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Assignment 9 part 1


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Assignment 9 part 1

  1. 1. Mexicanos: a history of mexicans in the united states<br />By: Miryam Hernandez<br />
  2. 2. Introduction<br />
  3. 3. The book Occupied America: The Chicano’s Struggle toward Liverationby Rodolfo Acuna published in 1972 provides an insight on Mexica American History.<br />Acuna was able to easily talk about conflict and racial discrimination in his book. <br />The book exposed inequality between Mexicans and Americans in the United States which was one of the causes of so many injustices I the early 1970s. <br />Insight on mexicanamerica history<br />
  4. 4. Distinctions created by….<br />Geography<br />Race<br />Gender<br />Class status<br />Language<br />Historic events<br />Mexican-american communities<br />
  5. 5. To provide a balanced view of the Mexican experience as a Mexican citizen, immigrant and American citizen.<br />To provide the reader with Mexicans who changed the history of Mexico.<br />To help the reader understand the difference between Mexican, Chicano/a and Mestizo. <br />Goals of Manuel g. gonzales<br />
  6. 6. Spaniards and native americansprehistory-1521<br />
  7. 7. Spaniard history in the early 1500s<br />They are a product of multiplicity of cultures.<br />Spanish<br />Portuguese<br />Europe<br />Italian<br /><ul><li>Christopher Columbus, an Italian became known as one of the most famous Spanish explorers.</li></li></ul><li>The amerindians in the early 1500s<br />Cultivated may crops such as beans, squash, tomatoes, avocados, potatoes and pumpkins.<br />They lived off the land and were not aware that other places existed.<br />They excelled in the arts and sciences.<br />They had slaves captured from other tribes during battle.<br />
  8. 8. The conquest of mexico<br />Hernan Cortes defeated Aztec leader Cuauhtemoc on August 13, 1521.<br />The 1520 epidemic killed may inhabitants which helped the Spaniards easily take over the land and eventually expand.<br />Marriages between Natives and Spaniards was encouraged to civilize the Natives. <br />
  9. 9. The spanish frontier1521-1821<br />
  10. 10. Spanish exploration of the far north and settlement of new mexico<br />Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca accidentally discovered the American Southwest. <br />In 1540 Vasquez de Coronado discovered a desert land we now call the state of Arizona.<br />The great Pueblo Revolt of 1680 killed may settlers by the hands of villagers.<br />By 1680 the Spanish rebuilt their towns and began to expand. <br />
  11. 11. Settlement of the northern frontier beyond new mexico<br />In 1560 the Spanish conquered the Philippines which successfully created a trade route between the islands and New Spain.<br />After the Seven Years’ War, in 1763 the Spanish acquired Louisiana.<br />Juan Bautista de Anza began populating what is now known as San Francisco. <br />By 1781 the Spanish population of Alta California was slowly increasing.<br />
  12. 12. Major trends<br />Between 1785-1786 Indians died of smallpox, had difficulty living in a hostile environment, and had limited food, especially in Texas.<br />After the Treaty of Paris in 1783 also known as the independence from England, Americans began an interest in expanding to the Pacific.<br />American interest in expanding was mostly for trade interest.<br />
  13. 13. The mexican far north 1821-1848<br />
  14. 14. Mexican independence, California and new Mexico<br />In 1848 Mexican won its independence from Spain.<br />During the 1800s many people owned ranches.<br />American traders began to protest against Governor Armijo (governor of New Mexico) regarding heavy trading fees. <br />The Catholic religion was strong during this time.<br />
  15. 15. Arizona, Texas and the clash of cultures<br />Arizona and Texas suffered a decline in population in 1829.<br />According to Arnoldo De Leon racial animosity of Texans towards Mexicans began occur by 1836.<br />By the mid-1840s a large number of immigrants began to arrive.<br />
  16. 16. The Texas revolt and the Mexican war<br />On March 6, 1836 General Santa Anna and his army attacked at a old Fraciscan mission in San Antonio.<br />A month after General Santa Anna’s victory, Texas won its independence.<br />Texas made an attempt to invade New Mexico.<br />On April 23, 1846 Mexico declared war on the United States.<br />
  17. 17. The american southwest1848-1900<br />
  18. 18. Gringos and greasers, California and Arizona<br />Prejudice against Mexicans and Americans increased during the conflict over land ownership.<br />July 5, 1851 the first woman was lynched in the State of California which caused the term “greaser” to be a racial discrimination factor.<br />In 1848 Mexicans signed the Treaty of Guadalupe.<br />Due to the treaty many Mexicans resided in Arizona. <br />
  19. 19. New mexico<br />The Hispanic during the 1840s was broke down into two groups; rich and poor.<br />In the 1850s the Mescaleros ad the Navajo were forced to the Bosque Redondo reservation at Fort Sumner in eastern New Mexico by the American cavalry.<br />In 1892 Francisco Chavez, a Democratic political leader was assassinated.<br />
  20. 20. texas<br />Texas entered the union in 1845.<br />Tejanos fought for rights.<br />The Chihuahua trade was affected after the Mexican-American war.<br />By the 1890s El Paso became the major America port of entry from Mexico.<br />Immigrants arriving from Chihuahua and Sonora were educated.<br />
  21. 21. The great migration1900-1930<br />
  22. 22. Motives for Mexican Immigration, the Mexican Revolution and the Economic Development of the southwest<br />Reed-Johnson Immigration Act of 1924 was passed to regulate immigration.<br />In February 1915, an attempt to overthrow U.S. rule and reclaim the Southwest was initiated in southern Texas.<br />Mexican population greatly increased between 1900-1930.<br />
  23. 23. The Immigrant, the contratista and rural life<br />After the postwar depression (1921-1922) was over, labor needs were soaring in the Southwest of the United States.<br />Labor contractors also known as Contratistas brought labor abuse within the Mexican community by charging immigrants extra fees for boarding, travel and anything they could think of for profit.<br />Mexicans lived in secluded rural areas.<br />
  24. 24. Mexicans Beyond the Southwest and Mexican and European Immigration: a Comparison<br />By the 1920s Mexican sugar beet workers moved into other Rocky Mountain States such as Utah and Idaho.<br />In 1929 federal legislation made it a felony to enter the United States illegally.<br />The difference between European migration and Mexican migration is based on physical discrimination. <br />
  25. 25. The depression1930-1940<br />
  26. 26. The depression, Urbanization, and urbanization in the midwest<br />The New York stock exchange on October 29, 1929 also known as the Great Depression <br />The barrio population in East Los Angeles had overcrowded housing.<br />By 1930 approximately 58,000 Mexicans resided in the Midwest.<br />All immigrants feared economic competition against other groups. <br />
  27. 27. The “Mexican problem”, repatriation, and the dust bowl migration<br />Groups such as the Ku Klux Klan expressed their opposition against Mexicans residing in the United States.<br />Due to the racial segregations and government reaction towards Mexican immigration, many Mexicans in the United States returned to their homeland.<br />Agricultural employment grew 63.6 between 1935 and 1940 areas like Bakersfield and Kern County. <br />
  28. 28. Labor strife and Mexican women and the labor movement<br />The Western Federation of Miners (WFM), the only mining union and its members included Mexicans and other immigrants.<br />American employers prefer Mexican immigrant workers because Mexican workers prefer to do an honest day’s job for an honest day’s pay.<br />Women labor leaders like Lucy Gozales Parsons had a great impact on Mexican labor unions and women in society.<br />
  29. 29. The second world war and its aftermath1940-1965<br />LULAC FOUNDERS<br />
  30. 30. Mexicans In the military and urbanization: trials and tribulations<br />Mexicans participated in World War I and World War II.<br />Veteran benefits offered Mexicans education opportunities, job training and the right to own a home.<br />Pachuchos also known as “zoot-suiters” first appeared in El Paso. They were caught between society trend and old fashion Mexican traditions.<br />
  31. 31. The bracero program and operation wetback<br />Labor unions began to defend the right of Mexican immigrants against the bracero program.<br />Wetbacks are commonly known as undocumented workers or fence-jumpers.<br />The Operation Wetback was a campaign program initiated by INS to deport undocumented Mexicans in 1954.<br />During the 1950s most undocumented workers were men. <br />
  32. 32. The mexicanamerican generation and the mexican-american intelligentsia<br />1987 Educational Equality in Texas, Mexican children were segregated into “Mexican” schools. <br />1945 Mendez et al. v. Westmister School District of Orange country (1947), suit filed by parents of a Mexican student. <br />The Democratic vote was large due to the Mexican community.<br />Carlos Eduardo Castaneda, Arthur Leon Campa ad George I. Sanchez were the first Mexicans that helped shape Mexican-American intellectual culture in the United States.<br />
  33. 33. THE CHICANO MOVEMEnt1965-1975<br />
  34. 34. The Mexican community In the mid-sixties, origins of the chicano movement and chavez, huerta and the United farmworkers<br />Mexican children were graduating High School by seventy five percent in the 1960s.<br />Because of the black civil rights movement, it helped Mexicans to begin their own rights movement campaigns.<br />Cesar Chavez began the Mexican rights movement in 1964.<br />Dolores Fernandez Huerta formed alliance with Chavez to fight for farm workers rights.<br />
  35. 35. The Delano strike, other early chicano leaders and the chicano student movement<br />Chavez’s boycott of union grapes (1968-1975)<br />Reies Lopez Tijerina, the son of migrant farm laborers, he and his supporters ivaded the courthouse at Tierra Amarilla to free jailed Alianza members and make a citizens’ arrest of local district attorey. <br />March 3, 1968 Los Angeles student strike consisted of High School staff and Mexican students demanding a better school system.<br />
  36. 36. The chicano movement in the community, the chicana movement, the decline of chicanismoand the chicano legacy<br />August 29, 1970 thirty thousand people gathered at Laguna Park to protest U.S. involvement in Vietnam and the disproportionate loss of Latino lives in the war.<br />The Chicana movement based their focus on women's rights.<br />Because immigrants became more focused in earning a living and employment opportunities, Mexican civil rights became unimportant the decline of Chicanismo began.<br />Chavez will remain the leader of the labor Mexican movement.<br />
  37. 37. Pain and promise1975-1998<br />
  38. 38. Demographics, immigration and the north american free trade agreement<br />By 1990 about ninety percent of the Mexican population in the United States was urban, a higher percentage than the population at large according to the U.S. Census Bureau.<br />1996 eight percent of the Mexican population lived in poverty.<br />Mexican immigrants were no only being deported but also arrested for falsifying immigration documents. <br />The North American Free Trade Agreement (FAFTA) legislated into effect on January 1, 1994.<br />
  39. 39. The decade of the hispanic: the unfulfilled promise, mexicancatholicism and feminista: the second generation<br />By the late 1990s Mexican vote became the largest most important Decomat vote.<br />Mexican women were becoming the head of household by the 1990s.<br />Gangs in Los Angeles became a huge problem not only for California but for the Mexican culture which hurt the Mexican community alliance and created a stereotype that all Mexicans were part of a gang. <br />About nine percent of Mexicans were infected with the AIDS virus in 1990.<br />The second generation feministas were given more rights by the end of the 1900s, thus creating their own movement and support groups.<br />
  40. 40. The chicano renaissance<br />Peter Rodriguez a famous muralist founded the Mexican Museum in San Francisco in 1972.<br />There were many Mexican musicians. Ritchie Valence (Ricardo Valenzuela) born to migrant workers open doors for many other Mexican musicians like Selena.<br />The pursuit for Chicano rights gave way to other groups such as Cubans to pursue the same American dream. <br />