Glass industry presentation


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Glass industry presentation

  1. 1. Glass Industry Presented to: Ma’am Aasia Farrukh Presented By: Faheem Abbas (22) Saeed Akhter (23) Rafique Khan (03) Muhammad Zubair (19) Muhammad Mohsin (39) Abbas Khattak (40) Syed Imad Zakir (56) 28/05/2k14 1 Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
  2. 2. Contents  History  Definition  Composition of glass  Few properties of glass  Raw materials  Chemical reactions  Method of manufacturing  Process flow diagram  Types of glass  Applications 28/05/2k14 2Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
  3. 3. History • This Material is made by Pliny. • While cooking a meal in a vessel placed • accidently upon a mass of trona at the seashore. • In early 6000 or 5000 B.C the Egyptians were making sham jewels of glass. • Window glass is made in 290 A.D • The Hand Blown glass is made in 12th century. • Glass works is funded in USA in1608 at Jamestown. 28/05/2k14 3Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
  4. 4. Introduction  Definition:  Physically : Glass may physically be defined as a rigid, undercooled liquid having no definite melting point and a sufficiently high viscosity greater than 10^12 Pa.s to prevent crystallization.  Chemically: Glass is chemically defined as the union of the non volatile inorganic oxides resulting from the decomposition and fusion of alkali and alkaline earth compounds, sand and other glass constituents, ending in a product with random structure. 28/05/2k14 4Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
  5. 5. Composition of glass  SAND – 70%  SODA ASH – 15%  LIMESTONE – 10% 28/05/2k14 5Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
  6. 6. Formation of Silica Sand  NATURALLY: Mechanical and chemical weathering of quartz being igneous and metamorphic rocks.  CHEMICALLY: Less stable minerals break down to become silica sand. 28/05/2k14 6Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
  7. 7. Formation of Soda ash  NATURALLY: Erosion of igneous rock from sodium deposits. Transport by waters as runoff and collect in basins when sodium comes in contact with CO2 precipitates out sodium carbonate.  CHEMICALLY: Chemically soda ash is obtained by Solvay process 28/05/2k14 7Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
  8. 8. Lime  Includes hydrated Ca(OH)2 and quick lime CaO. Only quick lime can be used to make glass. 28/05/2k14 8Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
  9. 9. Composition of the Glass 1.Soda lime glass: Soda lime glass constitutes 95% of all glass manufactured. SiO2 70 to 74% ,CaO 8 to 13% , Na2O 13 to 18% 2. Lead glass: These glasses are of very great importance in optical glass. SiO2 67% , As2O 0.5%, CaO 0.9% , Na2O 9.5% , K2O 7.1% , PbO 14.8%. 3. Borosilicate glass: B2O3 10 to 20% , Silica 80 to 87% , less than 10% Na2O 28/05/2k14Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt. 9
  10. 10. Properties of glass  Following are the properties exhibited by glass. 1. Capacity to absorb different colors without effecting transparency. 2. Hardness. 3. Chemically inert. 4. High refractive index 5. Amorphous 6. Brittleness 7. Transparency and translucence 8. Dispersion. 9. Vitrification. 10. Electrical insulators. 28/05/2k14 10Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
  11. 11. Conti…  AMORPHOUS: In condensed matter physics, an amorphous (meaning without shape or form) or non crystalline solid that lacks the long range order characteristic of a crystal.  Brittleness: A material is brittle if, when subjected to stress it breaks without significant deformation. 28/05/2k14 11Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
  12. 12. Conti…  TRANSPARENCY AND TRANSLUENCE: In the field of optics, transparency is the physical property of allowing light to pass through materials; translucency allows light to pass through diffusely. Capacity to absorb different colors without effecting transparency 28/05/2k14 12Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
  13. 13. Conti…  DISPERSION: In optics dispersion is the phenomenon in which phase velocity or a wave depends upon its frequency or alternatively when the group velocity depends on the frequency. Media having such a property are termed dispersive media. In a prism, material dispersion causes different colours to refract at different angles splitting white light into a rainbow. 28/05/2k14 13Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
  14. 14. Conti…  VITRIFICATION: It is a word (from Latin vitrium “glass” via French vitrifier) is the deformation of a substance into a glass. Usually, it is achieved by rapid cooling a liquid through the glass transition. Certain chemical reactions also result in glasses. 28/05/2k14 14Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
  15. 15. Raw materials  Following are the raw materials. 1. Sand: 2. Soda ash: Forms basic part of glass 3. Sodium nitrate: Accelerates melting 4. CaO: Forms the basic part of glass. 5. Silica: Forms acidic part of glass. 6. Barium sulphate: remove impurities in the form of scum. 7. Feldspar: Retards de-vitrification. 8. Potassium oxide: Used as a softening agent. 9. Borax: Increase hardness or refractive index. 10. Boric oxide: Improves chemical or corrosive resistivity. 11. Phosphoric oxide: To impart bright appearance. 12. Lead oxide: Increases insulation. 13. Selenium: Used as decolorizer. 28/05/2k14 15Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
  16. 16. Manufacturing process  FOLLOWING ARE THE STEPS FOR THE MANUFACTURING OF GLASS: 1. MELTING: 2. SHAPING AND FORMING: 3. ANNEALING: 4. FINISHING: 28/05/2k14 16Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
  17. 17. Conti…  MELTING: Based on the type of the glass suitable glass manufacture materials are selected. Raw materials are reduced in size by crushing and grinding. Raw materials are now subjected to melting in furnace.  POT FURNACE.  TANK FURNACE.  Pot furnace: For special glasses like optical glass. Raw materials are melted in pot furnace made of ceramic material capacities varying from 1-2 tons and is used for small production batches 28/05/2k14 17Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
  18. 18. Conti…  TANK FURNACE: Molten glass is obtained by melting the raw materials in 1350-1400 ton capacity regenerative tank furnace and can be used in continuous processes. During melting of raw materials various reactions occur at various temperatures.  Chemical reactions : Na2CO3 +aSiO2 Na2O.aSiO2+CO2 CaCO3+bSiO2 CaO.bSiO2+CO2 Na2SO4+cSiO2+C Na2O.cSiO2+SO2+CO 28/05/2k14 18Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
  19. 19. Conti…  SHAPING OR FORMING : Glass may be shaped by either machine or hand molding. The outstanding factor to be considered in machine molding is that the design of the glass machine should be such that the article is completed in very few seconds. During this relatively short time the glass changes from a viscous liquid to a clear solid. The design problems like flow of heat, stability of metals, and clearance of bearings should be solved. • Fourcault process window glass • Colburn process window glass • Continuous automatic process plate glass • Float process float glass • Glass blowing bottles, light bulbs, tubing 28/05/2k14 19Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
  20. 20. Conti…  ANNEALING: To reduce internal stresses; in annealing oven. • Walls are comparatively thick and cooling will not be even. • The inner and outer skins of a glass become rigid. • The still contracting inner portion build up internal stresses. • Uneven cooling develop substantial stresses in the glass. • Glass passes through a lehr after removal from the blow mold. • Lehr is a belt passing through the controlled temperature oven of about 200mm-300mm per minute. Glass temperature is raised to 565 *C and then gradually cooled to room temperature with all internal stresses reduced to safe level in about an hour as they exit. • Improperly annealed glass are fragile and high breakage. 28/05/2k14 20Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
  21. 21. Conti…  FINISHING: All types of annealed glass must undergo certain finishing operations, which are simple and important. These include: • Cleaning. • Grinding. • Polishing. • Cutting. • Sandblasting. • Grading etc. Although these are not required for every glass object, one or more is almost necessary. 28/05/2k14 21Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
  22. 22. Block diagram for glass producing 28/05/2k14Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt. 22
  23. 23. Process flow diagram 28/05/2k14 23Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
  24. 24. Types of glass  Simple Glass: • Float Glass • Light Bulbs • Glass tubing.  Special Glass: • Fused silica glass • High Silica glass • Colored and coated glass • Safety glass • Fiber glass 28/05/2k14 24Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
  25. 25. Simple glass  Float glass: • Pilkington Brothers in England it employs the tank furnace melting system • Molten glass passes through narrow canal which connects furnace and tin bath • Rate of flow is controlled by gate that spans the canal • controlled heating melts irregularities and produces both sides flat and parallel 28/05/2k14Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt. 25
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  28. 28. Conti…  Glass tubing: • The Danner process was developed for the continuous production of glass tubing and rods • Glass flows from a furnace in the form of a ribbon, and passed through a revolving hollow pipe inclined at 30⁰ • Glass flows and air is blown to form a tube, a belt pair grip it and draw it at uniform speed • Temperature, speed of drawing, volume of air blown control the dia and wall thickness of tube 28/05/2k14Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt. 28
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  31. 31. Conti…  Light bulb: • "ribbon machine" is used for the process • ribbon of glass is passed along a conveyor belt, heated in a furnace • then blown by air nozzles through holes in the conveyor belt into molds • Bulb envelope is formed • The filament and its supports are assembled on a glass stem, which is fused to the bulb • the air inside the bulb is evacuated, and the casing is filled with an argon and nitrogen mixture. 28/05/2k14Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt. 31
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  34. 34. Special Glass  Fused Silica Glass: • May be made by pure silica. • Manufactured by Corning by high temp pyrolysis of SiCl4. • This process lends itself naturally to controls which permit chemically pure SiO2. • The raw silica produced in the form of plates or boules. • The high temp give pure glass with low contaminants with ratio of 1:100. • It have lowest ultrasonic absorption of any material. • It have low thermal of expansion that is why this is used in telescopes. 28/05/2k14Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt. 34
  35. 35. Conti…  High Silica Glass: • This is also known as Vycor. • It is imp and advance in production of fused silica in composition and properties. • The product contain 96% silica, 3% boric oxide and rest is alumina and alkali. • Borrosilicate glass compositions of about 75% silica content in which glass is melted and molded. After cooling the articles are subjected to heat treatment and annealing which is induce the glass to separate into tow distinct phases. • One phase is High in boric and alkaline so dissolve in hot acid soln. • Second is rich in silica and insoluble in those soln. 28/05/2k14Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt. 35
  36. 36. Conti…  Decorated and Colored Glass: • Transparent colored glass are essential for science and technical use.  These are three types; a). Color is produced by the absorption of certain light frequencies by agent in solution of glass.The coloring agents are oxides of Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu.So NiO dissolved in sodium lead glass yields brown color. b). Color is produced by colloidal particles ppted within an originally colorless glass by heat treatment. Example, ppt of colloidal gold producing gold ruby glass. c). Color is produced by microscopic particles which may be colored themselves, as selenium reds (SeO2) used in traffic lights. 28/05/2k14Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt. 36
  37. 37. Conti…  Safety Glass: • This is grouped into two types; 1). Laminated glass: It consists of two sheets of thin plate glass of 3mm thickness whit center of non-brittle plastic material. They are washed and an adhesive material is applied to the glass under moderate pressure and temperature. 2). Tempered Glass: This is very strong and used in doors and window of vehicles. It possesses high internal stresses. Its manufacturing involves controlled heat annealing whereby the uniform stresses in glass are replaced by controlled, uniform, low-level, stress. 28/05/2k14Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt. 37
  38. 38. Conti…  Fiber Glass: • A special glass, low in silica, is used for the production of fibers. • Efforts have been made to produce a fiber for the reinforcement of concrete that would not be attacked by and weakened by alkali. • The most successful of these alkali-resistant fibers are made from glass containing 17% ZnO. • This is very expensive. • This is also difficult to produce. 28/05/2k14Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt. 38
  39. 39. Applications and Uses of Glass  Tableware (drinking glasses, plate, cups, bowls)  Housing and buildings (windows, facades, conservatory, insulation, reinforcement structures)  Interior design and furniture (mirrors, partitions, balustrades, tables, shelves, lighting)  Appliances and Electronics (oven doors, cook top, TV, computer screens, smart-phones)  Glass is used in the following non-exhaustive list of products:  Packaging (jars for food, bottles for drinks, flacon for cosmetics and pharmaceuticals 28/05/2k14 39Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
  40. 40. Conti…  Automotive and transport (windscreens, backlights, light weight but reinforced structural components of cars, aircrafts, ships, etc.)  Medical technology, biotechnology, life science engineering, optical glass  Radiation protection from X-Rays (radiology) and gamma-rays (nuclear)  Fe optic cables (phones, TV, computer: to carry information)  Renewable energy (solar-energy glass, windturbines)  All of this is made possible by the countless properties of the glass substance. 28/05/2k14 40Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt.
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  46. 46. “ ” Thanks 28/05/2k14Wah Engineering College, Wah Cantt. 46