church counselors generally have previous contact with clients before personal contact with persons before counseling. the initiation of counseling. • People gravitate towards the agency• Persons gravitate towards the church counselor because of reputation. counselor because of relationship.
In the Church In an Agency (Counselor: Pastor) (Counselor: Professional)• The church counselor may have the • The agency counselor relies totally ability to enhance the story of the upon the story of the client during client from sources outside the the counseling relationship. counseling relationship. • The agency counselor does not have• The church counselor generally has any contact with persons close to the direct contact with persons close to client; except by consent. the person coming for counseling. • The agency counselor can not cross• The church counselor may be reference independent counseling engaged in counseling persons close relationships; except for couples, or related to the person. family and group counseling.• Church counseling is used to guide a • Agency counseling is used to explore person morally/spiritually. choices.
Gladding, S. (2004) Counseling A Comprehensive Profession (5th ed.) Ohio George, R., Christiani, T. (1995) Counseling Theory and Practice (4th ed.) Boston Collins, G. (2007) Christian Counseling (3rd ed.) Nashville