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Female Genital System


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Female Genital System

  1. 1. Anatomy of the female genital system Presented By Tarig Salah
  2. 2. * female genital organs are classified into : 1- External Genitalia 2- Internal Genitalia *External Genitalia: include: 1-Labia Majora 2-Labia Minora 3-Clitoris *Internal Genitalia: include: 1- Vagina 2- Uterus 3- Fallopian Tubes 4- Ovaries
  3. 3. <ul><li>*External Genitalia: </li></ul><ul><li>1-Labia Majora: </li></ul><ul><li>Located on either side of the vaginal opening , extending from the Mons pubis to the perineum </li></ul><ul><li>They are two folds of skin contain: skin-subcutaneous tissue , sebaceous glands , sweat glands and hair follicles </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>2-Labia Minora </li></ul><ul><li>Two thin folds of tissue located within the folds of the labia majora </li></ul><ul><li>They extend from the clitoris downward toward the perineum </li></ul><ul><li>They contain skin - sebaceous glands-sweat glands and no hair follicles </li></ul><ul><li>3-Clitoris: </li></ul><ul><li>small, elongated organ composed of erectile tissue , nerves and blood vessels </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>* Internal Genitalia: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Vagina </li></ul><ul><li>* Location and description : </li></ul><ul><li>The vagina is a muscular tube that extends upward and backward from the vulva to the uterus </li></ul><ul><li>It measures about: 8-10cm in length and 2cm in thickness and lined by stratified squamous epithelium. </li></ul><ul><li>PH : acidic due to action of on glycogen and becomes slightly alkaline in menses , pregnancy , before and after reproductive period. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Blood supply: </li></ul><ul><li>-vaginal artery: branch of IIA </li></ul><ul><li>-vaginal branch of the uterine artery </li></ul><ul><li>- vaginal plexus drains into IIV </li></ul><ul><li>*Supports of the vagina: </li></ul><ul><li>-Upper part: by pelvic fascia to levator ani muscles –transverse cervical-pubocervical and sacrocervical ligaments. </li></ul><ul><li>-middle: by urogenital diaphragm. </li></ul><ul><li>-lower: by perineal body posteriorly. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Relations: -Ant_: bladder above &urethra below -Post_:the rectum ’ rectouterine pooch & perineal body. -Lat_: upper part is related to levators ani &uterine artery
  8. 8. <ul><li>#N.e: </li></ul><ul><li>Fornix: is a cavity of the vagina by the sides of the cervix (one ant., one post, and 2 laterals.) </li></ul><ul><li>*Papanicolaou found that vaginal smears may contain cells which indicate early onset of Ca Cx. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>*Uterus </li></ul><ul><li>It is a hollow ‘ pear-shaped organ with thick muscular wall in which the embryo and fetus normally develop & grow. </li></ul><ul><li>*The wall of the uterus has 3 layers: </li></ul><ul><li>1-Endometrium </li></ul><ul><li>2-Myometrium </li></ul><ul><li>3-Perimetrium </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>*In young nulliparous it measures: 7.5cm---length 5cm---wide 2.5---thick </li></ul><ul><li>But in general Its size differ according to the age </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>The uterus is divided into: 1-fundus 2-body 3-cervix </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>1-The fundus: lies above the entrance of uterine tubes </li></ul><ul><li>2-The body: lies below the entrance of uterine tubes and above the Cx. </li></ul><ul><li>3-The cervix: from the internal os to external os ‘ it has uterine & vaginal parts </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The lower segment of the uterus characterized: </li></ul><ul><li>1-anatomically: it is loosely attached to peritoneum </li></ul><ul><li>2-physiologically: it is retractile & not contractile </li></ul><ul><li>3-It is 6cm above the internal os </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>*Blood supply: </li></ul><ul><li>-Uterine artery: from internal iliac artery ‘ it has : </li></ul><ul><li>1-Ascending branch: which anastomoses with ovarian artery to supply the body&ovary. </li></ul><ul><li>2-Descending branch: to supply the Cx </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Relations: </li></ul><ul><li>*-ant: separated from U.bladder by uterovesical pouch. </li></ul><ul><li>*-Post: separated from the rectum by rectouterine pouch. </li></ul><ul><li>*-Lat: broad ligament and uterine artery&vein </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>*Fallopian tubes: </li></ul><ul><li>They consist of 4 parts: </li></ul><ul><li>1-interstitial (intramural) 2-isthmus </li></ul><ul><li>3-ampulla 4-infundibulum </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>*Ovaries: </li></ul><ul><li>They are intra peritoneum ‘ almond-shaped organs producing oocytes and hormones and about:3×2×1cm in size ‘ Postmenopausal size is smaller. </li></ul><ul><li>*Blood supply: </li></ul><ul><li>-arteries: by ovarian arteries from the abd-aorta at level of L1 </li></ul><ul><li>-veins: Rt----IVC Lt----Lt renal vein </li></ul>