ARGUMENT ANDPERSUASIONHow can I convince my reader?
WHAT IS PERSUASIVE WRITING? Persuasive writing, also known as the argument essay, utilizes logic and reason to show that one idea is more legitimate than another idea. It attempts to persuade a reader to adopt a certain point of view or to take a particular action. The argument must always use sound reasoning and solid evidence by stating facts, giving logical reasons, using examples, and quoting experts.
WHAT IS AN ARGUMENT?In writing, an argument is a claim supported by reasons and evidence.A claim is a writer’s position on a problem or issue. Example: Crunchy Puffs are an important part of a nutritious breakfast.
WHAT IS AN ARGUMENT?An argument or claim is an opinion rather than a fact. For Example: Crunchy Puffs is a breakfast cereal. (Fact that cannot be argued) Crunchy Puffs are an important part of a nutritious breakfast. (Opinion that can be argued)
PROVIDING REASONSThe strength of an argument depends not on the claim but on the reasons that are used to support the claim. Support is what persuades the reader to accept the writer’s claim.
FOR EXAMPLE CLAIM All students in the United States should learn a foreign language. Reason 2 Reason 3 Reason 1 Studying a Knowing otherStudents in other language helps languages is countries learn students excel in important in theforeign language. other subjects. business world.
EVIDENCE Each of your reasons need evidence to help prove your claim and support the reason(s). Statistics- Facts, numbers, and information can be very convincing. Expert opinions- Important people or experts can make your argument seem more convincing. Personal Observations (anecdote)- Personally observing evidence or situations that would support your argument. Charged language and striking images- Getting people to feel happy, sad, or angry can help your argument.
EVIDENCE Statistics- In a study of 20 countries, 17 countries required all students to learn at least one foreign language. Expert opinions- Dr. Seuss found that students who took foreign languages had higher grade point averages than those who didn’t. Personal Observations (anecdote)- Companies are often International; employees must be able to communicate with customers and with each other. Charged language and striking images- If students don’t learn a foreign language, they will increase America’s poverty rate. Do you want your children to struggle to put food on the table?
WHAT IS A COUNTER ARGUMENT?A counter-argument is an argument opposed to your claim, or part of your claim. It expresses the view of a person who disagrees with your position.
WHY SHOULD I ADDRESS ACOUNTERARGUMENT? Why would you include a counter-argument in your essay? Doesn’t that weaken your argument? Actually, no. Done well, it makes the argument stronger. This is because it gives you the chance to respond to your reader’s objections before they have finished reading. It also shows that you are a reasonable person who has considered both sides of the debate. Both of these make an essay more persuasive.
HOW SHOULD I ADDRESS THECOUNTER ARGUMENT? A counter-argument should be expressed thoroughly, fairly and objectively. Do not just write a quick sentence and then immediately rebut it. Give reasons why someone might actually hold that view. A few sentences or even a whole paragraph is not an unreasonable amount of space to give to the counter-argument. Again, the point is to show your reader that you have considered all sides of the question, and to make it easier to answer the counter-argument. It’s easier to respond to a point you have already spelled out—and it’s easier for your reader to follow you.
EXAMPLE OF ADDRESSING ACOUNTER ARGUMENTPeople should think carefully before buying unusualpets. (1) Some people would say that owning an exotic pet is a wonderful experience. (2) They might say that exotic pets make the owner stand out in a crowd. (3) They also might say that owning an exotic pet is a unique and rewarding experience. (4) However, these unique animals also come with unique challenges especially when they mature.
HOW DO I FORMAT A PERSUASIVE ESSAY? Introduction: Introduce your topic along with stating your claim Reason 1 Reason 2 Reason 3 Discuss the 1st reason Discuss the 2nd reason Discuss the 3rd reason you have that supports you have that supports you have that supportsyour claim- along with at your claim- along with at your claim- along with at least one piece of least one piece of least one piece of evidence. evidence. evidence. Paragraph addressing the counterargument. Conclusion: Restate your claim and remind your reader of your evidence. NO new information should be introduced!
CLOSING STATEMENTSIn five sentences or less, summarize the most important details about today’s notes.Turn to your shoulder partner and read your summary.Compare and contrast the information you both included in your summary.