1.2 postwar european


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1.2 postwar european

  1. 1. Postwar  Art  in  Europe  Art  109A:    Contemporary  Art  (Arts  Since  1945)  Westchester  Community  College  Fall  2012  
  2. 2. Postwar  Europe  Economic  and  physical  devastaEon   William  Vandivert,  Dresden  aIer  the  Allied  bombing,  1946   LIFE  
  3. 3. Postwar  Europe  Moral  devastaEon   Buchenwald Concentration Camp, April 16, 1945 LIFE
  4. 4. Postwar  Europe  AnnihilaEon  of  the  human  race  an  imminent  possibility   Mushroom  cloud  of  smoke  billowing  20,000  I.  in  the  air  aIer  atomic  explosion  over   the  city  of  Hiroshima,  August  6,  1945   LIFE  
  5. 5. Existen0alism  Disillusionment,  skepEcism,  and  despair  inspired  the  existenEalist  philosophy  of  Jean-­‐Paul  Sartre       Jean-­‐Paul  Sartre,  Existen(alism  and  Humanism,  first  published  in  1948
  6. 6. Humanism    Places  man  on  a  pedestal    Presumes  man’s  “greatness”  as  a   given  “One may understand by humanism a theorywhich upholds man as the end-in-itself and asthe supreme value.”  Jean  Paul  Sartre   Michelangelo,  David,  1508
  7. 7. Existen0alism  There  is  no  “blueprint,”  or  instrucEon  manual   “When we think of God as the creator, we are thinking of him, most of the time, as a supernal artisan . . . . Thus, the conception of man in the mind of God is comparable to that of the paper-knife in the mind of the artisan: God makes man according to a procedure and a conception, exactly as the artisan manufactures a paper- knife, following a definition and a formula.” Image  source:    hp://www.vicinodesign.nl/VD0010-­‐00.htm   Jean-Paul Sartre, Existentialism and Humanism
  8. 8. Existen0alism  “If man as the existentialist sees him isnot definable, it is because to begin withhe is nothing. He will not be anything untillater, and then he will be what he makesof himself. Thus, there is no humannature, because there is no God to have aconception of it. Man simply is.”Jean-Paul Sartre, Existentialism and Humanism William  Blake,  The  Ancient  of  Days  (God  as  an  Architect),  1794  
  9. 9. Existen0alism  “Existence  precedes  essence”  “We  mean  that  man  first  of  all  exists,  encounters  himself,  surges  up  in  the  world  and  defines  himself  aIerwards.”  Jean-Paul Sartre, Existentialism and Humanism   Will  Rodes,  A  Lump  of  Clay,  Flickr
  10. 10. Existen0alism  ExistenEalism  proposed  that  man  is  responsible  for  invenEng  himself  through  his  acEons     Will  Rodes,  A  Lump  of  Clay,  Flickr
  11. 11. Existen0alist  “Angst”    Radical  freedom    Responsibility  of  making  choices  in   the  absence  of  rules  “That is what “abandonment” implies, thatwe ourselves decide our being. And withthis abandonment goes anguish.”Jean-Paul Sartre, Existentialism and Humanism Image  source:     hp://www.oakwoodsys.com/soluEons/Pages/soluEons.aspx  
  12. 12. Existen0alist  “Angst”  What  kind  of  art  could  be  made  in  the  aIermath  of  war?   “To  write  lyric  poetry  aIer   Auschwitz  is  barbaric”   Theodro  Adorno,  1949   “There  can  be  no  quesEon  today     of    art  for  pleasure,  whatever   transcendent  meaning,  including   aestheEcs,  one  gives  that  word  .  .  .”   Michel  Tapié,  “A  New  Beyond,”  1952   George  Grosz,  The  Painter  of  the  Hole,  1948   Hirshorn  Museum  
  13. 13. Alberto  Giacome;  Swiss-­‐born  Leading  sculptor  in  Paris  Began  as  a  Surrealist   Alberto  Giacomeg,  The  Palace  at  4  a.m..,   1932-­‐33.    ConstrucEon  in  wood,  glass,  wire,   string  MOMA   Irving  Penn,  Alberto  Giacomeg,  1950  
  14. 14. Alberto  Giacome;   Took  refuge  in  Switzerland  during  the   war  “WanEng  to  create  from  memory  what  I  have  seen  .  .    to  my  terror  the  sculptures  became  smaller  and  smaller  .  .  .”  Alberto  Giacomeg   Henri  CarEer-­‐Bresson,  Alberto  Giacameg   Image  source:     hp://ionarts.blogspot.com/2005/02/giacomeg-­‐and-­‐carEer-­‐ bresson.html  
  15. 15. Alberto  Giacome;  Work  typically  consists  of  strangely  elongated  figures,  alone  or  in  groups,  occupying  vast  tracts  of  empty  space   Gordon  Parks,  Alberto  Giacomeg,  1951   LIFE  Magazine  
  16. 16. Alberto  Giacome;  Cast  in  bronze  -­‐-­‐  a  medium  associated  with  monumental  size,  and  heroic  connotaEons   Alberto  Giacomeg,  The  City  Square,  1948-­‐49   Museum  of  Modern  Art   Auguste  Rodin,  Age  of  Bronze,  1876/1906   Metropolitan  Museum  
  17. 17. Image  source:    hp://www.flickr.com/photos/profzucker/3256792359/sizes/l/  
  18. 18. Alberto  Giacome;   1945  began  working  on  a  larger  scale  “But  then  to  my  surprise,  [the  figures]  achieved  a  likeness  only  when  tall  and  slender.”  Alberto  Giacomeg   Henri  CarEer-­‐Bresson,  GiacomeO  in  his  Studio,  c.  1952  
  19. 19. Alberto  Giacomeg,  Man  Poin(ng,  1947   Alberto Giacometti. Walking Man, 1960 (cast 1981). FondationMuseum  of  Modern  Art   Alberto et Annette Giacometti, Paris © Adagp  
  20. 20. Alberto  Giacomeg,  Man  Poin(ng,  1947  Museum  of  Modern  Art  
  21. 21. “Man  –  and  man  alone  –  reduced  to  a  thread  –  in  the  dilapidaEng   and  misery  of  the  world  –  who  searches  for  himself  –  starEng   from  nothing.”   Francis  Ponge,  “ReflecEons  on  the  Statuees,  Figures  and  PainEngs  by   Alberto  Giacomeg”  Alberto  Giacomeg,  Man  Poin(ng,  1947  Museum  of  Modern  Art  
  22. 22. Alberto  Giacome;  Sartre  embraced  Giacomeg  as  the  preeminent  existenEalist  arEst  He  wrote  an  essay  for  Giacomeg’s  1948  exhibiEon  in  New  York   Gjon  Mili,  Jean  Paul  Sartre,  Paris,  1946   LIFE    
  23. 23. Alberto  Giacome;   Sartre  likened  Giacomeg’s  work    to   prehistoric  cave  painEng  “.  .  .  neither  the  beauEful  nor  the  ugly  yet  existed,  neither  taste  nor  people  possessing  it.”  Jean  Paul  Sartre   Alberto  Giacomeg,  Head  of  a  Man  on  a  Rod,  Bronze,  1947   Museum  of  Modern  Art  
  24. 24. Alberto  Giacome;  He  also  discussed  the  arEst’s  manipulaEon  of  percepEon  Phenomenological  size:    scale  is  determined  by  our  relaEon  to  the  work   Gordon  Parks,  Skeletal  Giacomeg  sculpture  on  Parisian  street,  2005   LIFE  Magazine  
  25. 25. “They  are  moving  outlines,  always  half-­‐way  between  nothingness  and  being”    Jean  Paul  Sartre  
  26. 26. Alberto  Giacome;  Giacomeg  “shows  us  that  man  is  not  there  first  and  to  be  seen  aIerwards,  but  that  he  is  a  being  whose  essence  is  to  exist  for  others.”    Jean  Paul  Sartre   Gordon  Parks,  Skeletal  Giacomeg  sculpture  on  Parisian  street,  2005   LIFE  Magazine  
  27. 27. Alberto  Giacome;  “At  first  glance  we  seem  to  be  up  against  the  fleshless  martyrs  of  Buchenwald”  
  28. 28. Alberto  Giacome;  “But  a  moment  later  we  have  a  quite  different  concepEon;  these  fine  and  slender  natures  rise  up  to  heaven,  we  seem  to  have  come  across  a  group  of  Ascensions,  of  AssumpEons”  Jean  Paul  Sartre  
  29. 29. L’Art  Informel   Movement  named  by  criEc  Michel  Tapie   Argued  that  an  art  autre  –  another  kind  of  art  was  needed  to  bear  witness  to  war   “There can be no question today of art for pleasure, whatever transcendent meaning, including aesthetics, one gives that word . . .” Michel Tapié, “A New Beyond,” 1952 Michel  Tapie  Un  Art  Autre,  1952  
  30. 30. L’Art  Informel   Emphasis  on  brute  materiality  and  “formlessness”  rather  than  aestheEc  refinement   Jean  Dubuffet,  Fleshy  Face  with  Chestnut  Hair,  1951   Guggenheim     Will  Rodes,  A  Lump  of  Clay,  Flickr
  31. 31. L’Art  Informel  The  principal  arEsts  associated  with  the  movement  include  Jean  Fautrier  and  Jean  Dubuffet   Jean Fautrier, 1898-1964 Jean Dubuffet Image source: Image source: http://ledeurjp.club.fr/Fautgb.htm http://www.dubuffetfondation.com/ portraits/1969-9.html
  32. 32. Jean  Fautrier  ExhibiEon  of  Otages  series  at  the  Galerie  Rene  Drouin  in  Paris,  1945     Jean  Fautrier,  Head  of  a  Hostage,  No.  20,  1944  
  33. 33. Jean  Fautrier  Worked  on  a  flat  surface  Images  built  up  with  a  thick  paste   Photo:  Robert  Descharnes,  www.daliphoto.com  ©  Descharnes  &  Descharnes   hp://www.aruacts.net/index.php/pageType/arEstInfo/arEst/1713/lang/2  
  34. 34. Jean  Fautrier  Texture  evokes  muElated  flesh  “tumefied  faces,  crushed  profiles,  bodies  sEffened  by  execuEon,  dismembered,  muElated,  eaten  by  flies.”  Francis  Ponge  André  Malraux  wrote  that  the  series  marked  “the  aempt  to  dissect  contemporary  pain,  down  to  its  tragic  ideograms,  and  force  it  into  the  world  of  eternity”   Jean  Fautrier,  Nude,  1943  (from  the  Otages  series)   Museum  of  Contemporary  Art,  Los  Angeles  
  35. 35. Jean  Fautrier,  Head  of  a  Hostage,  No.  1,  1944   Jean  Foutrier,  Head  of  a  Hostage,  No.  2,  1944  
  36. 36. Jean  Fautrier,  Head  of  a  Hostage,  No.  8,  1944   Jean  Foutrier,  Head  of  a  Hostage,  No.  14,  1944  
  37. 37. Jean  Fautrier,  Head  of  a  Hostage,  No.  19,  1944   Jean  Foutrier,  Head  of  a  Hostage,  No.  20,  1944  
  38. 38. Jean  Foutrier,  Head  of  a  Hostage,  No.  24,  1944  Jean  Fautrier,  Head  of  a  Hostage,  No.  21,  1944  
  39. 39. Jean Fautrier, Dépouille, 1945Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles  
  40. 40. Jean  Dubuffet  Abandoned  art  in  1924  Returned  to  art  full-­‐Eme  in  1942,  during  the  Nazi  occupaEon  of  Paris   Jean Dubuffet, Mme. Arthur Dubuffet, 1921 MOMA Jean  Dubuffet,  Self  Portrait,  1936   Metropolitan  Museum  
  41. 41. L’Art  Brut  Founding  member  of  the  Compagnie  de  l”Art  Brut  which  held  its  first  exhibi(on  at  the  Galerie  Drouin  in  1948   Jean Dubuffet, 1901-1985
  42. 42. L’Art  Brut   CulEvated  a  naïve  approach  that  was   untainted  by  academic  rules  or   accepted  convenEons  of  “good  taste.”  “Dubuffet  looked  to  the  art  of  children  and  others,  whose  rendering  of  experience  is  less  dominated  by  cultural  norms”  Fineberg,  p.  131   Helen  Levi,  Street  Drawing,  1940   Image  source:     hp://www.masters-­‐of-­‐photography.com/L/levi/levi_street_drawing_full.html  
  43. 43. L’Art  Brut   Denounced  “cultural  art”  “We understand by [these] workscreated by those untouched by artisticculture; in which copying has little part,unlike the art of intellectuals. Similarly,the artists take everything (subjects,choice of materials, modes oftransposition, rhythms, writing styles)from their own inner being, not fromthe canons of classical or fashionableart. We engage in an artisticenterprise that is completely pure,basic; totally guided in all its phasessolely by the creator’s own impulses.It is therefore, an art which onlymanifests invention, not thecharacteristics of cultural art which arethose of the chameleon and themonkey.”Jean Dubuffet, “Crude Art Preferred toCultural Art,” 1948   Jean  Dubuffet,  Crude  Art  Preferred  to  Cultural   Art,  exhibiEon  catalog,  1948  
  44. 44. L’Art  Brut  The  trained  arEst  learns  to  march  in  lock-­‐step  like  Hitler’s  “willing  execuEoners”   Fenner  Studio,  Life  Drawing  Class,  Cornell  University,  1940   Nazi  Soldiers  parading  through  Warsaw,  1939   Image  source:    hp://rmc.library.cornell.edu/Aap-­‐exhibit/card5-­‐1.html   Image  source:   hp://library.thinkquest.org/CR0212881/ warsaw.html  
  45. 45. L’Art  Brut  The  un-­‐trained  arEst    represents  a  return  to  origins  –  a  kind  of  tabula  rasa   Jean  Dubuffet,  Childbirth,  1944,  Oil  on  canvas   Museum  of  Modern  Art  
  46. 46. L’Art  Brut  CollecEon  of  Art  Brut  first  exhibited  in  Paris  in  1948   InstallaEon  of  the  first  Art  Brut  ExhibiEon  at  the  Galerie  Drouin,   1948  
  47. 47. L’Art  Brut  Included  art  by  psychiatric  paEents   Hans  Prinzhorn,  The  Prinzhorn  FoundaEon   hp://www.prinzhorn.uni-­‐hd.de/geschichte_eng.shtml  
  48. 48. L’Art  Brut  Works  from  Prinzhorn’s  collecEon  were  exhibited  in  Hitler’s  “Degenerate  Art”  show  in  Berlin  in  1937   Degenerat  Art  ExhibiEon  Guide  (1937)   Image  source:    hp://germanhistorydocs.ghi-­‐dc.org/sub_imglist.cfm?sub_id=200&secEon_id=13  
  49. 49. L’Art  Brut  CulEvated  a  deliberately  crude,  childlike  style   Jean  Dubuffet,  Limbour as a Crustacean, 1946 Hirshhorn  Museum  
  50. 50. Jean  Dubuffet  haute  pâte  (high  paste)  –  thick  mortar-­‐like  substance   Bill  Brandt,  Jean  Dubuffet  working  with  his  haute  pâte   hZp://www.artsmia.org/viewer/detail.php?v=3&id=4617  
  51. 51. Jean  Dubuffet  The  surfaces  suggested  excrement  and  filth   Jean  Dubuffet,  Fleshy  Face  with  Chestnut  Hair,  1951   Mixed  media  on  Isorel,  25  9/16  X  21  1/4   Solomon  R.  Guggenheim  Museum  
  52. 52. Corps  du  Dame    Series  of  36  female  nudes   “Dubuffet insisted that his protest was against specious notions of beauty ‘inherited from the Greeks and cultivated by magazine covers.’” Guggenheim  Museum   Jean  Dubuffet,  Triumph  and  Glory,  1950   Solomon  R.  Guggenheim  Museum  
  53. 53. Jean  Auguste  Dominique  Ingres,  La  Source,  1856   Jean  Dubuffet,  Triumph  and  Glory,  1950   Solomon  R.  Guggenheim  Museum  
  54. 54. Corps  du  Dame    The  classical  nude  is  intended  to  elevate  the  human  body  to  an  “ideal”  of  perfecEon  It  is  meant  to  transcend  the  “material”  to  the  realm  of  the  “ideal”   Jean  Auguste  Dominique  Ingres,  La   Source,  1856  
  55. 55. Corps  du  Dame    Cultural  ideals  of  “beauty”  depend  upon  eliminaEng  all  suggesEons  of  our  “animal”  nature   Jean  Auguste  Dominique  Ingres,  La   Source,  1856  
  56. 56. Corps  du  Dame    Dubuffet’s  nudes  returned  the  body  to  the  gross  materiality  of  flesh  and  maer   Jean  Dubuffet,  Triumph  and  Glory,  1950   Solomon  R.  Guggenheim  Museum  
  57. 57. Jean  Dubuffet,  Large  Sooty  Nude,  August,  1944  Private  CollecEon   Jean  Dubuffet,  Corps  de  Dame  –  Piéce  de  Boucherie,  1950   Solomon  R.  Guggenheim  Museum  
  58. 58. Jean  Dubuffet,  Corps  de  Dame  –  Piéce  de  Boucherie,  1950  Solomon  R.  Guggenheim  Museum  
  59. 59. Postscript  1972  Dubuffet  donated  his  collecEon  to  the  municipality  of  Lausanne,  Switzerland,  where  a  museum  of  L’Art  Brut  was  established  In  2001  the  collecEon  contained  30,000  items  indexed  by  a  21  volume  catalog!     L’Art Brut Museum, Lousanne
  60. 60. Postscript  “Outsider  Art”  movement  launched  in  Britain  in  1972  by  art  historian  Roger  Cardinal   Outsider Art Exhibiton, Hayward Gallery, London, 1979 Tate Gallery
  61. 61. Francis  Bacon  Irish-­‐born  Leading  painter  in  Britain   Bruce  Bernard,  Francis  Bacon  in  his  Studio,  1984   NaEonal  Galleries  of  Scotland  
  62. 62. Francis  Bacon  Remained  a  figuraEve  painter  long  aIer  it  had  ceased  to  be  fashionable   Francis  Bacon,  Self  Portrait,  1958   Hirshorn  
  63. 63. Francis  Bacon   Like  Giacomeg,  he  relied  heavily  on   distorEon  “What  I  want  to  do  is  to  distort  the  thing  far  beyond  the  appearance,  but  in  the  distorEon  to  bring  it  back  to  a  recording  of  appearance”  Francis  Bacon   Francis  Bacon,  Self  Portrait,  1969  
  64. 64. Francis  Bacon   Like  L’Art  Informel,  he  relied  heavily  on   the  expressive  power  of  materials,   texture,  and  surface  “There  is  an  area  of  the  nervous  system  to  which  the  texture  of  paint  communicates  more  violently  than  anything  else”  Francis  Bacon   Francis  Bacon,    Study  Afer  Velazquez’s  Portrait  of  Pope  Innocent  X,  1953,  Demoines  Art  Center  
  65. 65. Francis  Bacon  OIen  relied  on  source  material  rather  than  direct  observaEon  
  66. 66. Francis  Bacon  Originally  Etled  “Man  with  a  Microphone”   Francis  Bacon,  Pain(ng,  1946   Museum  of  Modern  Art  
  67. 67. Francis  Bacon  Based  on  news  photos  of  Hitler  and  Mussolini   Francis  Bacon,  Pain(ng,  1946   Museum  of  Modern  Art  
  68. 68. Francis  Bacon  Based  on  news  photos  of  Hitler  and  Mussolini   Francis  Bacon,  Pain(ng,  1946   Museum  of  Modern  Art  
  69. 69. Francis  Bacon  1944  began  working  on  his  first  crucifixion  theme  in  triptych  format   Francis  Bacon,  Three  Studies  for  Figures  at  the  Base  of  a  Crucifixion,    1944   Tate  Gallery  
  70. 70. The first painting in "Francis Bacon: A Centenary Retrospective" at the Metropolitan Museum of Art: Francis Bacon’s Three Studies forFigures at the Base of a Crucifixion, ca. 1944, Tate
  71. 71. Francis  Bacon  Triptych  –  religious  connotaEons   Roger  Van  de  Weyden,  Crucifixion  Triptych,  1445  
  72. 72. Francis  Bacon  Message  of  redempEon  (we  will  all,  eventually,  be  saved)   Rembrandt,  Christ Crucified between the Two Thieves: The Three Crosses Drypoint printed on vellum; second state Metropolitan  Museum  
  73. 73. Francis  Bacon  Bacon’s  work  reflects  a  profound  loss  of  faith  in  religion  or  any  metaphysical  explanaEon  of  human  existence   Francis  Bacon,  Three  Studies  for  Figures  at  the  Base  of  a  Crucifixion,    1944   Tate  Gallery  
  74. 74. “Also, I think that man now realises Francis  Bacon  that he is an accident, that he is acompletelyork  reflects  a  profound  loss   Bacon’s  w futile being, that he has toplayfout the eligion  or  any  mreason. I of   aith  in  r game without etaphysical  think that, even human  Velasquez was explanaEon  of   when existence  painting, even when Rembrandt waspainting, in a peculiar way, they werestill, whatever their attitude to life,slightly conditioned by certain typesof religious possibilities, which mannow, you could say, has hadcompletely cancelled out for him.Now, of course, man can onlyattempt to make something very, verypositive by trying to beguile himselffor a time by the way he behaves, byprolonging possibly his life by buying Francis  Bacon,  Three  Studies  for  Figures  at  the  Base  of  a  Crucifixion,    1944  a kind of immortality through the Tate  Gallery  doctors.”Francis Bacon, Interview with DavidSylvester  
  75. 75. Francis  Bacon,  Three  Studies  for  Figures  at  the  Base  of  a  Crucifixion,    1944  Tate  Gallery  
  76. 76. "Bacon’s scream isthe operation throughwhich the entire bodyescapes through themouth."  Gilles  Deleuze,  Francis  Bacon:    The  Logic  of  Sensa(on  
  77. 77. Francis  Bacon,  Three  Studies  for  a  Crucifixion,  1962  Guggenheim  Museum  
  78. 78. Francis  Bacon  “When  you  go  into  a  butcher’s  shop  and  see  how  beauEful  meat  can  be  and  then  you  think  about  it,  you  can  think  the  whole  horror  of  life”      Francis  Bacon   Photograph  of  Francis  Bacon  with  animal  carcasses  
  79. 79. Francis  Bacon  “we  are  meat,  we  are  potenEal  carcasses  .  .  .”  Francis  Bacon   Three  Studies  for  a  Crucifixion,  1962   right  panel  
  80. 80. Francis  Bacon  Jean  Dubuffet,  Triumph  and  Glory,  1950   Three  Studies  for  a  Crucifixion,  1962  Solomon  R.  Guggenheim  Museum   right  panel  
  81. 81. Francis  Bacon  Like  the  animals  in  the  slaughterhouse  (who  Bacon  believed  sensed  the  fate  awaiEng  them)  we  live  in  uer  dread  of  the  end  we  know  is  coming   Three  Studies  for  a  Crucifixion,  1962   center  panel  
  82. 82. Francis  Bacon  Bacon’s  ideas  reflect  ExistenEalist  agtudes  in  his  profound  loss  of  faith  in  metaphysical  explanaEons  for  human  existence     “As  an  atheist,  Bacon  sought  to   express  what  it  was  to  live  in  a   world  without  God  or  aIerlife  .  .  .   he  showed  the  human  as  simply   another  animal.”   Tate  Gallery   Irving  Penn,  Francis  Bacon,  1963   Vogue  Magazine  
  83. 83. Francis  Bacon  “Man  now  realizes  he  is  an  accident,  that  he  is  a  completely  fuEle  being,  that  he  has  to  play  out  the  game  without  reason.    I  think  that  even  when  Velasquez  was  painEng,  even  when  Rembrandt  was  painEng,  they  were  sEll,  whatever  their  agtude  to  life,  slightly  condiEoned  by  certain  types  of  religious  possibiliEes,  which  man  now,  you  could  say,  has  had  cancelled  out  for  him.    Man  now  can  only  aempt  to  beguile  himself,  for  a  Eme,  by  prolonging  his  life  –  by  buying  a  kind  of  immortality  from  the  doctors.”  Francis  Bacon   Irving  Penn,  Francis  Bacon,  1963   Vogue  Magazine  
  84. 84. Francis  Bacon   Bacon’s  anguish  can  be  aributed  to   the  violent  Emes  in  which  he  lived  “When I was sixteen or seventeen, I wentto Berlin . . . Which was, in a way, very,very, violent. Perhaps it was violent to mebecause I had come from Ireland, whichwas violent in the military sense . . . Andafter Berlin I went to Paris, and then I livedall those disturbed years between then andthe war . . . So I could say, perhaps, I havebeen accustomed to always living throughforms of violence.”Francis Bacon Bruce Bernard, Francis Bacon in his Studio, 1984
  85. 85. Francis  Bacon   But  his  private  experience  as  a   homosexual  must  also  be  taken  into   consideraEon  “Francis Bacon was a queer artist in theold fashioned sense when queer was aterm of abuse”Emmanuel Cooperhttp://www.queer-arts.org/bacon/bacon.html Bruce Bernard, Francis Bacon in his Studio, 1984
  86. 86. Francis  Bacon  Explored  what  could  be  interpreted  as  homosexual  themes   Francis Bacon, Study from the Human Body, 1949 National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne
  87. 87. Francis  Bacon  Several  works  based  on  Muybridge’s  Studies  of  Locomo(on  series   Francis Bacon, Two Figures, 1953
  88. 88. Francis  Bacon  The  wrestling  moEf  is  both  emoEonally  charged  and  highly  ambiguous  It  can  suggest  either  violent  struggle,  passionate  embrace  -­‐-­‐  or  both   Francis Bacon, Two Figures, 1953
  89. 89. Francis Bacon, Three Studies of Figures on Beds, 1972Private Collection
  90. 90. Francis  Bacon  “Oh they dont like my work here at all.Maybe its the savagery they find in it, ormaybe its the homosexuality which Isuppose is in my work. I dont go aboutshouting that Im gay but AIDS has made itall much worse. People are very, very oddabout it.”Francis Bacon interview with Richard Cork, 1991 Bruce Bernard, Francis Bacon in his Studio, 1984 National Galleries of Scotland
  91. 91. Francis  Bacon  “He told me that he (Bacon) had come tothe view that homosexuality was anaffliction, that it had turned him, at onepoint in his life, into a crook.”Lord Gowrie, Obituary for Francis Bacon Bruce Bernard, Francis Bacon in his Studio, 1984 National Galleries of Scotland
  92. 92. CoBrA  CoBrA:    acronym  for  Copenhagen  (Denmark)  Brussels  (Belgium)  Amsterdam  (Holland)  Founded  at  an  internaEonal  conference  in  Paris  in  1948   Café  Notre  Dame,  Paris,  where  the  first  CoBrA  manifesto  was  draIed   Image  source:    hp://www.cobra-­‐museum.nl/en/cobra.html  
  93. 93. CoBrA  Members  included  Pierre  Alechinsky,  Karel  Appel,  Constant  Nieuwenhuys,  ChrisEan  Dotremont,  and  Asger  Jorn   Photograph  of  the  CoBrA  group   Image  source:    hp://www.cobra-­‐museum.nl/en/cobra.html  
  94. 94. CoBrA   Like  Dubuffet,  CoBrA  arEsts  embraced   the  art  of  the  untrained  “The CoBrA artists painted directly andspontaneously. Just like children, theywanted to work expressively without apreconceived plan, using their fantasy andmuch colour. They rebelled against the rulesof the art academies and aimed at a form ofart without constraint. They also exploredworking with all kinds of materials: theexperimental was paramount.”Cobra Museum Karel Appel, Questioning Children, 1949 Tate
  95. 95. CoBrA  Discarded  pieces  of  wood  to  an  old  window  shuer  Faces  suggest  African  tribal  masks  QuesEoning  children/begging  children     Karel Appel, Questioning Children, 1949 Tate
  96. 96. CoBrA  Animals  were  favorite  topics,  symbolic  of  the  group’s  rebellion  against  cultural  restraints,  along  with  a  range  of  other  culturally  marginalized  sources:  “We  used  everything  and  loved  everything.  We  took  from  children’s  drawings,  folklore,  drawings  by  the  insane,  negro  masks…”   “I never try to make a painting; it is a howl, it is naked, it is like a child, it is a caged tiger. . . . My tube is like a rocket writing its own space.” Karel Appel Guggenheim Karel Appel, The Crying Crocodile Tries to Catch the Sun, 1956 Guggenheim
  97. 97. CoBrA  The  group  was  also  informed  by  Marxist  ideas   Asger Jorn, CoBrA poster, 1968
  98. 98. CoBrA  CollaboraEve  projects  –  challenged  accepted  ideas  about  arEsEc  individuality,  and  broke  down  hierarchies  between  makers  and  consumers  of  art   CoBrA group collaborative project, The Architect’s House, 1949 CoBrA Museum
  99. 99. CoBrA  Asger  Jorn  anEcipated  “appropriaEon”  art  with  his  “detourned”  painEngs     Asger Jorn
  100. 100. CoBrA  Detourned  PainEng:    pictures  bought  in  thriI  stores,  and  modified   Marcel Duchamp, L.H.O.O.Q., 1919 Asger Jorn, The Avant Garde Doesn’t Give Up, 1962
  101. 101. Asger Jorn, Rabbit, 1962 Asger Jorn, Dolce Vita, 1962
  102. 102. Asger Jorn, Mater Profana, 1960 Asger Jorn, Grand Baiser au Cardinal dAmerique, 1962
  103. 103. CoBrA  “Détournement is a game born outof the capacity for devalorization.Only he who is able to devalorizecan create new values. And onlythere where there is something todevalorize, that is, an alreadyestablished value, can one engagein devalorization. It is up to us todevalorize or to be devalorizedaccording to our ability to reinvestin our own culture. There remainonly two possibilities for us inEurope: to be sacrificed or tosacrifice. It is up to you to choosebetween the historical monumentand the act that merits it.”Asger Jorn, “Détourned Painting,”1959 Asger Jorn, The Avant Garde Doesn’t Give Up, 1962