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Center For Community Renewal Hybrid Alternative Energy System

Theis is a draft document describing goals for a hybrid alternative energy system for the CCR.

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Hybrid Alternative Energy System
for the
Center for Community Renewal -
General Description
4.26.09

The Center for Community Renewal (CCR) is a 270,000 square foot facility for
Community Renewal International (CRI). The CCR, located in the historic central
business of Shreveport, Louisiana, is an integral part of the replication strategy
for CRI. The work of CRI is developing and deploying a social technology to
systematically build human capital essential for communities to become
sustainable. To reflect their mission CRI established criteria for the CCR building
design and operation to reflect the best of sustainability for both renovation
(approximately 140,000 s.f.) and new construction (approximately 130,000 s.f.)
portions of the project. Criteria include achieving LEED platinum, net zero energy
and carbon neutral. Beyond these benchmarks CRI challenged the design team
to explore alternative energy strategies to advance the science and practice of
sustainability with a concept of “an ever renewing building”. Through research
and evaluation of regional climatic characteristics and alternative energy
technology advances CRI proposes developing a hybrid system that will deploy
several on-site integrated alternative energy generation strategies – geothermal
heat pump (GHP) to reduce power demand and solar photovoltaic and wind to
generate on site power. Additionally, further investigation may lead to possible
inclusion of bio-fuels in this hybrid strategy.

The CCR is an ideal demonstration project for advancing the concept of on-site
hybrid alternative energy generation. Among the benefits of increasing hybrid
options for buildings are: additional strategies for distributed power, improved
energy utilization efficiency in buildings, reduced transmission power losses,
reduced greenhouse gas emissions and reduced public infrastructure costs.
New technology advances are resulting in alternative energy applications for
climatic areas not considered optimal based on currently used technology and
practices. For example, the Shreveport climate, with an abundance of intermittent
sun and wind, is not considered optimal for wind or solar. However, with
advances in technology such as variable speed generators and solar thin films,
both can now be considered practical in the coming years. Deploying a hybrid
strategy for the CCR will accelerate the use of technology advances as well as
development of new best practices. Maximizing the efficiency of this hybrid
strategy will also require control systems development to manage multiple source
generation and power consumption. The CCR demonstration project,
documentation / validation of operations, and interactive learning integrated into
the building design are part of the CRI strategy of sustainable communities
training. It is an innovative methodology that links training to grow human capital
with learning to build sustainable environments.
To address the complexities of the hybrid concept for the CCR the design team is
developing a collaboration approach with industry and higher education to meet
the challenges and take full advantage of the opportunities for innovation. The
University of Texas, the Trane Company, Hubbell Lighting and Controls, CERT
(Consortium of Education Research & Technology) and several alternative
energy companies are among those currently in discussions with the MHSM
design team. Connecting technological advances in diverse areas is a ripe field
for innovative new approaches to sustainable design solutions. Nurturing
collaborations and exploring options / scenarios requires new ways for
knowledge resources around the globe to connect and contribute to concept
development, design and operations of the CCR. CRI Green is a web 2.0 site,
hosted by Near Time and I-Open (Foundation for open economic networks), that
provides tools for project collaboration and information sharing for the CCR
project. This project communications innovation will prove a replicable process of
collaboration for future projects that involve research and development of new
concepts.

Developing on-site hybrid energy systems for buildings can significantly
contribute to a distributed power grid, reduce peak electricity demand and reduce
electric power transmission losses. In the U.S. for 2004 transmission losses were
265,180,000,000 million kWh or approximately 8% of electric power produced.
Urban cores are high users of electricity, however, the density of urban cores
result in greater efficiency per acre of land as less dense development patterns
require more infrastructure and greater transmission loss per square foot of
building served (this is a theory that makes sense but will need some
verification). Transmission loss still occurs in dense urban cores due to location
of power generating source.

The CCR project is approximately 390,000 square feet per acre density in the
center of the central business district. As part of project documentation load
savings to the electric utility including the reductions in transmission loss will be
measured as one of the cost benefits beyond the limits of the project property. It
is likely that a hybrid system will perform above net zero and produce more
power into the electric grid than the CCR will use.

The CCR hybrid will utilize wind, solar and geothermal heat pump technologies.
Integrating these technologies as part of the architecture is an important aspect
of the future of alternative energy in the built environment. Design of the CCR will
also demonstrate how the engineering science of these systems shape new
vocabularies in architectural design as part of a whole building approach to
sustainable design. The following paragraphs provide a brief overview of several
developments in these alternative energy areas that support strong consideration
of a on-site hybrid power generation design for the CCR.

Nano and thin film technolgy are improving efficiencies and reducing cost of solar
photovoltaics. These advances are more suitable for building materials
integration, particularly glass systems in combination with recent innovations in
low-e glass and glass with printed ceramic frit patterns. Orientation and optimal
positioning to the sun are becoming less important for photovoltaics as less
expensive collection systems are developed. Solar collection efficiency
improvements that allow collection of shaded sunlight open the possibility of
vertical wall collection systems on all faces of high rise buildings in dense urban
cores. These developments can be demonstrated as part of the CCR hybrid
energy system.

 Capturing wind energy has relied on steady wind within a limited velocity range
partially due to use of constant speed generators. This technology limitation has
resulted in wind farms locating in areas of the US that have these predictable
characteristics. Recent development of variable speed generators and mini
turbines allows consideration of wind solutions in areas with average wind
speeds as low as 4 mph. The variable speed generators will also capture winds
at higher speeds and improve overall efficiency of wind capture. It is becoming
practical to consider wind power in areas like downtown Shreveport, Louisiana
where the average wind speed is approximately 8 mph with a wide range of wind
speed that at times is affected by high rise buildings around the site for the CCR.

Geothermal Heat Pump (GHP) technology will be incorporated as part of the
hybrid system to reduce load for power consumption. The site in North Louisiana
is ideally suited for geothermal using the ground as a heat source and heat sink
consumes less nonrenewable energy because the earth is cooler than outdoor
air in summer and warmer in winter. Improvements in technology could result in
geothermal providing 100% of the heating and air conditioning requirements for
the CCR. The following are excerpts from a December 2008 report, Geothermal
(Ground-Source) Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions
to Overcome Barriers, published by the Oak Ridge Lab sponsored by DOE that
describe the potential of GHP as part of a hybrid system:

“Although heat pumps consume electrical energy, they move 3 – 5 times as
much energy between the building and the ground as they consume… the GHP
industry could integrate the most advanced commercially available components
into their heat pumps and increase this multiplier effect to 6 – 8, and theoretically
the multiplier could be as high as 14… Asian manufacturers in particular are
mass producing concepts such as variable-speed compressors, variable-
refrigerant-flow systems, integrated heat pumps that serve multiple uses (e.g.,
heating, cooling, and water heating) and heat pumps using CO2 as the
refrigerant.

Ground resources — including the Earth, surface water, recycled gray water,
sewage treatment plant effluent, retention basin storm water, harvested
rainwater, and water from a subsurface aquifer — whether alone or in
combination with outdoor air in a hybrid configuration, have great potential. GHP
infrastructure can be designed at the scale of a community or a building, and can
serve new construction or retrofits of existing communities and buildings.

In a commercial geothermal system, the cooling tower and boiler used in a water
source building are replaced with a geothermal loop field. Since no boiler or
chillers are required the building benefits by having less overall equipment and
reduced operation costs. Building aesthetics are also improved by eliminating
outdoor equipment and additional space is gained by eliminating the boiler and
additional support equipment. Controls and transfer switching technology
improvements manage and optimize the hybrid power generating system.”

The CCR system design will first focus on energy load reduction through a whole
building design approach associated with the LEED certification process. Further
load reduction will be achieved by the geothermal portion of the hybrid system.
The power generation portion of the hybrid system will be achieved by a
combination of solar collection and wind power. At 270,000 square feet in the
central business district of a southern sun belt climate the CCR will be a model
project to serve as demonstration to other communities across the south.

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Center For Community Renewal Hybrid Alternative Energy System

  • 1. Hybrid Alternative Energy System for the Center for Community Renewal - General Description 4.26.09 The Center for Community Renewal (CCR) is a 270,000 square foot facility for Community Renewal International (CRI). The CCR, located in the historic central business of Shreveport, Louisiana, is an integral part of the replication strategy for CRI. The work of CRI is developing and deploying a social technology to systematically build human capital essential for communities to become sustainable. To reflect their mission CRI established criteria for the CCR building design and operation to reflect the best of sustainability for both renovation (approximately 140,000 s.f.) and new construction (approximately 130,000 s.f.) portions of the project. Criteria include achieving LEED platinum, net zero energy and carbon neutral. Beyond these benchmarks CRI challenged the design team to explore alternative energy strategies to advance the science and practice of sustainability with a concept of “an ever renewing building”. Through research and evaluation of regional climatic characteristics and alternative energy technology advances CRI proposes developing a hybrid system that will deploy several on-site integrated alternative energy generation strategies – geothermal heat pump (GHP) to reduce power demand and solar photovoltaic and wind to generate on site power. Additionally, further investigation may lead to possible inclusion of bio-fuels in this hybrid strategy. The CCR is an ideal demonstration project for advancing the concept of on-site hybrid alternative energy generation. Among the benefits of increasing hybrid options for buildings are: additional strategies for distributed power, improved energy utilization efficiency in buildings, reduced transmission power losses, reduced greenhouse gas emissions and reduced public infrastructure costs. New technology advances are resulting in alternative energy applications for climatic areas not considered optimal based on currently used technology and practices. For example, the Shreveport climate, with an abundance of intermittent sun and wind, is not considered optimal for wind or solar. However, with advances in technology such as variable speed generators and solar thin films, both can now be considered practical in the coming years. Deploying a hybrid strategy for the CCR will accelerate the use of technology advances as well as development of new best practices. Maximizing the efficiency of this hybrid strategy will also require control systems development to manage multiple source generation and power consumption. The CCR demonstration project, documentation / validation of operations, and interactive learning integrated into the building design are part of the CRI strategy of sustainable communities training. It is an innovative methodology that links training to grow human capital with learning to build sustainable environments.
  • 2. To address the complexities of the hybrid concept for the CCR the design team is developing a collaboration approach with industry and higher education to meet the challenges and take full advantage of the opportunities for innovation. The University of Texas, the Trane Company, Hubbell Lighting and Controls, CERT (Consortium of Education Research & Technology) and several alternative energy companies are among those currently in discussions with the MHSM design team. Connecting technological advances in diverse areas is a ripe field for innovative new approaches to sustainable design solutions. Nurturing collaborations and exploring options / scenarios requires new ways for knowledge resources around the globe to connect and contribute to concept development, design and operations of the CCR. CRI Green is a web 2.0 site, hosted by Near Time and I-Open (Foundation for open economic networks), that provides tools for project collaboration and information sharing for the CCR project. This project communications innovation will prove a replicable process of collaboration for future projects that involve research and development of new concepts. Developing on-site hybrid energy systems for buildings can significantly contribute to a distributed power grid, reduce peak electricity demand and reduce electric power transmission losses. In the U.S. for 2004 transmission losses were 265,180,000,000 million kWh or approximately 8% of electric power produced. Urban cores are high users of electricity, however, the density of urban cores result in greater efficiency per acre of land as less dense development patterns require more infrastructure and greater transmission loss per square foot of building served (this is a theory that makes sense but will need some verification). Transmission loss still occurs in dense urban cores due to location of power generating source. The CCR project is approximately 390,000 square feet per acre density in the center of the central business district. As part of project documentation load savings to the electric utility including the reductions in transmission loss will be measured as one of the cost benefits beyond the limits of the project property. It is likely that a hybrid system will perform above net zero and produce more power into the electric grid than the CCR will use. The CCR hybrid will utilize wind, solar and geothermal heat pump technologies. Integrating these technologies as part of the architecture is an important aspect of the future of alternative energy in the built environment. Design of the CCR will also demonstrate how the engineering science of these systems shape new vocabularies in architectural design as part of a whole building approach to sustainable design. The following paragraphs provide a brief overview of several developments in these alternative energy areas that support strong consideration of a on-site hybrid power generation design for the CCR. Nano and thin film technolgy are improving efficiencies and reducing cost of solar photovoltaics. These advances are more suitable for building materials
  • 3. integration, particularly glass systems in combination with recent innovations in low-e glass and glass with printed ceramic frit patterns. Orientation and optimal positioning to the sun are becoming less important for photovoltaics as less expensive collection systems are developed. Solar collection efficiency improvements that allow collection of shaded sunlight open the possibility of vertical wall collection systems on all faces of high rise buildings in dense urban cores. These developments can be demonstrated as part of the CCR hybrid energy system. Capturing wind energy has relied on steady wind within a limited velocity range partially due to use of constant speed generators. This technology limitation has resulted in wind farms locating in areas of the US that have these predictable characteristics. Recent development of variable speed generators and mini turbines allows consideration of wind solutions in areas with average wind speeds as low as 4 mph. The variable speed generators will also capture winds at higher speeds and improve overall efficiency of wind capture. It is becoming practical to consider wind power in areas like downtown Shreveport, Louisiana where the average wind speed is approximately 8 mph with a wide range of wind speed that at times is affected by high rise buildings around the site for the CCR. Geothermal Heat Pump (GHP) technology will be incorporated as part of the hybrid system to reduce load for power consumption. The site in North Louisiana is ideally suited for geothermal using the ground as a heat source and heat sink consumes less nonrenewable energy because the earth is cooler than outdoor air in summer and warmer in winter. Improvements in technology could result in geothermal providing 100% of the heating and air conditioning requirements for the CCR. The following are excerpts from a December 2008 report, Geothermal (Ground-Source) Heat Pumps: Market Status, Barriers to Adoption, and Actions to Overcome Barriers, published by the Oak Ridge Lab sponsored by DOE that describe the potential of GHP as part of a hybrid system: “Although heat pumps consume electrical energy, they move 3 – 5 times as much energy between the building and the ground as they consume… the GHP industry could integrate the most advanced commercially available components into their heat pumps and increase this multiplier effect to 6 – 8, and theoretically the multiplier could be as high as 14… Asian manufacturers in particular are mass producing concepts such as variable-speed compressors, variable- refrigerant-flow systems, integrated heat pumps that serve multiple uses (e.g., heating, cooling, and water heating) and heat pumps using CO2 as the refrigerant. Ground resources — including the Earth, surface water, recycled gray water, sewage treatment plant effluent, retention basin storm water, harvested rainwater, and water from a subsurface aquifer — whether alone or in combination with outdoor air in a hybrid configuration, have great potential. GHP
  • 4. infrastructure can be designed at the scale of a community or a building, and can serve new construction or retrofits of existing communities and buildings. In a commercial geothermal system, the cooling tower and boiler used in a water source building are replaced with a geothermal loop field. Since no boiler or chillers are required the building benefits by having less overall equipment and reduced operation costs. Building aesthetics are also improved by eliminating outdoor equipment and additional space is gained by eliminating the boiler and additional support equipment. Controls and transfer switching technology improvements manage and optimize the hybrid power generating system.” The CCR system design will first focus on energy load reduction through a whole building design approach associated with the LEED certification process. Further load reduction will be achieved by the geothermal portion of the hybrid system. The power generation portion of the hybrid system will be achieved by a combination of solar collection and wind power. At 270,000 square feet in the central business district of a southern sun belt climate the CCR will be a model project to serve as demonstration to other communities across the south.