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  1. 1. SolutionsSolutions Test on Friday March 4Test on Friday March 4
  2. 2. What is aWhat is a solutionsolution??  AA homogeneous mixturehomogeneous mixture  Composed of aComposed of a solutesolute dissolved in adissolved in a solventsolvent Solute Solvent
  3. 3. How is a solution formed?How is a solution formed?  Through the process ofThrough the process of  Solute particlesSolute particles separate from each other and mixseparate from each other and mix with thewith the solventsolvent particlesparticles  Solvent particlesSolvent particles surround thesurround the solutesolute particlesparticles and pulland pull them away from otherthem away from other solute particlessolute particles solvation
  4. 4. Solute and SolventSolute and Solvent  SolventSolvent  Does theDoes the dissolvingdissolving  GreaterGreater quantity (usually)quantity (usually)  SoluteSolute  What is dissolvedWhat is dissolved  LesserLesser quantity (usually)quantity (usually)
  5. 5. Like dissolves likeLike dissolves like  Baking soda will dissolve in water, but not inBaking soda will dissolve in water, but not in oil…..why?oil…..why?  ““Like dissolves like” refers to theLike dissolves like” refers to the bonding andbonding and polaritypolarity of the particles in theof the particles in the solute and solventsolute and solvent  Polar means a substancePolar means a substance has ahas a positivepositive and aand a negativenegative endend  IonicIonic compoundscompounds
  6. 6. Ionic compounds in solutionIonic compounds in solution Cl- Na+ Cl- Na+ Na+ Cl- Cl-
  7. 7. SolubilitySolubility  Only a certain amount of solute can dissolve in aOnly a certain amount of solute can dissolve in a solvent under a certain set of conditionssolvent under a certain set of conditions  When too much solute is added to a solution atWhen too much solute is added to a solution at that temperature, the excess solute willthat temperature, the excess solute will crystallizecrystallize and fall out of solutionand fall out of solution  SolubilitySolubility is theis the maximummaximum amount of a soluteamount of a solute thatthat dissolves in a solvent atdissolves in a solvent at aa given temperaturegiven temperature
  8. 8. SaturationSaturation  AA saturatedsaturated solutionsolution  contains thecontains the maximum amountmaximum amount of dissolvedof dissolved solutesolute  for a givenfor a given amount of solventamount of solvent  at aat a specificspecific temperaturetemperature andand pressurepressure
  9. 9. SupersaturationSupersaturation  A supersaturated solutionA supersaturated solution  containscontains moremore dissolved solute than adissolved solute than a saturated solutionsaturated solution  at theat the samesame temperature.temperature.
  10. 10. Solubility CurvesSolubility Curves Shows how much solute will dissolve in 100 g of water at a certain temperature The line represents the saturated amount of solute Underneath the line represents an unsaturated amount Above the line represents a supersaturated amount
  11. 11. • Which substance is most soluble at 40°C? • How many grams of NH4Cl will dissolve at 50°C? • What two substances have the same solubility at 24°C? • If you place 70 grams of KBr into 100g of water at 60°C, what type of solution have you made? • How many grams of NaNO3 will dissolve in 300.0g of water at 10.0°C? NaNONaNO33 ~ 50 grams~ 50 grams YbYb22(SO(SO44))33 KNO33 unsaturatedunsaturated ~ 240 grams~ 240 grams (80 x 3)(80 x 3)
  12. 12. Increasing Solubility - SolidsIncreasing Solubility - Solids  Increase theIncrease the temperaturetemperature  Why? Increases the amount ofWhy? Increases the amount of solute-solventsolute-solvent collisionscollisions and increasesand increases speed and energyspeed and energy ofof particlesparticles  AgitateAgitate the solution (stir)the solution (stir)  Why? Brings moreWhy? Brings more solvent particlessolvent particles closer tocloser to thethe solutesolute  Decrease the particle sizeDecrease the particle size  IncreasesIncreases thethe surface areasurface area of the solute, making itof the solute, making it easier for solvent particles toeasier for solvent particles to surround the solutesurround the solute
  13. 13. Increasing Solubility –Increasing Solubility – GasesGases  Decrease theDecrease the temperaturetemperature  Increase theIncrease the pressurepressure  If you increase the pressure,If you increase the pressure, think of pressing the gasthink of pressing the gas particles into the liquid.particles into the liquid.  Increasing pressure alwaysIncreasing pressure always increases the amount ofincreases the amount of gasgas that can bethat can be dissolveddissolved in a a liquid.
  14. 14. Rate of SolvationRate of Solvation Greater solubility = Faster solvationGreater solubility = Faster solvation  The same factors that increase solubility,The same factors that increase solubility, increase the rate of solvationincrease the rate of solvation
  15. 15. ConcentrationConcentration  The larger theThe larger the ratioratio of solute to solventof solute to solvent becomes, the morebecomes, the more concentratedconcentrated thethe solution is.solution is.  ConcentratedConcentrated – large ratio of solute to– large ratio of solute to solventsolvent  DiluteDilute – small ratio of solute to solvent– small ratio of solute to solvent
  16. 16. Rates of ReactionRates of Reaction  Concentration affects the rate of reactionConcentration affects the rate of reaction  ConcentratedConcentrated solutions reactsolutions react fasterfaster thanthan dilutedilute solutionssolutions
  17. 17. MolarityMolarity  Most commonly used in chemistryMost commonly used in chemistry  Abbreviated asAbbreviated as MM  MolesMoles of solute in perof solute in per literliter of solutionof solution moles of solute Liters of solution M =
  18. 18. ElectrolytesElectrolytes  Electrolyte – ionic compound whose aqueousElectrolyte – ionic compound whose aqueous solution conducts an electric currentsolution conducts an electric current  –– electrolyteelectrolyte  –– non-electrolytenon-electrolyte NaClNaCl SugarSugar How many moles of ions are produced by dissolving 1 mole of NaCl in water?
  19. 19. Colligative PropertiesColligative Properties  Colligative - depending on the collectionColligative - depending on the collection  Properties dependent onProperties dependent on concentrationconcentration,, number of particles presentnumber of particles present
  20. 20. Boiling Point ElevationBoiling Point Elevation  When vapor pressure equals atmosphericWhen vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure, water boilspressure, water boils  More particles =More particles = lowerlower vapor pressurevapor pressure  Lower vapor pressure =Lower vapor pressure = higherhigher boiling pointboiling point  More particles =More particles = higherhigher boiling pointboiling point Which raises boiling point more, 1 mole of NaCl in water, or 1 mole of sugar in water?
  21. 21. Freezing Point DepressionFreezing Point Depression  Solute particlesSolute particles interfere with attractioninterfere with attraction between solventbetween solvent particlesparticles  MoreMore particles =particles = lowerlower freezing pointfreezing point
  22. 22. OsmosisOsmosis  Osmosis – diffusion ofOsmosis – diffusion of solventsolvent across aacross a semi-permeable barriersemi-permeable barrier  Solvent goes from:Solvent goes from:  Area ofArea of moremore solventsolvent → Area of→ Area of lessless solventsolvent
  23. 23. OsmosisOsmosis Semi-permeable barrier Pure Solvent Solution
  24. 24. Osmosis and ConcentrationOsmosis and Concentration  Higher concentration =Higher concentration = moremore osmoticosmotic pressurepressure
  25. 25. Osmosis and you
  26. 26. Colligative Properties ReviewColligative Properties ReviewAtmosphere Vapor Pressure
  27. 27. Miscible and Immiscible  Substances that are miscible will dissolve in each other.  Example: alchohol and water  Substances that are immiscible will mix but immediately separate.  Example: oil and vinegar