Lewin offers a three-step model to help facilitate the change process. He sets forth that change efforts need to “unfreeze” individual resistance and group conformity to help them move forward and then you need to refreeze the changes by balancing driving and restraining forces. This will help to move people through the change process and solidify the desired behaviors/outcomes moving forward.
In the unfreezing stage Lewin identifies driving and restraining forces. Driving forces are those that direct behavior away from the status quo. Restraining forces are those that hinder movement from the existing equilibrium.
Kotter also offers a model to look at change that builds on the initial ideas of Lewin. He sets forth the following eight steps:
Establish a sense of urgency Form a coalition Create a new vision Communicate the vision Empower others by removing barriers Create and reward short-term “wins” Consolidate, reassess, and adjust Reinforce the changes
Action research is another theory about change that says that the change process is based on a systematic collection of data and then selection of a change action based on what the data tells you. The process would be to diagnose the situation, analyze the data, obtain feedback from the data, take action, and then evaluate. The benefits of this approach is that it focuses on the problem instead of jumping to the solution and it also gets employees involved, thereby reducing their resistance to change.
Organizational development is an area of study that is set up to determine what an organization needs to improve their effectiveness and employee well being. Some organizational development values include respect for people, trust and support, power equalization, confrontation, and participation.
There are six commonly used organizational development techniques. The first is sensitivity training that sets up groups that seek to change behavior through unstructured group interaction by providing an environment of increased awareness of others and of themselves. This increases their empathy, listening skills, openness, and tolerance for others.
The second technique is the survey feedback approach where the organization will use a questionnaire to identify discrepancies among member perceptions and then follow up with discussions and plans for improvement.
Process consultation is the third technique. In this technique there is a consultant involved who gives the clients some insights into what is happening in the organization and helps to identify a process for improvement.
The fourth technique is engaging in team building tools to increase trust and openness through increased interactions.
Intergroup development is an organizational development tool that attempts to change the attitudes, stereotypes, and perceptions that groups may have of each other.
Finally, the sixth commonly used technique is appreciative inquiry. This process seeks to identify the unique qualities and special strengths of an organization which they then use to build on to improve performance through a process. This process includes discovery (identifying the strengths of the organization), dreaming (speculating on the future of the organization), designing (finding a common vision), and destiny (deciding how to fulfill the dream).
Lewin’s three step change model
Lewin’s Force Field Theory of Change
Kotter’s Eight Step plan
Change efforts to overcome the pressures of both
individual resistance and group conformity
Efforts to get employees involved in the change process
Stabilizing a change intervention by balancing
driving and restraining forces
Unfreezing Moving Refreezing
Forces that direct behavior away from the status
Forces that hinder movement from the existing
Builds from Lewin’s Model
To implement change:
1. Establish a sense of urgency
2. Form a coalition
3. Create a new vision
4. Communicate the vision
5. Empower others by removing barriers
6. Create and reward short-term “wins”
7. Consolidate, reassess, and adjust
8. Reinforce the changes
A change process based on systematic collection of
data and then selection of a change action based
on what the analyzed data indicates
Action research benefits:
Problem-focused rather than solution-centered
Heavy employee involvement reduces resistance to
Organizational Development (OD)
A collection of planned interventions, built on
humanistic-democratic values, that seeks to
improve organizational effectiveness and
Respect for people
Trust and support
1. Sensitivity Training
Training groups (T-groups) that seek to change behavior
through unstructured group interaction
Provides increased awareness of others and self
Increases empathy with others, listening skills,
openness, and tolerance for others
2. Survey Feedback Approach
The use of questionnaires to identify discrepancies
among member perceptions; discussion follows and
remedies are suggested
3. Process Consultation (PC)
A consultant gives a client insights into what is going on
around the client, within the client, and between the
client and other people; identifies processes that need
4. Team Building
High interaction among team members to increase
trust and openness
5. Intergroup Development
OD efforts to change the attitudes, stereotypes,
and perceptions that groups have of each other
6. Appreciative Inquiry
Seeks to identify the unique qualities and special
strengths of an organization, which can then be
built on to improve performance
Discovery: Recalling the strengths of the organization
Dreaming: Speculation on the future of the organization
Design: Finding a common vision
Destiny: Deciding how to fulfill the dream