Lean Six Sigma Foundational Training
1. To teach the essential, foundational concepts of
Lean Six Sigma
2. To change the way you perceive the work around you,
as well the opportunities for improvement
3. To introduce specific tools that are used to analyze
and address common business problems
4. Provide a step-by-step guide for problem-solving
5. To help you solve problems more effectively
Inform, equip and empower
What IS Lean Six Sigma?
Lean + Six Sigma = Powerful Improvement Partnership
• Data-driven, structured approach to improving business
performance and solving organizational problems
• Puts the customer first in judging quality and performance
• The marriage of two complementary philosophies & toolsets:
2. Six Sigma
Improves flow / speed
nature of the work
Reduces variation / defects
Strives for perfection
Statistical / analytical tools
Builds quality / value into
the process from the start
A powerful 1-2 punch for process improvement
What Lean Six Sigma DOES
Lean Six Sigma is a proven methodology for:
• Reducing cycle time -> YOU are not moving more quickly … your
• Reducing defects -> YOU are not trying harder … your PROCESS
is working better
• Reducing delay -> YOU are not PUSHING things through … your
PROCESS is flowing and PULLING them
• Boosting profits -> Your PROCESS is profitable … for the
organization, the customer and the community
• And for gaining competitive advantage -> Your processes cost
less, your margins are higher and you solve problems more
This is what you can do with it.
At a high level, Lean Six Sigma is the decision that you’re going to
judge or measure your performance, and compare it to something
meaningful, objective and far-reaching.
Then comes the question – what to compare to?
At this point, you realize that:
• Your customers define your existence.
• They define what Quality means.
• Your Quality should vary as little as possible in their eyes,
and objectively; and
• You should measure Quality the same way they do.
And so ultimately, Lean Six Sigma is the decision to define and
measure Quality the same ways your customers do.
Lean Six Sigma, therefore, is not just a methodology, or a toolset, or a
statistical measure … it is a decision.
The decision has been made
Work is a Process
“If you can’t describe your work
as a process, you don’t know
what you’re doing.”
W. Edwards Deming
American statistician, professor, author, lecturer and consultant
You have no business having no process
Work is a Process
All work is – or should be – a process
• Process: A series of ordered steps designed to accomplish
a specific goal or purpose
Lean Six Sigma focuses on the process
Provides a bird’s-eye view of the process flow in its context
Allows team to brainstorm full range of customers/recipients/benefactors
Typically eye-opening when done with cross-functional team
Benefits of Flow
How does Flow help a health system?
Shortens process cycle time
Enhances customer service and satisfaction
Lowers unit costs
The ultimate reason
for eliminating waste in a process
is to ensure that value can flow
to the customer as quickly as possible.
Reduces harmful delays
Fewer off-service patients
Eases ED overcrowding
Improves safety and
Improves access to, and quality of, healthcare
You want value to
flow freely …
… from your business
to your customers
But your process gets in the way
Enemies of Flow & Value
What gets in the way?
Lack of a process
Out of the norm
(“cash vs. card”)
The 8 Types of Waste
N ot utilizing employee ideas
E xtra processing
• Just in case…
• We might need it…
• It’s possible…
• You never know…
Can you think of any examples?
Are there any bottlenecks
or delays where you work?
What types of inventory
do you have?
What is/are the constraint(s)?
How can you mitigate them?
How is your world similar to Alex’s?
Where do defects come from? (Part 2)
Sigma (s) = Greek letter
• The way work is done tends to vary
(person-to-person, day-to-day, etc.).
used to represent variation
in set of numbers
• This leads to variation in outcomes and Quality.
(“Results may vary.”)
• To minimize defects, waste and errors, variation must be
• The goal of Lean Six Sigma is to reduce variation so that
performance always meets customers’ requirements.
Variation is what we notice
How big is an index card?
Why aren’t the
What is Standard Work?
• A simple description of how to consistently perform a
particular process or task
Only acceptable way
• Provides guideline for time required
• Regularly reviewed, taught and improved
• Applied to all work areas
What SHOULD be standardized?
Why do we call it “5S?”
– Keep only what is necessary
2. Set in Order
– Everything with a place …
everything in its place
– Wipe, clean, polish, prepare all surfaces
– Make the first 3S’s a routine – at job & co. level
– Rewards, incentives, recognition, pictures, data
What is Lean Six Sigma?
Lean Six Sigma is the most robust
methodology used today for solving
problems in an organization.
It ensures that a structured approach
based on data is used so that the best
solutions are generated and that they are
then embedded in an organization.
100% Effective Training
the business opportunity.
What is the customer’s expectation of the process?
What is the process that needs to be examined?
the process current state.
What are the key metrics for this process?
the data to determine root causes.
How is this process currently performing?
When, where, and why do defects occur?
the process by reducing variation and eliminating waste.
What are the root causes?
How can we fix the process?
and sustain the improvements.
Are the customer needs met?
How can we keep the process fixed?
DMAIC starts and ends with the customer
OSSS LSS Green Belt v9.0 - Introduction
• Customer CTQ
• Project Team
• Project Charter
Define the problem
and the project
• Data Collection Plan
• “Pictures” of the data
• Key statistics
• Process capability
• Root-cause analysis
• “Pictures” of the
GOAL: Identify root causes … “peel the layers”
There are a thousand hacking at the branches of evil to one who is striking at the root.
-Henry David Thoreau
• Prioritized list
• Visual improvements
• Error-proofing steps
Formulate specific improvements
that address root causes
• Control Plan
Purpose of A3:
1. Document your improvement project
2. Tell your story
3. Gain buy-in
4. Guide your work
5. Track progress
Provides flow and clarity