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Anth1marriage 090420183517-phpapp02


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Anth1marriage 090420183517-phpapp02

  1. 1. MARRIAGE SYSTEMSFrom Japanesewedding designerYumi Katsura’s2006 Collection;
  2. 2. Definitions  Marriage is an economic and sexual union, usually between a man and a womanSami couple with their daughter
  3. 3. Who is a Father? • We know the biological mother, but the father is sometimes unknown...  Establishes legal parentage of children  Genitor – biological father of a child  Pater – socially recognized father of a child
  4. 4. MARRIAGE ExceptionsThe Nayar & The Na of SW ChinaRare Types of Marriage Berdaches Christian Nuns Male-Male/Female-Female marriage
  5. 5.  Berdache “Two-spirits”
  7. 7. Incest and Exogamy • Exogamy – practice of seeking a spouse outside one’s own group  Forcespeople to create and maintain a wide social network  Incest – sexual relations with a close relative  The incest taboo is a cultural universal  What constitutes incest varies widely from culture to culture
  8. 8. Explaining the Taboo  No universally accepted explanation for fact that all cultures ban incest –Cross cultural finding show rules of incest avoidance shaped by kinship structures
  9. 9. RESTRICTIONS ON MARRIAGE,Including incest TabooInstinctive Horror TheoryChildhood-Familiarity TheoryFreud’s Psychoanalytic TheoryFamily-Disruption TheoryCooperation TheoryInbreeding Theory (BiologicalDegeneration Theory)
  10. 10. Instinctive Horror Theory Homo sapiens are genetically programmed to avoid incest –This theory has been refuted•Specific kin types included within theincest taboo have a cultural rather than abiological basis
  11. 11. Biological Degeneration Theory • Incest taboo developed in response to abnormal offspring born from incestuous unions –Decline in fertility and survival accompanies brother-sister mating across several generations –Human marriage patterns based on specific cultural beliefs rather than universal concerns about biological degeneration several generations in the future
  12. 12. Attempt and Contempt • Malinowski (and Freud) argued incest taboo originated to direct sexual feelings away from one’s family to avoid disrupting the family structure and relations  Opposite theory argues that people are less likely to be sexually attracted to those with whom they have grown up
  13. 13. Explaining the Taboo • Marry Out or Die Out  More accepted argument is that taboo originated to ensure exogamy  Incest taboos force people to create and maintain wide social networks  Incest taboos are seen as an adaptively advantageous cultural construct
  14. 14. Royal Incest Royalfamilies in widely diverse cultures engaged in what would be called incest, even in their own cultures –Manifest function – reason given for a custom by its natives –Latent function – effect custom was not explicitly recognized by the natives –Royal incest, generally, had latent economic function
  15. 15. WHO ONE MARRIES Arranged Marriages vs. Love Marriages Exogamy & Endogamy Cousin Marriages  Cross-cousins  Parallel cousins Levirate & Sororate
  16. 16. Parallel and Cross Cousins and PatrilinealMoiety Organization
  17. 17. Sororate and Levirate
  18. 18. Divorce • Divorce found in many different societies  Marriages that are political alliances between groups harder to break up than marriages that are more individual affairs  Bridewealth discourages divorce  Divorce is more common in matrilineal societies as well as societies in which postmarital residence is matrilocal
  19. 19. HOW DOES ONE MARRY?Bridewealth (Brideprice, progenyprice)Bride ServiceExchange ofFemalesGift ExchangeDowryIndirect Dowry
  20. 20. Marriage Arrangements Ember & Ember “Cultural Anthropology” 2006
  21. 21. HOW MANY DOESONE MARRY? MONOGAMY POLYGYNY  Sororal  Nonsororal POLYANDRY  Fraternal  Nonfraternal Shah family (polygyny) - Photo By J. Fortier
  22. 22. Plural Marriages • Polygyny  Even in cultures that approve of polygamy, monogamy tends to be the norm  Polygyny more common than polyandry because, where sex ratios are not equal, there tend to be more women than men Multiple wives tend to be associated with wealth and prestige
  23. 23. Plural Marriages • Polyandry  Polyandry rare, but practiced almost exclusively in South Asia Polyandry usually practiced in response to specific circumstances, and in conjunction with other marriage formats Among Paharis of India, polyandry associated with relatively low female population, due to covert female infanticide In other cultures, polyandry resulted from the fact that men traveled a great deal
  24. 24. THE FAMILY Variation in Family Form Matrifocal Nuclear ExtendedKarki Family - Matrifocal- Photo by J. Fortier
  25. 25. Post-Marital Residence Patterns Percentage of Societies in the Ethnographic Record with Various Marital Residence Patterns
  26. 26. Main Predictors of Marital Residence Patterns