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Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Web Ontologies: Lessons Learned
from Conceptual Modeling at
Scale
Mar...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Ontology in Philosophy
•  “…that branch of philosophy which deals wit...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Example: Part-Whole Theories
• “Mereology”
• E.g. proper parts vs.
ot...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Sounds familiar?
4
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Here is the full section:
Gruber, T. R. (1995):
Toward principles for...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Gruber (1995): Ontologies in Computer Science
The term is „borrowed f...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Ontologies Approximate the Intended Models
7
N. Guarino (1998):
Forma...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Ontologies for Systems Interoperability
8
N. Guarino (1998):
Formal O...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Problem
9
N. Guarino (1998):
Formal Ontology in Information Systems
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Ideal Ontology
N. Guarino (1998):
Formal Ontology in Information Syst...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
However,…
11
§  Computer-based Information Systems are not close to
...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
This reduces the practical scope of ontologies to…
•  Providind a sha...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Improve the Reliability of Type Information
Type:Hotel
Hotel
1
Hotel
...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Acceptable Ontology
Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Bad Ontology
Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr Münche...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Reliability of Type Membership (Sketch)
Some dimension
Agents
who agr...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Historically, Ontologies aimed at deterministic behavior
Prof. Dr. Ma...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
The community was small
Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundes...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
And there were social ties beyond HTTP between the humans
Prof. Dr. M...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
And then came the Web
Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswe...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
And people borrowed the term again...
Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universi...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
The Semantic Web (2001)
Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundes...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
However, if the number of human users gets large,...
Prof. Dr. Martin...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
...the whole thing turns into a probabilistic system
Prof. Dr. Martin...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Reliability of Type Information
Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität de...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Reliability of Type Information
Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität de...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Reliability of Type Information
Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität de...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Reliability of Type Information
Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität de...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
The Fallacy of Raw Consumption of Web Data
http://www.heppresearch.co...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Naïve Type Membership Interpretation: SPARQL
http://www.heppresearch....
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Which properties determine the probabilities?
Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, ...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Fallacy 1: Formal specifications would guarantee correct
usage
Prof. ...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Fallacy 2: Web Ontologies allow for the automated processing
of data
...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Recommended Reading
Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Recommended Reading
Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
The Role of Schemas between Men and Machines
Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, U...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Test: How well can the target audience understand and apply
the conce...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Optimize: Compare the discriminative value of your
conceptual element...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Monitor: Capture live feedback on the quality of the
membership funct...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Challenges
•  Goal 1: Improve the reliability of type memberships of
...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Challenges
•  Goal 1: Improve the reliability of type memberships of
...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Challenges
•  Goal 1: Improve the reliability of type memberships of
...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Challenges
•  Goal 1: Improve the reliability of type memberships of
...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Challenges
•  Goal 1: Improve the reliability of type memberships of
...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
What is schema.org? What is GoodRelations?
1. Official Characterizati...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Official Characterization from http://schema.org
Questions? Suggestio...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
There is REAL Momentum
Questions? Suggestions? Contact me at @mfhepp!...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Schema.org: A Data Publication Ontology
Questions? Suggestions? Conta...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Schema.org: The Semantic Web Vision Come True?
1. No OWL. Not even an...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
From Ontology to Ontologies: The First Passage
•  From Philosophy to ...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
The Web as an Ecosystem for Shared Schemata
•  Stakeholders
–  Schema...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Web Ontology ≠ Ontology
•  Huge, unknown community of users
–  You sp...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
The challenges on the Web are the same.
Just at a bigger scale.
•  Go...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Ontology Perspicuity
How well can the ontology be understood through ...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Ontology Economics
57
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Maintenance and Dynamics
58
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Requirements on Web Ontologies
•  Broad user base (>500)
•  Understan...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Types of Community Involvement
•  Centralized Ontology Engineering
• ...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Web Ontology Techniques
•  Dynamic Degree of Disambiguation
•  Dynami...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Dynamic Degree of Disambiguation
ProductOrService
Service Product
Age...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Dynamic Data Granularity
63
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Example for Deferred Consensus
gr:name
gr:description
schema:geo sche...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
GoodRelations: Language Reference
http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1.ht...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
UML Class Diagram
http://www.heppnetz.de/ontologies/goodrelations/v1#...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
GoodRelations User‘s Guide
http://wiki.goodrelations-vocabulary.org/D...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Community of Experts
68
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Albert Einstein on Ontology Engineering ☺
"Make everything as simple ...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Let’s Do Science, not Cult!
http://www.heppresearch.com70
§  Challen...
Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL
insbesondere E-BUSINESS
Thank you!
@mfhepp
71
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Web Ontologies: Lessons Learned from Conceptual Modeling at Scale

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Ontologies are a key component of semantic systems of all kinds, including the Semantic Web vision and Linked Open Data initiatives. In this talk, I will summarize work towards a theory of the technical, economical, and cognitive aspects of ontologies in large, distributed settings, and present design patterns and a skeletton methodology for ontology engineering in this environment. The theoretical aspects will be combined by practical examples of challenges and solutions in the context of schema.org.

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Web Ontologies: Lessons Learned from Conceptual Modeling at Scale

  1. 1. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Web Ontologies: Lessons Learned from Conceptual Modeling at Scale Martin Hepp, @mfhepp mfhepp@gmail.com
  2. 2. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Ontology in Philosophy •  “…that branch of philosophy which deals with the nature and the organisation of reality.” Guarino and Giaretta (1995): Ontologies and Knowledge Bases 2
  3. 3. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Example: Part-Whole Theories • “Mereology” • E.g. proper parts vs. other forms of part- whole relations 3
  4. 4. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Sounds familiar? 4
  5. 5. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Here is the full section: Gruber, T. R. (1995): Toward principles for the design of ontologies used for knowledge sharing. 5
  6. 6. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Gruber (1995): Ontologies in Computer Science The term is „borrowed from philosophy“ 6
  7. 7. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Ontologies Approximate the Intended Models 7 N. Guarino (1998): Formal Ontology in Information Systems
  8. 8. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Ontologies for Systems Interoperability 8 N. Guarino (1998): Formal Ontology in Information Systems
  9. 9. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Problem 9 N. Guarino (1998): Formal Ontology in Information Systems
  10. 10. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Ideal Ontology N. Guarino (1998): Formal Ontology in Information Systems 10
  11. 11. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS However,… 11 §  Computer-based Information Systems are not close to be full knowledge-based systems §  They are unable to operate solely on axiomatic theories (“rule sets”)
  12. 12. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS This reduces the practical scope of ontologies to… •  Providind a shared type system that is useful across systems •  Improving the reliability of type information for entities •  Providing some rules that hold implicit facts (e.g. transitivity of a property) 12
  13. 13. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Improve the Reliability of Type Information Type:Hotel Hotel 1 Hotel 2 Hotel 3 System 1 System 2 13
  14. 14. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Acceptable Ontology Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München14 Two users / systems
  15. 15. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Bad Ontology Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München15 Two users / systems
  16. 16. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Reliability of Type Membership (Sketch) Some dimension Agents who agree 16
  17. 17. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Historically, Ontologies aimed at deterministic behavior Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München17
  18. 18. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS The community was small Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München18
  19. 19. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS And there were social ties beyond HTTP between the humans Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München19 EKAW 1987 Researcher 1 Researcher 3 Researcher 2
  20. 20. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS And then came the Web Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München20
  21. 21. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS And people borrowed the term again... Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München21 Ontologies for the Web
  22. 22. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS The Semantic Web (2001) Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München22 Ontologies.... §  for increasing automated information processing at Web scale
  23. 23. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS However, if the number of human users gets large,... Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München23
  24. 24. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS ...the whole thing turns into a probabilistic system Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München24 §  Agents Ai, A set of all agents §  Sender S element of A §  Receiver R element of A §  O set of objects / phenomena §  f(Oi,Sj) = 0 or 1 §  f(Oi, Ri) = 0 or 1 §  Etc.
  25. 25. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Reliability of Type Information Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München25 2 Agents, 85 % Agreement
  26. 26. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Reliability of Type Information Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München26 5 Agents, 75 % Agreement
  27. 27. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Reliability of Type Information Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München27 15 Agents, 75 % Agreement
  28. 28. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Reliability of Type Information Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München28 100 Agents, 75 % Agreement
  29. 29. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS The Fallacy of Raw Consumption of Web Data http://www.heppresearch.com29 Naïve Type Membership Interpretation: SPARQL # Find former people who are professors PREFIX dbpedia-owl: <http://dbpedia.org/ontology/> SELECT * {?s a dbpedia-owl:Professor} LIMIT 100
  30. 30. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Naïve Type Membership Interpretation: SPARQL http://www.heppresearch.com30 Find all professors from Web markup <html prefix="schema: http://schema.org/! dbpedia: http://dbpedia.org/ontology/">! <!-- .. -->! <div typeOf="schema:Person dbpedia:Professor" about="#person">! <span property="schema:honorificPrefix">Prof. Dr.</span>&nbsp;! <span property="schema:givenName">Zaphod</span>! <span property="schema:familyname">Beeblebrox</span>! </div>! </html>
  31. 31. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Which properties determine the probabilities? Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München32 §  Number of individuals of that type –  Familiarity: Banana vs. Papaya §  Cognitive skills of involved humans §  Etc. §  We do not know yet ;-)
  32. 32. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Fallacy 1: Formal specifications would guarantee correct usage Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München33 §  Axiomatic definitions §  In fact, no serious evidence
  33. 33. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Fallacy 2: Web Ontologies allow for the automated processing of data Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München34 §  Raw data on the Web can rarely be used directly for any meaningful purposes §  Data cleansing, entity consolidation, etc. §  Navigation on raw, linked data questionable
  34. 34. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Recommended Reading Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München35
  35. 35. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Recommended Reading Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München36
  36. 36. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS The Role of Schemas between Men and Machines Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München38 DatabaseSchemas WebOntologies
  37. 37. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Test: How well can the target audience understand and apply the conceptual distinctions in the ontology? Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München39 §  Examples: –  Book copy vs. book title –  Web page vs. entity described by the page –  Legal entity vs. shop location §  Turning ontology engineering from an art into an empirical science.
  38. 38. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Optimize: Compare the discriminative value of your conceptual elements with their effect on conformant ontology usage Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München40
  39. 39. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Monitor: Capture live feedback on the quality of the membership functions of your ontology Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp, Universität der Bundeswehr München41
  40. 40. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Challenges •  Goal 1: Improve the reliability of type memberships of entities in information processing •  Goal 2: Find types that provide sufficient distinctions for an algorithmic information processing, i,e. minimize reclassification tasks at the recipient’s side •  Goal 3: Ditto for data granularity •  Goal 4: Find types that can be populated from existing datasources without reclassification tasks at the publisher side. •  Goal 5: Find conceptual distinctions that can be reliable mastered by the human stakeholders of the systems 42
  41. 41. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Challenges •  Goal 1: Improve the reliability of type memberships of entities in information processing •  Goal 2: Find types that provide sufficient distinctions for an algorithmic information processing, i,e. minimize reclassification tasks at the recipient’s side •  Goal 3: Ditto for data granularity •  Goal 4: Find types that can be populated from existing datasources without reclassification tasks at the publisher side. •  Goal 5: Find conceptual distinctions that can be reliable mastered by the human stakeholders of the systems 43
  42. 42. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Challenges •  Goal 1: Improve the reliability of type memberships of entities in information processing •  Goal 2: Find types that provide sufficient distinctions for an algorithmic information processing, i,e. minimize reclassification tasks at the recipient’s side •  Goal 3: Ditto for data granularity •  Goal 4: Find types that can be populated from existing datasources without reclassification tasks at the publisher side. •  Goal 5: Find conceptual distinctions that can be reliable mastered by the human stakeholders of the systems 44
  43. 43. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Challenges •  Goal 1: Improve the reliability of type memberships of entities in information processing •  Goal 2: Find types that provide sufficient distinctions for an algorithmic information processing, i,e. minimize reclassification tasks at the recipient’s side •  Goal 3: Ditto for data granularity •  Goal 4: Find types that can be populated from existing datasources without reclassification tasks at the publisher side. •  Goal 5: Find conceptual distinctions that can be reliable mastered by the human stakeholders of the systems 45
  44. 44. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Challenges •  Goal 1: Improve the reliability of type memberships of entities in information processing •  Goal 2: Find types that provide sufficient distinctions for an algorithmic information processing, i,e. minimize reclassification tasks at the recipient’s side •  Goal 3: Ditto for data granularity •  Goal 4: Find types that can be populated from existing datasources without reclassification tasks at the publisher side. •  Goal 5: Find conceptual distinctions that can be reliable mastered by the human stakeholders of the systems 46
  45. 45. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS What is schema.org? What is GoodRelations? 1. Official Characterization 2. Purpose: §  Focus on information extraction on the Web §  Other uses as a by-product 3. Knowledge Representation Perspective §  Entity Types §  Relationship Types §  Weak Domain / Range Semantics §  Syntax-independent Meta-Model And how are they related? Questions? Suggestions? Contact me at @mfhepp!47
  46. 46. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Official Characterization from http://schema.org Questions? Suggestions? Contact me at @mfhepp!48 This site provides a collection of schemas that webmasters can use to markup HTML pages in ways recognized by major search providers, and that can also be used for structured data interoperability (e.g. in JSON). Search engines including Bing, Google, Yahoo! and Yandex rely on this markup to improve the display of search results, making it easier for people to find the right Web pages. Many sites are generated from structured data, which is often stored in databases. When this data is formatted into HTML, it becomes very difficult to recover the original structured data. Many applications, especially search engines, can benefit greatly from direct access to this structured data. On-page markup enables search engines to understand the information on web pages and provide richer search results in order to make it easier for users to find relevant information on the web. Markup can also enable new tools and applications that make use of the structure.
  47. 47. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS There is REAL Momentum Questions? Suggestions? Contact me at @mfhepp!49 A lot of data §  Since 2011, schema.org has been added to >25% of top-ranked e- commerce sites product detail pages. §  RDF-based representations are specified. Table: Random sample of n=73 product detail pages from high-ranking Google results. Note that these numbers have a strong bias towards popular, professionally operated sites.
  48. 48. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Schema.org: A Data Publication Ontology Questions? Suggestions? Contact me at @mfhepp!50 Not designed for raw data consumption (only as a by-product) §  Historically, ontologies in computer science aimed at harmonizing the conceptualization and representation of data for publishers and consumers of the data. §  Implicit goal of the traditional Semantic Web stack: More or less, consumption of raw data. §  This requires detailed consensus on the level of data granularity and data semantics at scale, and high data quality. §  Schema.org does not make this assumption, since its sponsors have the power to work on semi-structured data at Web scale. Ontologyschema.org
  49. 49. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Schema.org: The Semantic Web Vision Come True? 1. No OWL. Not even an ontology in the narrow sense. 2. Direct consumption difficult §  Crawling §  Cleansing §  Lifting 3. No broad use of Linked Data principles §  Mostly no global entity identifiers §  Page = Entity (vs. httpRange-14) §  No vocabulary reuse (*) Likely not what the Semantic Web community had hoped for. Questions? Suggestions? Contact me at @mfhepp!51
  50. 50. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS From Ontology to Ontologies: The First Passage •  From Philosophy to Computer Science •  Exchange of Knowledge Bases 52
  51. 51. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS The Web as an Ecosystem for Shared Schemata •  Stakeholders –  Schema Designer (a few) –  Data Consumer (set the incentives) –  Data Publisher / Site Owner (many, often limited set of skills and understanding) 53
  52. 52. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Web Ontology ≠ Ontology •  Huge, unknown community of users –  You speak only via your Web resources to them •  Economic factors –  Incentives vs. Costs, Spam, … •  Data Quality issues •  Huge amount of data •  Limitations of deployment environments –  Access to server configuration –  Skills –  Corporate policies 54
  53. 53. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS The challenges on the Web are the same. Just at a bigger scale. •  Goal 1: Improve the reliability of type memberships of entities in information processing •  Goal 2: Find types that provide sufficient distinctions for an algorithmic information processing, i,e. minimize reclassification tasks at the recipient’s side •  Goal 3: Ditto for data granularity •  Goal 4: Find types that can be populated from existing datasources without reclassification tasks at the publisher side. •  Goal 5: Find conceptual distinctions that can be reliable mastered by the human stakeholders of the systems 55
  54. 54. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Ontology Perspicuity How well can the ontology be understood through the imperfect channel of communication between the designers and the users of an ontology? 56
  55. 55. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Ontology Economics 57
  56. 56. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Maintenance and Dynamics 58
  57. 57. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Requirements on Web Ontologies •  Broad user base (>500) •  Understandable and usable just from the Web presence •  Decoupling the ontology from the evolution of enumerations •  Dynamic Data Granularity and Incremental Refinement •  Deferred Consensus •  HTML documentation •  Proper deployment •  Extensions should work with clients that understand only the basics if they have minimal RDFS reasoning support •  Minimize namespace traversals, i.e., locally define most concepts and link to external ontologies than simply reuse •  Minimize number of conceptual elements 59
  58. 58. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Types of Community Involvement •  Centralized Ontology Engineering •  Community-driven Ontology Engineering •  Community-inspired Ontology Engineering •  Social Functionality (as in GoodRelations) 60
  59. 59. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Web Ontology Techniques •  Dynamic Degree of Disambiguation •  Dynamic Data Granularity and Lexical Carry-Over •  Deferred Consensus •  Incremental Refinement •  Optional Nodes for N-Ary Relations •  Social Functionality •  Externalize Enumerations 61 (Hepp 2015, forthcoming)
  60. 60. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Dynamic Degree of Disambiguation ProductOrService Service Product Agent Person Organisation 62
  61. 61. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Dynamic Data Granularity 63
  62. 62. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Example for Deferred Consensus gr:name gr:description schema:geo schema:GeoCoordinates acco:size gr:QuantitativeValue acco:occupancy gr:QuantitativeValue acco:occupancyAdults gr:QuantitativeValue acco:occupancyInfants gr:QuantitativeValue acco:petsAllowed xsd:boolean acco:Accommodation acco:feature acco:propertyID (*) xsd:string gr:name (for raw values/text) gr:description acco:min (gr:hasMinValue) gr:QuantitativeValue acco:max (gr:hasMaxValue) gr:QuantitativeValue acco:value (gr:hasValue) gr:QuantitativeValue acco:unit text acco:unitCode xsd:string (gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement) acco:AccommodationFeature PropertyIDs starRating:HOTREC starRating:DEHOGA starRating:WHR starRating:Hotelstars 64
  63. 63. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS GoodRelations: Language Reference http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1.html Examples Links and References Range and Domain Social MediaCommunity of Experts 65
  64. 64. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS UML Class Diagram http://www.heppnetz.de/ontologies/goodrelations/v1#uml The GoodRelations Ontology for E-Commerce Language Overview - UML Class Diagram http://purl.org/goodrelations/ Version 1, Release 2011-10-01 Martin Hepp. mhepp@computer.org gr:name rdfs:Literal gr:description rdfs:Literal gr:hasEAN_UCC-13 xsd:string gr:hasGTIN-14 xsd:string gr:hasGTIN-8 xsd:string gr:hasStockKeepingUnit xsd:string gr:hasMPN xsd:string gr:condition rdfs:Literal gr:serialNumber xsd:string gr:eligibleRegions xsd:string gr:validFrom xsd:dateTime gr:validThrough xsd:dateTime gr:availabilityStarts xsd:dateTime gr:availabilityEnds xsd:dateTime gr:category rdfs:Literal gr:Offering gr:name rdfs:Literal gr:description rdfs:Literal gr:datatypeProductOrServiceProperty any gr:hasEAN_UCC-13 xsd:string gr:hasGTIN-14 xsd:string gr::hasGTIN-8 xsd:string gr:hasStockKeepingUnit xsd:string gr:hasMPN xsd:string gr:condition rdfs:Literal gr:category rdfs:Literal gr:color rdfs:Literal gr:ProductOrService gr:priceType xsd:string gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement xsd:string gr:billingIncrement xsd:float gr:UnitPriceSpecification gr:eligibleRegions xsd:string gr:DeliveryChargeSpecification gr:name rdfs:Literal gr:description rdfs:Literal gr:legalName rdfs:Literal gr:hasNAICS xsd:int gr:hasISICv4 xsd:int gr:hasDUNS xsd:string gr:hasGlobalLocationNumber xsd:string gr:category rdfs:Literal gr:BusinessEntity gr:WarrantyScope gr:PaymentMethod gr:ProductOrServiceModel gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement xsd:string gr:hasMinValue rdfs:Literal gr:hasMaxValue rdfs:Literal gr:hasValue rdfs:Literal gr:QuantitativeValue gr:durationOfWarrantyInMonths xsd:int gr:WarrantyPromise gr:DayOfWeek gr:DeliveryMethod gr:QualitativeValue gr:amountOfThisGood xsd:float gr:hasUnitOfMeasurement xsd:string gr:TypeAndQuantityNode gr:BusinessFunction gr:name rdfs:Literal gr:description rdfs:Literal gr:hasGlobalLocationNumber xsd:string gr:hasISICv4 xsd:int gr:category rdfs:Literal gr:Location gr:PaymentMethodCreditCard gr:BusinessEntityType gr:hasMaxValueInteger xsd:int gr:hasMinValueInteger xsd:int gr:hasValueInteger xsd:int gr:QuantitativeValueInteger gr:SomeItems gr:opens xsd:time gr:closes xsd:time gr:validFrom xsd:dateTime gr:validThrough xsd:dateTime gr:OpeningHoursSpecification gr:PaymentChargeSpecification gr:DeliveryModeParcelService gr:hasCurrency xsd:string gr:valueAddedTaxIncluded xsd:boolean gr:hasMaxCurrencyValue xsd:float gr:hasMinCurrencyValue xsd:float gr:hasCurrencyValue xsd:float gr:validFrom xsd:dateTime gr:validThrough xsd:dateTime gr:PriceSpecification gr:hasMinValueFloat xsd:float gr:hasMaxValueFloat xsd:float gr:hasValueFloat xsd:float gr:QuantitativeValueFloat gr:seeks gr:includesObject gr:typeOfGood gr:hasMakeAndModel gr:hasMakeAndModel gr:hasManufacturer gr:hasPOS gr:hasOpeningHoursSpecification gr:availableAtOrFrom gr:hasEligibleQuantity gr:hasWarrantyPromise gr:appliesToPaymentMethod gr:hasWarrantyScope gr:qualitativeProductOrServiceProperty gr:quantitativeProductOrServiceProperty gr:appliesToDeliveryMethod gr:hasBusinessFunction gr:availableDeliveryMethods gr:eligibleCustomerTypes gr:acceptedPaymentMethods gr:hasPriceSpecification gr:hasOpeningHoursDayOfWeek gr:isConsumableFor gr:isVariantOf gr:isSimilarTo gr:isAccessoryOrSparePartFor gr:offers gr:hasInventoryLevel gr:typeOfGoodgr:includes gr:includes Notes: 1. The following GoodRelations elements are only shortcuts for simpler annotation or querying. See the documentation at http://purl.org/goodrelations/ for details: gr:hasValue (shortcut for setting both hasMinValue and hasMaxValue properties to the same value in one turn) gr:hasValueFloat (shortcut for setting both hasMinValueFloat and hasMaxValueFloat properties to the same value in one turn) gr:hasValueInteger (shortcut for setting both hasMinValueInteger and hasMaxValueInteger properties to the same value in one turn) 2. The following elements are now deprecated, but you can still use them, e.g. for staying compatible with older data consumers (e.g. Yahoo SearchMonkey): gr:ActualProductOrServiceInstance (now gr:Individual) gr:ProductOrServicesSomeInstancesPlaceholder (now gr:SomeItems) gr:LocationOfSalesOrServiceProvisioning (now gr:Location 3. For the recommended cardinality of attributes, see the GoodRelations Language Reference at http://purl.org/goodrelations/ v1.html. 4. gr:valueReference links can also exist between a gr:QualitativeValue and a gr:QuantitativeValue and vice versa, but this rare case is not shown for readability. 5. gr:name and gr:description can now be attached to any GoodRelations type, but this is not shown here for readability. gr:eligibleDuration gr:advanceBookingRequirement gr:owns gr:greater gr:lesser gr:lesserOrEqual gr:greaterOrEqual gr:equal gr:nonEqual gr:hasPrevious gr:hasNext gr:successorOf gr:predecessorOf gr:eligibleTransactionVolume gr:eligibleTransactionVolume gr:deliveryLeadTime gr:serialNumber xsd:string gr:Individual Red highlighting indicates elements added or changed in this release. gr:valueReference gr:valueReference gr:hasEligibleQuantity gr:includes gr:hasInventoryLevel gr:weight gr:width gr:height gr:depth gr:Brand gr:hasBrand gr:hasBrand gr:hasBusinessFunction gr:eligibleRegions xsd:string gr:validFrom xsd:dateTime gr:validThrough xsd:dateTime gr:License gr:eligibleDuration 66
  65. 65. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS GoodRelations User‘s Guide http://wiki.goodrelations-vocabulary.org/Documentation Will be updated soon! 67
  66. 66. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Community of Experts 68
  67. 67. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Albert Einstein on Ontology Engineering ☺ "Make everything as simple as possible, but not simpler.“ Albert Einstein 69
  68. 68. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Let’s Do Science, not Cult! http://www.heppresearch.com70 §  Challenge paradigms and approaches §  Use hard data, not beliefs and assumptions (neither your own ones nor the ones inherited from the old folks) CC BY-SA 3.0 / Nicor / https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/North_Korea's_cult_of_personality#/ media/File:Mansudae_Grand_Monument_08.JPG
  69. 69. Professur für ALLGEMEINE BWL insbesondere E-BUSINESS Thank you! @mfhepp 71

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