Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

GoodRelations & RDFa for Deep Comparison Shopping on a Web Scale

5,323 views

Published on

GoodRelations & RDFa for Deep Comparison Shopping on a Web Scale: Can the Web of Data Reduce Price Competition and Increase Customer Satisfaction?

See http://purl.org/goodrelations/ for the official page.

These are my slides from the Zurich and Chicago Semantic Web Meet-up presentation.

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

GoodRelations & RDFa for Deep Comparison Shopping on a Web Scale

  1. 1. GoodRelations & RDFa for Deep Comparison Shopping on a Web Scale Can the Web of Data Reduce Price Competition and Increase Customer Satisfaction? Semantic Web Meetup Chicago December 7, 2009, Chicago, IL, USA Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp http://www.unibw.de/ebusiness/
  2. 2. http://purl.org/goodrelations/ Twitter: mfhepp Skype: mfhepp 2Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  3. 3. GoodRelations: A Unified View on Commerce Data on the Web 3 Product Model Master Data Shop Offerings Auctions Spare Parts & Consumables Warranty Delivery Payment Retailers Manufacturers Arbitrary Query Extraction and Reuse Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  4. 4. Part I: Diversity in Markets The specificity of exchanged goods has kept on growing...
  5. 5. Specificity How much you loose when you can‘t use a good for what it was designed. 5Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  6. 6. Growth in Specificity Reason # 1: Division of Labor 6Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  7. 7. Growth in Specificity Reason # 2: Technical Advancement and Innovation 7Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  8. 8. Growth in Specificity Reason # 3: Logistics Temporal Constraints etc. 8Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  9. 9. Growth in Specificity Reason # 4: Wealth Abraham H. Maslow (1908-1970) A Theory of Human Motivation (1943) 9Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  10. 10. Examples 10Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  11. 11. Examples 11Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  12. 12. Examples 12Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  13. 13. Specificity Increases the Search Space 13Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  14. 14. Multi-Dimensional Trade-Off Problems • Product Features • Price • Services • Logistics • Business Partners • Etc. 14Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  15. 15. Part II: E-Commerce on the Web
  16. 16. Search for Suppliers, 2009 16Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  17. 17. Limitations of the Web, 2009
  18. 18. No Unified View: Jumping Back and Forth Across Data Silos 18 Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 5 Page 7 Page 6 Page 8 Page 4 SearchEngineResults SearchEngineResults SearchEngineResults SearchEngineResults Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  19. 19. We know the best hits only when done. 19 Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 SearchEngineResults Page 5 Page 7 Page 6 Page 8 Page 4 Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  20. 20. Specificity vs. Keyword-based Search • Synonyms • Homonyms • Multiple languages • No parametric search 20Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  21. 21. Limited Ability to Reuse Data 21Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  22. 22. The Web: A Bottleneck for Sharing Product Data 22Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  23. 23. Challenge: Web-wide Product Search • Find all MP3 players that have a USB interface and a color display, and sort them by weight (lightest first). ...on a Web Scale! 23Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  24. 24. Today: Loss of Variety and Detail 24Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org Many Different Products Variety in Preferences Manufacturers & Retailers Consumers Web Search
  25. 25. What’s the Consequence? 25Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  26. 26. Effect: Overly Price Competition 26Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org Only 1 – 2 Product Models Considered Comparison Shopping on the Small Subset
  27. 27. This will change soon. Actually, very soon.
  28. 28. Deep Comparison Shopping 28Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 Page 5 Page 7 Page 6 Page 8 Page 4 Search Engine Results
  29. 29. Part III: E-Commerce on the Web of Linked Data
  30. 30. E-Commerce on the Web of Linked Data 30Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  31. 31. GoodRelations Principle: Small Data Packets Inside Your Page 31Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  32. 32. RDF2RDFa: RDFa in Snippet Style 32Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org RDF2RDFa: Turning RDF into Snippets for Copy-and-Paste Independent RDFa Snippets RDFa by design allows differences between the literals used as property values and the literals being displayed using the “content” attribute [1], e.g. <body> <div property="vcard:tel" datatype="xsd:string" content="+49-89-6004-0"> +49-89-6004 ext. 0 </div> </body> This is particularly useful if the formatting of the data for humans and machines differs, e.g. in the case of date and time information (“2009-04-24T00:00:00+01:00”). It is possible to exploit this to create XHTML snippets that just contain the meta-data and insert it for instance at the bottom of the page: <body> <!-- Content for humans --> <div>+49-89-6004-0</div> <!-- RDFa rich meta-data --> <div property="vcard:tel" datatype="xsd:string" content="+49-89-6004-0"> </div> </body> The potential advantages of this approach are that (1) we disentangle the markup and that (2) respective snippets for simple copy-and-paste can be provided by form-based tools like FOAF-a- Matic [2]. As compared to publishing a separate RDF/XML file on the server, the advantages are that (1) RDFa data is considered by Yahoo! SearchMonkey and other services, (2) one still has to maintain a single file only (reducing the likelihood of outdated, forgotten meta-data files), (3) the content creator does not require access beyond being able to edit the page. Also, note that literal values will often have to be encoded in RDFa “content” attributes anyway, because the string for the presentation is not suitable as meta-data content (e.g. dates or country codes). In a nutshell, the proposed approach can be a powerful way of publishing non-trivial RDF meta- data suitable for broad audiences. Imagine e.g. if eBay sellers were able to put detailed GoodRelations [3] meta-data directly into the free markup part of their product description in the system. Abstract In this demo and poster, we show a conceptual approach and an on-line tool that allows the use of RDFa for embedding non-trivial RDF models in the form of invisible div/ span elements into existing Web content. This simplifies the publication of sophisticated RDF data, i.e. such that goes beyond simple property-value pairs, by broad audiences. Also, it empowers users with access limited to inserting XHTML snippets within Web-based authoring systems to add fully-fledged RDF and even OWL. Such is a frequent limitation for users of CMS systems or Wikis. Example: N3 as RDFa Snippet RDF2RDFa Tool References [1] RDFa in XHTML: Syntax and Processing. A collection of attributes and processing rules for extending XHTML to support RDF. W3C Recommendation 14 October 2008, available at http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-rdfa-syntax-20081014. [2] FOAF-a-Matic, available at http://www.ldodds.com/foaf/foaf-a-matic. [3] Hepp, M.: GoodRelations: An Ontology for Describing Products and Services Offers on the Web. 16th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management (EKAW2008), Acitrezza, Italy, Springer LNCS Vol. 5268, 2008, pp. 332-347. [4] RDFa Distiller, available at http://www.w3.org/2007/08/pyRdfa Martin Hepp E-Business & Web Science Research Group, Universität der Bundeswehr Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39 D-85579 Neubiberg, Germany +49-89-6004-4217 mhepp@computer.org Roberto García Computer Science and Engineering Department Universitat de Lleida Jaume II, 69, E-25001 Lleida, Spain +34-973-702-742 roberto@rhizomik.net Andreas Radinger E-Business & Web Science Research Group, Universität der Bundeswehr Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39 D-85579 Neubiberg, Germany +49-89-6004-4218 andreas.radinger@unibw.de Limitations of Popular RDFa Usage With the RDFa syntax for embedding RDF data in XHTML attributes being a W3C Recommendation, there is a standard way of adding RDF to Web content by inserting additional mark-up [1]. However, the current usage of RDFa in the community is dominated by (1) using simple property-value pairs rather than complex graph structures and (2) a close coupling between page content for rendering and the literals attached to properties. For example, a typical recipe would be to augment a phone number in a page by making it the literal attached to the vcard:tel property: <body> <div property="vcard:tel" datatype="xsd:string">+49-89-6004-0 </div> </body> The key reason for the popularity of this approach is that there is no data redundancy, i.e. what is shown in a browser is always identical to what an RDF-aware application will extract. While this is appropriate for very lightweight annotations, it becomes very complicated if (1) more sophisticated RDF models are to be embedded or (2) the content or organization of the information for humans on one hand and for machines on the other hand differ. Also, the interweaving of existing Web content for humans with non-trivial RDF models requires a lot of expertise, in particular if many nodes in the RDF model have no visual counterparts. In those cases, the initial goal of avoiding data redundancy clashes with the goal of the separation of concerns, and the XHTML+RDFa markup gets hard to read and difficult to maintain because it closely couples presentation and data. For examples, see http://www.ebusiness-unibw.org/wiki/ Rdfa4google. Most of all, it is not possible to provide users with XHTML snippets to be simply inserted into Web resources, without the need to manually integrate them with existing XHTML markup. N3 foo:myCompany a gr:BusinessEntity ; gr:hasLegalName "Hepp Industries Ltd."^^xsd:string ; gr:hasDUNS "012345678"^^xsd:string ; gr:hasPOS foo:myShop ; rdfs:seeAlso <http://www.heppnetz.de>. foo:myShop a gr:LocationOfSalesOrServiceProvisioning ; rdfs:seeAlso <http://www.heppnetz.de/shop> ; gr:hasOpeningHourSpecification foo:Workdays. foo:Workdays a gr:OpeningHoursSpecification ; gr:opens "08:00:00"^^xsd:time ; gr:closes "18:00:00"^^xsd:time ; gr:hasOpeningHoursDayOfWeek gr:Monday, gr:Tuesday, gr:Wednesday, gr:Thursday, gr:Friday .
  33. 33. Discovery Effort 33Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  34. 34. Both Sides Can Help Build a Bridge 34Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  35. 35. What Do We Need? • Vocabularies – Product or service types – Businesses – Offerings • Data Sets – Product model data – Businesses, contact details, opening hours – Offering data • Tools • Applications 35Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  36. 36. Part IV: The GoodRelations Vocabulary and Data Space
  37. 37. GoodRelations: A Unified View on Commerce Data on the Web 37 Product Model Master Data Shop Offerings Auctions Spare Parts & Consumables Warranty Delivery Payment Retailers Manufacturers Arbitrary Query Extraction and Reuse Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  38. 38. On the Shoulders of Giants 38 A Unified View of Commerce Data on the Web Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  39. 39. The GoodRelations Vocabulary • A universal and free Web vocabulary for adding product and offering data to your Web pages. • Compatible with all relevant W3C standards and recommendations – RDF – OWL http://purl.org/goodrelations/ 39Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  40. 40. GoodRelations Design Principles • Keep simple things simple and make complex things possible • Cater for LOD and OWL DL worlds • Academically sound • Industry-strength engineering • Practically relevant 40 Lightweight Web of Data LOD RDF + a little bit Heavyweight Web of Data OWL DL Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  41. 41. Others Do Care: Pick-up in Industry • BestBuy • Smart Information Systems • ebSemantics • Yahoo! SearchMonkey • Virtuoso Sponger Cartridges for Amazon, eBay, and • Major German mail order companies • etc. 41Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  42. 42. Yahoo Enhanced by SearchMonkey 42Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  43. 43. BestBuy 43Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  44. 44. Incredible Success 44Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  45. 45. GoodRelations #2 of all Web Ontologies 45 …and this does not yet include the > 10 Mio. offers from Amazon and eBay! Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  46. 46. GoodRelations #2 of all Web Ontologies 46Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  47. 47. Albert Einstein on Schema Design "Make everything as simple as possible, but not simpler.“ Albert Einstein 47Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  48. 48. Basic Structure of Offers 48 Agent 1 Object or Happening Promise Agent 2 Compensation Transfer of Rights Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  49. 49. Data, Standards, Ontologies 49Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  50. 50. GoodRelations: License • Permanent, royalty-free access for commercial and non-commercial use. http://purl.org/goodrelations/ 50Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  51. 51. Domain Structure and Use Cases
  52. 52. The Minimal Scenario • Scope – Business entity – Points-of-sale – Opening hours – Payment options • Suitable for – Every business – E-commerce and brick-and-mortar 52Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  53. 53. The Simple Scenario • Scope: Minimal scenario plus – Range of products or services – Business functions – Eligible regions or customer types – Delivery options • Suitable for – Any business: E-Commerce and brick-and-mortar – Specific products or services 53Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  54. 54. GoodRelations Annotator 54 http://www.ebusiness-unibw.org/tools/goodrelations-annotator/ Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  55. 55. GoodRelations in MediaWiki http://www.ebusiness-unibw.org/wiki/RDFaInMediaWiki Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org 55
  56. 56. The Comprehensive Scenario • Scope: Simple scenario plus – Individual products or services – Product features – Pricing, rebates, etc. – Availability • Suitable for – Any business: E-commerce and brick-and-mortar – Specific products or services – Structured product database 56Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  57. 57. GoodRelations CookBook http://www.ebusiness-unibw.org/wiki/GoodRelations#Recipes_and_Examples 57Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  58. 58. osCommerce Extension http://code.google.com/p/goodrelations-for-oscommerce/ 58Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  59. 59. Joomla/VirtueMart Extension http://code.google.com/p/goodrelations-for-joomla/ Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org 59
  60. 60. GoodRelations in Oxid eSales • Popular shop software • Free recipe for adding GoodRelations, developed by Daniel Bingel http://www.ebusiness-unibw.org/wiki/GoodRelations4Oxid Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org 60
  61. 61. • Testshop – http://www.la-mousson.de/ • Extension: – Uwe Stoll, http://www.semantium.de/ GoodRelations in Magento
  62. 62. Google Product Feed Converter http://www.ebusiness-unibw.org/tools/google-product-feed-converter/ 62Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  63. 63. BMEcat2GoodRelations • Converts complete catalogs from the popular BMEcat XML Schema into GoodRelations http://www.ebusiness-unibw.org/tools/bmecat2goodrelations/ 63Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  64. 64. Product Model Data Scenario • Scope – Individual product models – Quantitative and qualitative features • Suitable for – Manufacturers of commodities 64Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  65. 65. Linked Open Commerce Dataspace http://loc.openlinksw.com/sparql 65Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  66. 66. Linked Open Commerce Dataspace http://loc.openlinksw.com/sparql 66Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  67. 67. Conclusion
  68. 68. Today: Loss of Variety and Detail 68Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org Many Different Products Variety in Preferences Manufacturers & Retailers Consumers Web Search
  69. 69. 2010: Point-to-Point Commerce 69Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org Many Different Products Variety in Preferences Manufacturers & Retailers Consumers
  70. 70. Why Should I Bother? • Web Shops: Better visibility in latest generation search engines (e.g. Yahoo) – Same holds for any business that has a Web page, from A as in Amusement Park to Z as in Zoo. • Manufacturers: Allow your retailers to reuse product feature data with minimal overhead at both ends. • Software Developers: Help your customers to use and generate Semantic Web data. It’s easy! 70Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  71. 71. What Should I Do? • Web Shops: Create a GoodRelations data dump of your range of offers (rather simple) • Vendors of Web Shop Software: Create GoodRelations import and export interfaces (we can help you with that) • Every Business: Ask your webmaster to create at least a basic description of your range of products or services • Entrepreneurs: Invent new business models based on GoodRelations data 71Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  72. 72. Part V: The Sky Is the Limit Semantics in Affiliate Models, Serendipity, Matchmaking
  73. 73. http://igoogr.appspot.com/
  74. 74. GoodRelations as a Global Schema
  75. 75. Thank you! http://purl.org/goodrelations/ Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp Chair of General Management and E-Business Universitaet der Bundeswehr University Muenchen Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39 D-85579 Neubiberg, Germany Phone: +49 89 6004-4217 Fax: +49 89 6004-4620 http://www.unibw.de/ebusiness/ http://purl.org/goodrelations/ mhepp@computer.org 76Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  76. 76. Bonus Track: Tools and Resources
  77. 77. Additional Information • Web Page – Ontology – Language Reference – Primer – Recipes – Wiki http://purl.org/goodrelations/ 78Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  78. 78. GoodRelations User‘s Guide („Primer“) 79 http://www.heppnetz.de/projects/goodrelations/primer/
  79. 79. GoodRelations Cookbook: Recipes & Examples 80Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org http://www.ebusiness-unibw.org/wiki/GoodRelations#Recipes_and_Examples
  80. 80. GoodRelations Annotator 81 http://www.ebusiness-unibw.org/tools/goodrelations-annotator/ Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  81. 81. GoodRelations Validator 82 http://www.ebusiness-unibw.org/tools/goodrelations-validator/ Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  82. 82. RDF2dataRSS Tool 83 http://www.ebusiness-unibw.org/tools/rdf2datarss/ Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org
  83. 83. Growing Interest of Developers
  84. 84. Thank you! http://purl.org/goodrelations/ Prof. Dr. Martin Hepp Chair of General Management and E-Business Universitaet der Bundeswehr University Muenchen Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39 D-85579 Neubiberg, Germany Phone: +49 89 6004-4217 Fax: +49 89 6004-4620 http://www.unibw.de/ebusiness/ http://purl.org/goodrelations/ mhepp@computer.org 85Martin Hepp, mhepp@computer.org

×