Female Genital System
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>One ovum in an ovary ripens each month.  </li></ul><ul><li>Around the ovum the sac-like follicle which absorbs flu...
 
<ul><li> Immature sex cells, or oogonia,  </li></ul><ul><li>in the ovary divide by mitosis to produce oocytes.  </li></...
 
<ul><li>Controlled by hormones, the average menstrual cycle is twenty-eight days.  </li></ul><ul><li>From about day 5 pitu...
<ul><li>The corpus luteum secretes progesterone, which reinforces estrogen and builds up the endometrium to its maximum th...
<ul><li>If fertilization occurs, about day 14 the fertilized egg secretes human chorionic gonadotrophin, or HCG.  </li></u...
<ul><li>The immature egg is released into the Fallopian tube after undergoing the first meiotic division and formation of ...
 
<ul><li>Menstrual cycle is acyclic change in ovaries, uterus, cervix, vagina & breast  </li></ul><ul><li>1- Ovarian cycle ...
<ul><li>Granulosa cells _ FSH / Estrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Thece cells (int.-ext.) – LH / Androgen </li></ul><ul><li>(-ve)...
<ul><li>3-Luteal phase: </li></ul><ul><li>LH acts on follicular cells after ovulation </li></ul><ul><li>Follicles – corpus...
<ul><li>UTERINE CYCLE: </li></ul><ul><li>Change  in  endometrium </li></ul><ul><li>1- Proliferative phase : (follicular ph...
<ul><li>1- Estrogen: </li></ul><ul><li>Steroid H (granulosa cells / placenta ) </li></ul><ul><li>Actions: </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>2- Progesteron :(ovaries / placenta ) </li></ul><ul><li>Steroid H  </li></ul><ul><li>Actions: </li></ul><ul><li>. ...
<ul><li>3- hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin): </li></ul><ul><li>placenta  </li></ul><ul><li>. Maintains corpus luteum </l...
<ul><li>4- hCS (human chorionic somatomammotropin): </li></ul><ul><li>. Stimulates growth & milk production  </li></ul><ul...
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>The five-month embryo is about eight inches long and weighs about half a pound.  </li></ul><ul><li>The lungs and d...
 
<ul><li>During childbirth the baby lies in the mother's uterus with his head pointing down toward the cervix. </li></ul><u...
 
<ul><li>Uterine contractions at birth are strengthened by oxytocin, a pituitary hormone.  </li></ul><ul><li>During pregnan...
 
 
 
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Female Genital Tract Ameer

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Female Genital Tract Ameer

  1. 2. Female Genital System
  2. 43. <ul><li>One ovum in an ovary ripens each month. </li></ul><ul><li>Around the ovum the sac-like follicle which absorbs fluid, grows and swells for about fourteen days until it bursts onto the surface of the ovary and the mature ovum, is released. </li></ul><ul><li>After ovulation, the empty follicle forms the hormone-producing corpus luteum, which helps to maintain pregnancy if fertilization occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>If fertilization does not occur the corpus luteum simply withers away. </li></ul>
  3. 45. <ul><li> Immature sex cells, or oogonia, </li></ul><ul><li>in the ovary divide by mitosis to produce oocytes. </li></ul><ul><li>Before ovulation, one oocyte divides by meiosis to produce a secondary oocyte with half the full number of chromosomes, and a polar body. </li></ul><ul><li>At fertilization, further divisions result in the production of the mature ovum and three superfluous polar bodies. </li></ul>
  4. 47. <ul><li>Controlled by hormones, the average menstrual cycle is twenty-eight days. </li></ul><ul><li>From about day 5 pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone, or FSH, promotes the growth of a follicle in the ovary. </li></ul><ul><li>Follicular cells produce estrogen, which builds up the endometrium, the uterine lining, in readiness for implantation of the fertilized egg. In midcycle, a surge of pituitary luteinizing hormone, or LH, causes ovulation. </li></ul>
  5. 48. <ul><li>The corpus luteum secretes progesterone, which reinforces estrogen and builds up the endometrium to its maximum thickness. </li></ul><ul><li>If the ovum is not fertilized, the corpus luteum degenerates in the last few days of the cycle and the lining is shed during menstruation, which marks the start of a new cycle. </li></ul>
  6. 49. <ul><li>If fertilization occurs, about day 14 the fertilized egg secretes human chorionic gonadotrophin, or HCG. </li></ul><ul><li>This maintains the corpus luteum and its output of progesterone and estrogen so that the endometrium is maintained during pregnancy and menstruation does not occur. </li></ul><ul><li>The endometrium then nourishes the fertilized egg . </li></ul>
  7. 50. <ul><li>The immature egg is released into the Fallopian tube after undergoing the first meiotic division and formation of the first polar body. </li></ul><ul><li>The egg consists of a nucleus and cytoplasm enclosed in the vitelline membrane and surrounded by the zona pellucida, which is itself covered by a layer of loose cells, the corona radiata. </li></ul><ul><li>The sperm passes through all these layers to reach the nucleus of the egg, and on penetration of the egg it stimulates the second meiotic division of the ovum and the formation of a second polar body. </li></ul>
  8. 52. <ul><li>Menstrual cycle is acyclic change in ovaries, uterus, cervix, vagina & breast </li></ul><ul><li>1- Ovarian cycle : </li></ul><ul><li>Primordial follicles. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth under control of FSH </li></ul><ul><li>A-Follicular phase </li></ul><ul><li>Hypo-pit-axis (FSH-LH) </li></ul><ul><li>There is changes in other organs </li></ul>Physiology
  9. 53. <ul><li>Granulosa cells _ FSH / Estrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Thece cells (int.-ext.) – LH / Androgen </li></ul><ul><li>(-ve) feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>2- ovulatory phase: </li></ul><ul><li>Increase Est – (+ve)fb on FSH / LH “peak” </li></ul><ul><li>Ovulation occurs after LH peak </li></ul><ul><li>In ovulation temprature increase (+0.5 c) </li></ul><ul><li>14-15 day. </li></ul>
  10. 54. <ul><li>3-Luteal phase: </li></ul><ul><li>LH acts on follicular cells after ovulation </li></ul><ul><li>Follicles – corpus luteum secretes Est,Prog </li></ul><ul><li>FSH, LH drop – (-ve)fb </li></ul><ul><li>No pregnancy – Est,Prog drop – FSH,LH increase – new ovulation occurs </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnancy _ hCG sec – maintains CL </li></ul>
  11. 55. <ul><li>UTERINE CYCLE: </li></ul><ul><li>Change in endometrium </li></ul><ul><li>1- Proliferative phase : (follicular phase) </li></ul><ul><li>Menstruation- ovulation </li></ul><ul><li>Est dependent - thickness 0.5- 5mm </li></ul><ul><li>Arteries straight, glands tubular </li></ul><ul><li>2- Secretary phase:(leuteal phase) </li></ul><ul><li>Ovulation-menstruation </li></ul><ul><li>Prog dependent </li></ul><ul><li>3- menstrual phase : </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of endometrium </li></ul><ul><li>Bleeding 3-5 days (no clot) </li></ul><ul><li>- Change in cervix </li></ul><ul><li>Prof : mucus thin </li></ul><ul><li>Sec : thick </li></ul>
  12. 56. <ul><li>1- Estrogen: </li></ul><ul><li>Steroid H (granulosa cells / placenta ) </li></ul><ul><li>Actions: </li></ul><ul><li>. Secondary charc. Of female </li></ul><ul><li>. Menstrual cycle </li></ul><ul><li>. Increase ductular tissue of breast </li></ul><ul><li>. Increase clotting factor </li></ul>HORMONES
  13. 57. <ul><li>2- Progesteron :(ovaries / placenta ) </li></ul><ul><li>Steroid H </li></ul><ul><li>Actions: </li></ul><ul><li>. Cyclic changes </li></ul><ul><li>. Increase growth of alveolar tissue </li></ul><ul><li>. Theromgenic effect (BMR) </li></ul><ul><li>. Inhibits oxytocin – no contraction </li></ul>
  14. 58. <ul><li>3- hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin): </li></ul><ul><li>placenta </li></ul><ul><li>. Maintains corpus luteum </li></ul><ul><li>. Detection of pregnancy </li></ul><ul><li>6 days after implatation – blood </li></ul><ul><li>14 days - urine </li></ul>
  15. 59. <ul><li>4- hCS (human chorionic somatomammotropin): </li></ul><ul><li>. Stimulates growth & milk production </li></ul><ul><li>5- Relaxin : </li></ul><ul><li>.Maintains pregnancy(inhibits uterine contraction) </li></ul><ul><li>. Facilitate delivery ( relaxes of ligaments ) </li></ul>
  16. 64. <ul><li>The five-month embryo is about eight inches long and weighs about half a pound. </li></ul><ul><li>The lungs and digestive organs are not yet fully developed. </li></ul><ul><li>The mother can now feel the baby as it turns and kicks. At seven months the fetus is about twelve inches long and weighs two to three pounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium and iron from the mother are being used in the final formation of the skeleton and the blood. </li></ul><ul><li>At nine months the fetus, now capable of an independent existence, moves into a vertical head-down position facing the mother's back. </li></ul><ul><li>At birth the baby usually weighs between six and eight pounds. </li></ul>
  17. 66. <ul><li>During childbirth the baby lies in the mother's uterus with his head pointing down toward the cervix. </li></ul><ul><li>The first stages of labor begin with short, regular contractions of the uterus, every few minutes, which continue until the mother's cervix is fully dilated. </li></ul><ul><li>In the second stage of labor the contractions become more forceful, more frequent, and more painful. As the baby's head starts to move down the vagina the amniotic sac breaks and fluid is released. </li></ul><ul><li>The top of the head appears at the entrance of the vagina and finally bulges out. This is the crowning of the head. The contractions which follow push the baby even farther down so that the head is delivered. </li></ul><ul><li>The baby usually emerges facing the mother's back, so that the head passes through the widest possible opening in the pelvic girdle. </li></ul>
  18. 68. <ul><li>Uterine contractions at birth are strengthened by oxytocin, a pituitary hormone. </li></ul><ul><li>During pregnancy, progesterone makes the uterus relatively unresponsive to oxytocin. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflexes in the cervix during labor strengthen uterine contraction and oxytocin output increases. </li></ul><ul><li>The progesterone levels falls, oxytocin becomes effective, and the baby is pushed out. </li></ul>
  19. 72. Thanks

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