2nd Group
Nira Puspitasari 110810251009
Andy Dinastyo 110810251010
Marza Ramadhan 110810251011
Mahadiyyah Rahmi 1108102510...
• Consumer behavior is the study of how
individuals, groups, and organizations
select, buy, use, and dispose of
goods, ser...
Cultural Factors
• Cultur
• Subculture
• Social class
They are particularly important
influences on consumer buying
behavi...
Social Factors
Personal Factors
A buyer’s decisions are also influenced
by personal characteristics. There are
include:
a. the buyer’s ag...
Motivation
Freud’s
Theory
Behavior
is guided
by
subconscio
us
motivation
s
Maslow’s
Hierarchy
of Needs
Behavior
is driven ...
Perception
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Perception Selective
Attention
Subliminal
Perception
Selective
Distortion
Selective
Retention
Selective Attention
It has been estimated that a person is
exposed to over 1,500 ads or brand
communi-cations a day. Becau...
Selective attention means
that marketers have to work
hard to attract consumers’
notice.
People are more likely to
notic...
Selective Distortion
Selective distortion is the
tendency to interpret information in a
way that will fit our preconceptio...
Selective Retention
• People will fail to register much
information to which they are
exposed in memory, but will tend to
...
Motivation
MemoryLearning
Perception
FIGURE 6.4 CONSUMER BUYING PROCESS
Problem Recognition
Information Search
Evaluation
Purchase Decision
Postpurchase
Behavi...
THE BUYING PROCESS STARTS WHEN
THE BUYER RECOGNIZES A PROBLEM OR
NEED.
THE NEED CAN BE TRIGGERED BY
INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL S...
Evaluation of Alternatives
No single process is used by
all consumers or by one
consumer in all buying
situations. The mos...
 First, the consumer is trying to satisfy
a need.
 Second, the consumer is looking for
certain benefits from the product...
Purchase Decision
There are three such
choice heuristics
here:
• conjunctive heuristic
• lexicographic heuristic
• elimina...
Marketers must monitor post
purchase satisfaction, post purchase
actions, and post purchase product
users.
a.Post purchase...
Other Theories of Consumer Decision Making
1. Level of Consumer Involvement
2. Elaboration likelihood model
3. Low Involve...
Webster and Wind define
organizational buying as the decision
making process by which formal
organizations establish the n...
Buying Situations
The three kinds of buying
situations are :
–STRAIGHT REBUY
–MODIFIED REBUY
–NEW TASK
Systems Buying and Selling
• One variant of systems selling is
systems contracting, where a
single supplier provides the b...
Participants in the Business
Buying Process
The Buying Center
• Initiators
• Users
• Influencers
• Deciders
• Approvers
• ...
Buying Center Influences
o Buying centers usually include several participants with
differing interest, authority, status ...

 There are four questions must known by business
marketer:
• Who are the major decision participants?
• What decisions ...
The Purchasing / Procurement
Process
It’s includes of Purchasing Departments
Perceptions and Purchasing Organizations and
...
Stages in the Buying Process
Stages in the buying process are:
• Problem Recognition
• General Need Description and
Produc...
Some companies handle price-oriented
buyers by setting a lower price but
establishing restrictive conditions :
- Limited q...
Number of Suppliers
As part of the buyer
selection process, buying
centers must decide how many
suppliers to use. Companie...
• To improve effectiveness and
efficiency, business suppliers
and customers are exploring
different ways to manage their
r...
Much research has advocated
greater vertical coordination
between buying partners and
sellers, so they can transcend
merel...
Business Relationship:
Risks and Opportunism
• Specific investments are those
expenditures tailored to a particular
compan...
Institutional And Government Market
• Institutional market consists of
schools, hospitals, nursing homes, prisons,
and oth...
THANK YOU
SO MUCH
Analyzing customer & business market
Analyzing customer & business market
Analyzing customer & business market
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Analyzing customer & business market

  1. 1. 2nd Group Nira Puspitasari 110810251009 Andy Dinastyo 110810251010 Marza Ramadhan 110810251011 Mahadiyyah Rahmi 110810251012 Eka Ardha N. 110810251013
  2. 2. • Consumer behavior is the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations select, buy, use, and dispose of goods, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfly their needs and wants. • A consumer’s buying behavior is influenced by cultural, social, and personal factors. What influences consumer behavior?
  3. 3. Cultural Factors • Cultur • Subculture • Social class They are particularly important influences on consumer buying behavior.
  4. 4. Social Factors
  5. 5. Personal Factors A buyer’s decisions are also influenced by personal characteristics. There are include: a. the buyer’s age and stage in the life cycle b. occupation and economic circumstances c. personality and self-concept d. lifestyle and values.
  6. 6. Motivation Freud’s Theory Behavior is guided by subconscio us motivation s Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Behavior is driven by lowest, unmet need Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory Behavior is guided by motivating and hygiene factors
  7. 7. Perception
  8. 8. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  9. 9. Perception Selective Attention Subliminal Perception Selective Distortion Selective Retention
  10. 10. Selective Attention It has been estimated that a person is exposed to over 1,500 ads or brand communi-cations a day. Because a person cannot possibly attend to all of these, most stimuli will be screened out—a process called selective attention.
  11. 11. Selective attention means that marketers have to work hard to attract consumers’ notice. People are more likely to notice stimuli that relates to a current need.
  12. 12. Selective Distortion Selective distortion is the tendency to interpret information in a way that will fit our preconceptions. Consumers will often distort information to be consistent with prior brands and product beliefs.
  13. 13. Selective Retention • People will fail to register much information to which they are exposed in memory, but will tend to retain information that supports their attitudes and beliefs. • Because of selective retention, we are likely to remember good points about a product we like and forget good
  14. 14. Motivation MemoryLearning Perception
  15. 15. FIGURE 6.4 CONSUMER BUYING PROCESS Problem Recognition Information Search Evaluation Purchase Decision Postpurchase Behavior
  16. 16. THE BUYING PROCESS STARTS WHEN THE BUYER RECOGNIZES A PROBLEM OR NEED. THE NEED CAN BE TRIGGERED BY INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL STIMULI. MARKETERS NEED TO IDENTIFY THE CIRCUMSTANCES THAT TRIGGER A PARTICULAR NEED SO THAT THEY CAN DEVELOP MARKETING STRATEGIES THAT TRIGGER CONSUMER INTEREST. Problem Recognition
  17. 17. Evaluation of Alternatives No single process is used by all consumers or by one consumer in all buying situations. The most current models see the process as cognitively orientated.
  18. 18.  First, the consumer is trying to satisfy a need.  Second, the consumer is looking for certain benefits from the product solution.  Third, the consumer sees each product as a bundle of attributes with varying abilities for delivering the benefits sought to satisfy this need.
  19. 19. Purchase Decision There are three such choice heuristics here: • conjunctive heuristic • lexicographic heuristic • elimination-by-aspects heuristic Consumers may perceive many types of risk in buying and consuming a product: • Functional risk • Physical risk • Financial risk • Social risk
  20. 20. Marketers must monitor post purchase satisfaction, post purchase actions, and post purchase product users. a.Post purchase use and disposal b.Post purchase satisfaction c.Post purchase actions Post Purchase Behavior
  21. 21. Other Theories of Consumer Decision Making 1. Level of Consumer Involvement 2. Elaboration likelihood model 3. Low Involvement Marketing Strategies 4. Variety Seeking Buying Behavior 5. Decision Heuristics and Biases: a. The availability heuristic b. The representative heuristic c. The anchoring and adjustment heuristic 6. Mental Accounting Mental accounting is based on a set of key core principles: a. Consumers tend to segregate gains b. Consumers tend to integrate losses c. Consumers tend to integrate smaller losses with larger gains d. Consumers tend to segregate small gains from larger losses. 7. Profiling the Costumer Buying Decision Process
  22. 22. Webster and Wind define organizational buying as the decision making process by which formal organizations establish the need for purchased products and services and identify, evaluate, and choose among
  23. 23. Buying Situations The three kinds of buying situations are : –STRAIGHT REBUY –MODIFIED REBUY –NEW TASK
  24. 24. Systems Buying and Selling • One variant of systems selling is systems contracting, where a single supplier provides the buyer with his entire requirement of MRO (maintenance, repair, operating) supplies. • Systems selling is a key industrial marketing strategy in bidding to build large-scale industrial projects. • With systems selling, customers present potensial suppliers with a list
  25. 25. Participants in the Business Buying Process The Buying Center • Initiators • Users • Influencers • Deciders • Approvers • Buyers • Gatekeepers
  26. 26. Buying Center Influences o Buying centers usually include several participants with differing interest, authority, status and persuasiveness and sometimes very different decision criteria. o Business buyers also have personal motivations, perceptions and preferences that are influenced by their age, income, education, job position, personality, attitudes toward risk and culture. o There are “keep-it-simple” buyers, “own- expert” buyers, “want-the-best” buyers and “want-everything-done” buyers. Some younger, highly educated buyers are computer experts who conduct rigorous analyses of competitive proposals before choosing a supplier.
  27. 27.   There are four questions must known by business marketer: • Who are the major decision participants? • What decisions do they influence? • What is their level of influence?  What evaluation criteria do they use?  Small sellers concentarte on reaching the key buying influencers. Larger sellers go for multilevel-in depth selling to reach as many participants are possible.  Companies must rely more heavily on their communications programs to reach hidden buying influences and keep current customers informed. Buying Center Targeting
  28. 28. The Purchasing / Procurement Process It’s includes of Purchasing Departments Perceptions and Purchasing Organizations and Administration. Purchasing Department Perceptions • In the past, purchasing department occupied a low position in the management hierarchy, in spite of often managing more than half he company’s costs. • These now, more strategically oriented purchasing deparments have a misson to seek the best value elevated them to “strategic supply departments”, with responsibility for globla sourching and partnering.
  29. 29. Stages in the Buying Process Stages in the buying process are: • Problem Recognition • General Need Description and Product Specification • Supplier Search • Proposal Solicitation • Supplier Selection
  30. 30. Some companies handle price-oriented buyers by setting a lower price but establishing restrictive conditions : - Limited quantities, - No refunds, - No adjustments, and - No services. Overcoming Price Pressures
  31. 31. Number of Suppliers As part of the buyer selection process, buying centers must decide how many suppliers to use. Companies are increasingly reducing the number of supplies.
  32. 32. • To improve effectiveness and efficiency, business suppliers and customers are exploring different ways to manage their relationship. • Closer relationships are driven in part by supply chain management, early supplier Managing Business to Business Customer Relationship
  33. 33. Much research has advocated greater vertical coordination between buying partners and sellers, so they can transcend merely transacting and instead engage in activities that create more value for both parties. The Benefits of Vertical Coordination
  34. 34. Business Relationship: Risks and Opportunism • Specific investments are those expenditures tailored to a particular company and value chain partner (investments in company-specific training, equipment, and operating procedures or systems). • Opportunism is “some form cheating or undersupply relative to an implicit or explicit contract.
  35. 35. Institutional And Government Market • Institutional market consists of schools, hospitals, nursing homes, prisons, and other institutions that must provide goods and service to people in their care. Many of these organizations are characterized by low budgets and captive clienteles. • In most countries, government organizations are a major buyer of goods and service. Just as companies provide
  36. 36. THANK YOU SO MUCH

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