1.3 wwii


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1.3 wwii

  1. 1. World War IIArt 109A: Art Since 1945Westchester Community CollegeFall 2012Dr. Melissa Hall
  2. 2. World War II(1939-1945)World War II began in1939 with the Germaninvasion of Poland German troops parade through Warsaw, Poland. PK Hugo J.ger, September 1939 http://www.archives.gov/research/ww2/photos/
  3. 3. World War II(1939-1945)In 1940 Paris, which had been thecenter of the European avantgarde, fell to the Nazis Adolf Hitler in Paris, June 23, 1940 http://www.archives.gov/research/ww2/photos/
  4. 4. World War II(1939-1945)The Japanese bombing ofPearl Harbor in 1941 broughtthe United States into theconflict Sinking of the USS Virginia, Pearl Harbor, 1941 Image source: http://aboutjapan.japansociety.org/content.cfm/pearl_harbor_attack
  5. 5. World War II(1939-1945)The US bombing ofHiroshima and Nagasakibrought the war to an end in1945 Mushroom cloud of smoke billowing 20,000 ft. in the air after atomic explosion over the city of Hiroshima, August 6, 1945 LIFE
  6. 6. Hiroshima before the bombing Hiroshima after the bombingImage source: Image source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Atomic_bombings_of_Hiroshima_and_Nagasaki Atomic_bombings_of_Hiroshima_and_Nagasaki
  7. 7. Aftermath Europe lay in ruinsHerbert Mason, St. Paul’s, London, during the Blitz, 1940Wikipedia William Vandivert, Dresden after the Allied bombing, 1946 LIFE
  8. 8. Aftermath Russia and the United States emerged as opposed superpowers with competing claims to world dominance.Joseph Stalin, political leader of the Harry S. Truman, President of the United States 1945-1953Soviet Union, 1924-1953 Image source: http://www.presidentialtimeline.org/html/record.php?id=100
  9. 9. AftermathUnder the “Truman Doctrine”Russia and the United Statesentered the Cold War Harry S. Truman Delivering the Truman Doctrine Speech, 1947 Image source: http://www.trumanlibrary.org/photographs/displayimage.php?pointer=14687
  10. 10. Aftermath This took the form of an arms raceImage source:http://www.darkgovernment.com/news/cold-war-espionage-and-computer-security/ Image source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_arms_race
  11. 11. AftermathAnd the advent of the “nuclearage” Image source: http://www.conelrad.com/books/print.php?id=267_0_1_0
  12. 12. AftermathThe end of the war alsobrought revelations of theNazi extermination camps Buchenwald Concentration Camp, April 16, 1945 LIFE
  13. 13. Aftermath The most shocking discoveries were made by British troops at Bergen- Belsen in April 1945“As they explored No.1 Camp, theliberators encountered scenesreminiscent of Dantes Inferno - aliving example of hell on earth.They discovered 20,000 emaciatednaked corpses lying unburied onthe open ground or in the barrackblocks. Some inmates had literallystarved to death where they lay,too weak even to drag their wastedbodies away from the typhus-infested corpses that surroundedthem.” Bergen-Belsen, 1945Dr. Stephen A. Hart, “Liberation of the ConcentrationCamps,” BBChttp://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/liberation_camps_04.shtml
  14. 14. AftermathThere were so many corpsesit was necessary to use abulldozer to move them to amass grave The Liberation of Belsen Concentration Camp April 1945: A British Army bulldozer pushes bodies into a mass grave at Belsen. - 19 April 1945 Imperial War Museum
  15. 15. Aftermath3,000 lives were lost in theWorld Trade Center attack The northeast face of Two World Trade Center (south tower) after being struck by plane in the southwest face. Image source: Wikipedia
  16. 16. AftermathAn estimated 6 million jewswere killed in Naziconcentration camps A British soldier at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, May 1945. The camp was burned. The sign was put up to tell the world about the horrors that went on there. Image source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/world_war2/the_war_ends/ teachers_resources.shtml
  17. 17. AftermathWhen General Dwight G.Eisenhower led his troops intothe Nazi concentration campat Dachau he wrote: “Thethings I saw beggardescription.” American GI’s under the command of General Eisenhower Dachau, 1945
  18. 18. AftermathMany others referred to the“unspeakable,” “indescribable,”or “un-representable” nature ofwhat they had seen The Liberation of Belsen Concentration Camp April 1945: Former guards are made to load the bodies of dead prisoners onto a lorry for burial. - 17-18 April 1945 IWM Image source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bergen_Belsen_Liberation_01.jpg
  19. 19. Bearing WitnessAlthough Eisenhower thoughtthat what he saw wasindescribable, he did do soanyway – sensing thenecessity of bearing witnessfor future generations General Dwight D. Eisenhower, 1945 Wikimedia
  20. 20. Bearing WitnessThe necessity of “bearingwitness” to the trauma of warwas the most compellingconcern for the postwargeneration of artists A British soldier at Bergen-Belsen concentration camp, May 1945. The camp was burned. The sign was put up to tell the world about the horrors that went on there. Image source: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/world_war2/the_war_ends/ teachers_resources.shtml
  21. 21. Bearing WitnessThe challenge they faced wasto represent something thatwas unrepresentable Walter E. Cummings, Buchenwald Ohrdruf Corpses Image source: Wikimedia
  22. 22. Bearing WitnessMany of them chose anabstract style -- believing itwas the only way torepresent what could not bedescribed by moreconventional means Pablo Picasso, Charnel House, 1945 Museum of Modern Art
  23. 23. PostwarAbstractionIn the immediate aftermath ofthe war, artists on both sidesof the Atlantic arrived atabstract styles independently Arshile Gorky, Charred Beloved, 1946
  24. 24. PostwarAbstractionWhile abstract expressionismwas emerging in the UnitedStates in the 1940’s, itsEuropean counterpart, l’artinformel, was developing inFrance Jean Fautrier, Nude, 1943 (from the Otages series) Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles
  25. 25. PostwarAbstractionNew approaches to figurationalso registered the trauma ofwarJean Dubuffet Alberto GiacomettiLarge Sooty Nude Man Pointing
  26. 26. PostwarAbstractionOur study of postwar artwill begin in Europe, but itis important to keep in mindthat American AbstractExpressionism wasemerging at the same time Nina Leen, The Irascibles, 1950 LIFE Magazine
  27. 27. Web ResourcesAudio Slideshow of the Liberation of Belsen, with the original BBC radio broadcasthttp://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/in_depth/4445811.stmLiberation of the Concentration Camps –BBChttp://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwtwo/liberation_camps_01.shtmlVideo on The Holocaust (YouTube)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bHAF0sgzKOsDocumentary on Hiroshima (YouTube)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x9lwvImJqT0John Cage In the Name of the Holocausthttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s8CSLliG2oo