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Richard Benjamin presentation

  1. 1. Trauma Informed Care in Practice – Engaging the Left and the Right Hemispheres Meeting the Challenge: Trauma Informed Care and Practice Conference Mental Health Coordinating Council of NSW Sydney, June 23 and 24, 2011
  2. 2. Introductory comments <ul><li>Thankyou !!! </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity of the suffering and of the responses required </li></ul><ul><li>About the slides, really just one message ! </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Own views, not necessarily those of MHS </li></ul><ul><li>Patient, clients and consumers (people !) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Summary <ul><li>People presenting with mental health problems do so for many and varied reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder - significant genetic and other biological components - and are traumatic in and of themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Others present with a wide range of traumas, suffered at many different ages, and these traumas may frequently play a significant or even central role in the way they present to mental health clinicians </li></ul><ul><li>Some patients with psychotic illnesses have suffered significantly with other trauma and then both are important </li></ul>
  4. 4. Summary <ul><li>My focus today will be on trauma itself, not psychotic conditions - should not undermine the significant difficulties experienced by this group </li></ul><ul><li>Much has been written about trauma and its effects, but this knowledge is complex and not necessarily widespread or well-implemented </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes, both the patient and the clinician are unaware of the connection between the symptoms and the trauma , or they underestimate the significance of the connection </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing this knowledge should lead to a much better understanding and better outcomes for many </li></ul>
  5. 5. Part 1 - “How we are put together and how we are taken apart: the concept of affective interchange and the impact of trauma” <ul><li>1. An introduction to affective interchange via some curious studies </li></ul><ul><li>2. The work of Trevarthen and Schore </li></ul><ul><li>3. Statistics and sequelae of abuse and trauma </li></ul><ul><li>4. “Suzie” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Part 2 - “Using principles of affective interchange and trauma to inform mental health care” <ul><li>1. Some trends in current Western culture, and their potential relevance to mental health services </li></ul><ul><li>2. Useful concepts from the Conversational Model – the powerful effects of early emotional trauma, “Eric” </li></ul><ul><li>3. Historical trends in psychiatry and their relevance to trauma and care, especially the DSM system </li></ul><ul><li>4. Affectively informed trauma-informed care, including “David” </li></ul>
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
  9. 9. 1. What are these shows about ? <ul><li>“ Reading” people - faces, body language, non-verbal cues </li></ul><ul><li>Purport to show that there is some magic, some way of telling “the truth” without this being divulged verbally </li></ul><ul><li>Are they valid ? </li></ul>
  10. 10. 1. Paul Ekman, the FACS and the micro-expression <ul><li>“ Lie to Me” based on work of Ekman </li></ul><ul><li>Mentored by the great Sylvan Tomkins, developer of “Affect Theory” </li></ul><ul><li>Tomkins - affects or emotions are innate, hard-wired, and a powerful motivational force - felt that we organise our lives to maximise the positive emotions and minimise the negative </li></ul><ul><li>Include joy, excitement, surprise, fear, anger, disgust, anguish, shame </li></ul>
  11. 11. 1. Ekman cont. <ul><li>Studied facial expressions for over 40 years </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple, and frequently, very isolated cultures, in normal individuals, psychiatric patients, in adults and in children, when they react appropriately, under-react, over-react, lie and tell the truth </li></ul><ul><li>Believes that there are over 10,000 possible expressions, wrote in 1978 the Facial Action Coding System – the first atlas of the face - a systemic description in words, photos and films of facial movement in anatomical terms </li></ul>
  12. 12.
  13. 13. 1. Ekman cont. <ul><li>Perhaps most famous for having identified the facial signs that betray a lie </li></ul><ul><li>Did not set out to do this, was asked by psychiatry trainees, to help with safe discharge - studied a film of one such patient, “Mary,” suicidal, 100 hours - anguish </li></ul><ul><li>Coined the term micro-expressions for very fast facial movements lasting less than 1/5 of a second that are an important source of “leakage” revealing an emotion a person is trying to conceal </li></ul>
  14. 14. 1. Ekman cont. <ul><li>What the science shows - much more broadly than Ekman - is that it is possible to detect affect and emotion with careful study </li></ul><ul><li>However it is affective interchange between people that is incredibly important in how they are put together , for better or for worse, and how they can be put back together </li></ul><ul><li>This information comes primarily from infant and psychotherapeutic studies, but I want to look at a few more indirect studies first… </li></ul>
  15. 15. 1. Surgeon litigation study <ul><li>What do you think would best predict the rates at which a surgeon would be litigated against ? </li></ul><ul><li>Error rates ? Infection rates ? Mortality rates ? </li></ul><ul><li>Conversations recorded – surgeons and patients </li></ul><ul><li>2 groups – surgeons sued at least twice, and those never sued </li></ul><ul><li>Looked at just 40 seconds of tape, 2 patients, 2 x 10 second slices </li></ul>
  16. 16. 1. Litigation <ul><li>Studied just tone, pitch and rhythm; not the words </li></ul><ul><li>Rated sections on anxiety, warmth; and hostility, dominance </li></ul><ul><li>Could predict on just this information which surgeons had been sued – those with ratings of higher dominance and lower concern, and which hadn’t been sued – the reverse </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning – negative affective interchange - respect </li></ul><ul><li>Ambady N et al, Surgery, 2002 </li></ul>
  17. 17. 1. Predicting how long a relationship will last ? <ul><li>John Gottman - studied married couples since the 80s </li></ul><ul><li>Analyses affective interchange in 20 categories (usual plus defensiveness, stonewalling etc) via videotape and measurements of heart rate, sweating, movement </li></ul><ul><li>Can predict with 95% accuracy after one hour of videotape whether a couple will be together in 15 years </li></ul><ul><li>To stay together need 5:1 positive to negative </li></ul><ul><li>Most telling negative is contempt (or, not respect) </li></ul><ul><li>Eg Carrere S, Gottman M, Family Process, 2004 </li></ul>
  18. 18. 1. NIMH 1985 Depression Study - Redone 2006 <ul><li>The original study demonstrated that imipramine with clinical management was significantly more beneficial than clinical management alone for depressed patients (also looked at IPT and CBT) </li></ul><ul><li>This study ignored the potential effects that psychiatrists themselves may have on their patients and re-analysed the data to reconsider this factor </li></ul>
  19. 19. 1. 2006 study cont. <ul><li>Variance in Beck scores – 3.4 % due to effect of medication </li></ul><ul><li>- 9.1% due to the psychiatrist </li></ul><ul><li>Variance Ham-D scores – 5.9% due to the medication </li></ul><ul><li>- 6.7% due to the psychiatrist </li></ul><ul><li>That is, the effect of the psychiatrist was equal to or greater than the effect of the medication </li></ul><ul><li>One third of psychiatrists demonstrated better outcomes with placebo than another third demonstrated with the active medication </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning ……… McKay KM, 2006 </li></ul>
  20. 20. 1. Junior doctors study <ul><li>One time and motion study of non-consultant hospital medical staff in Sydney demonstrated that junior doctors spend only 15% of their working day in direct clinical contact with patients (Westbrook JI et al, MJA, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>A commentary on this study encouraged medical staff to 1. physically see the patient 2. talk to the patient and take a clinical history, and 3. perform a relevant clinical examination (Lancashire, B, MJA, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning – come to your own conclusion !! </li></ul>
  21. 21.
  22. 22. 2. Baby’s first caress, Mary Cassatt, 1891
  23. 23. 2. The Protoconversation <ul><li>Term popularised by Colwyn Trevarthen in 1970’s </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to the intimate exchange of facial expression , utterance (baby-talk !) and movement that occurs between mother and baby, from the first moments of life (also dad and others!) </li></ul>
  24. 24. 2. The Protoconversation cont. <ul><li>“ Mothers align their faces with the baby…their faces are exaggeratedly mobile in every feature and these movements are synchronised with gentle but rhythmic and accentuated vocalisations….the infants show intent interest with fixed gaze, knit brow and slightly pursed lips and relaxed jaw…they exhibit an affectionate pleasure…with smiles of varied intensity, coos, and hand movements” </li></ul>
  25. 25. 2. The Protoconversation cont. <ul><li>Innate, moment-to-moment matching </li></ul><ul><li>Partners increase their degree of engagement and facially expressed positive emotion together </li></ul><ul><li>When emotion becomes too intense, baby gaze averts, mother backs off and awaits cues for re-engagement </li></ul><ul><li>The responses are carefully timed – mother tunes in, allows baby to recover, attends to cues to re-engage </li></ul><ul><li>Represents a transformation of inner events - each creates an inner (psychophysiological) state akin to the other ( Beebe and Lachmann, 1988) </li></ul>
  26. 26.
  27. 27. 2. The Protoconversation cont. <ul><li>Coupling – being with </li></ul><ul><li>Matching and Representation – trying to reflect understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Amplification – bearing affect or encouraging healthy growth </li></ul><ul><li>Fabulous principles– development, pathology, therapy </li></ul>
  28. 28. 2. “Affect Regulation and the Origin of the Self” 1994 <ul><li>Allan Schore - an American Psychologist, one of the first to bring together fields of study previously unrelated – neuropsychology, affective neuroscience, developmental psychology, trauma theory, psychotherapy – most importantly – affect regulation - a major interest of all groups </li></ul><ul><li>Looks at infant development and pathology, but relates this to adult pathology and a great starting point or template for studying what happens “in between,” the normal and the abnormal, and a potential way of responding </li></ul><ul><li>Does not suggest that all or even a great majority of trauma occurs at this time, but the “in-between model” is helpful </li></ul>
  29. 29.
  30. 30. 2. Schore <ul><li>Perhaps the most important paradigm shift in developmental neuroscience – to the inter-subjective </li></ul><ul><li>“ Events that occur during infancy, especially transactions within the social environment, are indelibly imprinted into the structures that are maturing in the first years of life. The child’s first relationship, the one with the mother, acts as a template, as it permanently molds the individuals capacities to enter into all later emotional relationships </li></ul>
  31. 31. 2. Schore <ul><li>These early experiences shape the development of a unique personality, its adaptive capacities as well as its vulnerabilities to and resistances against particular forms of future pathologies </li></ul><ul><li>Indeed, they profoundly influence the emergent organisation of an integrated system that is both stable and adaptable, and thereby the formation of the self” </li></ul><ul><li>(Schore, 1994) </li></ul>
  32. 32. 2. Schore <ul><li>Schore says that what is most important in this interaction is mutual gaze, or eye contact . He writes, “The mother’s emotionally expressive face is, by far, the most potent visual stimulus in the infant’s environment, and the child’s intense interest in her face, especially in her eyes, leads him/her to track it in space, and to engage in periods of intense mutual gaze </li></ul>
  33. 33. 2. Schore <ul><li>Schore calls this the co-creation of a dyadic (two-part) attachment system, which allows the caregiver to regulate the child’s affective states – mother can amplify positive states, and minimise negative affective states – the “good enough mother” – transition from one state to another </li></ul><ul><li>Of course can be mis-attuned – depression, neglect, dismissal etc – SHAME very important </li></ul><ul><li>Precursor of dissociation </li></ul><ul><li>How long the child remains in intense negative affect states though to be crucial in the development of pathology </li></ul>
  34. 34. 2. Still face video <ul><li>WARNING </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Right click, open hyperlink, and expand window </li></ul>
  35. 35. 2. Schore <ul><li>Total brain volume increases 101% in the first year (Knickmeyer, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Experience-dependent maturation </li></ul><ul><li>Mother creates the hardware and downloads the software </li></ul>
  36. 36. 2. Schore <ul><li>Verbal, conscious and serial information processing takes place in the left hemisphere (LH) </li></ul><ul><li>Unconscious, nonverbal and emotional processing occurs in the right hemisphere (RH) </li></ul>
  37. 37. 2. Schore <ul><li>RH dominant first 3-4 years of life </li></ul><ul><li>The right orbitofrontal cortex is the hierarchical apex of the limbic or emotional system – a major control centre over all of the autonomic nervous system (hence affect and regulation go together) </li></ul><ul><li>“ If a significant proportion of the early emotional experiences one has are due to activation of the fear system rather than the positive systems, then the characteristic personality that begins to build up…is one characterised by negativity and hopelessness” (LeDoux, 2000) </li></ul>
  38. 38. 2. Schore <ul><li>Severe attachment trauma may damage these RH circuits </li></ul><ul><li>This might affect the capacity to play, attachment, empathy, affect regulation – all related to mental health </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hospitalism” of Spitz, Roumanian orphans, anxiety, depression etc </li></ul><ul><li>This RH pattern – the “non-conscious hemisphere” would account for the nonverbal nature of much traumatic memory - t hat is, it cannot necessarily be remembered or spoken </li></ul>
  39. 39. 2. Summary of Schore <ul><li>Brains are “plastic,” and are co-created in the context of the mother-infant dyad </li></ul><ul><li>Sequelae of early abuse and deprivation may take many forms, or may predispose to problems later on; some adults do not have the “hardware,” let alone the “software” </li></ul><ul><li>This model of understanding the importance of affective interchange could be applied to the development of pathology at other developmental stages </li></ul><ul><li>Therapeutic responses that are empathic - that are carefully attuned to the emotions of the sufferer - may be more likely to be effective </li></ul>
  40. 40.
  41. 41. 3. Statistics <ul><li>1/1,000,000 (Kaplan and Saddock, 1976) </li></ul><ul><li>20% Australian women CSA </li></ul><ul><li>Only 10% ever reported to any authority (Fleming, 1997) </li></ul>
  42. 42. 3. Stats cont. <ul><li>US ACE study – over 17000 adults </li></ul><ul><li>11% children suffered emotional abuse, 30% physical, 20% sexual, 23% exposed to family alcohol abuse, 9% exposed to mental illness, 12% witnessed assault of their mothers (Felitti, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>BUT ALL HAVE EMOTIONAL EFFECTS – ALL ABOUT LACK OF RESPECT OR VALUE </li></ul>
  43. 43. 3. Stats cont. <ul><li>36,600 children in substantiations in Australia in 2007, prevalence of abuse was likely to be between 177,000 and 666,000 children </li></ul><ul><li>Best estimate of the actual cost of child abuse incurred by the Australian community in 2007 was $10.7 billion, may be as high as $30.1 billion </li></ul><ul><li>(“Cost of Child Abuse in Australia,” 2008) </li></ul>
  44. 44. 3. Stats cont. <ul><li>98% of public mental health patients some exposure to trauma (Mueser, 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>97% homeless women with SMI have experienced severe physical and sexual abuse; 87% of this group as both child and adult (Goodman, 1997) </li></ul><ul><li>Female psychiatric inpatients – 50% suffered CSA, 44 CPA, 64% either, 35% both, males slightly less (Read, 2004) </li></ul>
  45. 45. 3. Stats cont. <ul><li>One community survey revealed that 85% of women previously admitted to a psychiatric hospital had been sexually abused before the age of 16; the more severely abused were admitted 5-16 times more frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Those abused had also 20-70 x the rate of suicidal ideation, depending on severity (Mullen, 1993) </li></ul>
  46. 46. 3. Stats cont. <ul><li>Abused inpatients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have earlier first admissions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have longer and more frequent hospitalisations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spend longer in seclusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Receive more medication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are more likely to self-mutilate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have higher global symptom severity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(Beck, 1987) </li></ul>
  47. 47. 3. Stats cont. <ul><li>Creamer and McFarlane – general population PTSD 1.3% (3.9% in US) (2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Severely mentally ill – 275 in and outpatients – PTSD recorded in the chart for 2% of patients – when re-interviewed 43% of patients met criteria for PTSD (Mueser 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Mueser felt that the co-morbidity of PTSD was often missed, however: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Many providers may assume that abuse experiences are additional problems for the person, rather than the central problem…” (Hodas, 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>May be safest to presume that anybody seen in an inpatient psychiatric ward may have been abused, and to treat them as such – the concept of “universal precaution” used elsewhere to minimise harm </li></ul>
  48. 48. 3. Adult sequelae of childhood abuse <ul><li>Brain injury and neurological impairment </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking, obesity, STDs, heart disease, cancer, CVA, diabetes, liver disease, bone fractures </li></ul><ul><li>Developmental delay, poor academic achievement </li></ul><ul><li>Juvenile delinquency, adult criminality, violence and murder </li></ul><ul><li>Revictimisation, and trans-generational victimisation </li></ul><ul><li>Promiscuity, teenage pregnancy and prostitution </li></ul><ul><li>Homelessness </li></ul><ul><li>Premature death </li></ul>
  49. 49. 3. Sequelae <ul><li>Psychological - self-esteem and self-hatred, guilt, shame, affective numbing, sense of powerlessness, difficulties with trust and interpersonal relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Suicidal behaviour and deliberate self-harm, aggression </li></ul><ul><li>Substance abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Hyper-vigilance, anxiety, depression, post-partum depression </li></ul><ul><li>Somatisation disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain </li></ul><ul><li>Dissociation and dissociative disorders </li></ul><ul><li>PTSD and Complex PTSD </li></ul><ul><li>Borderline personality disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Even psychosis and bipolar disorder </li></ul><ul><li>(Many authors – but Malinosky-Rummell, Green, Beitchman, Finkelhor) </li></ul>
  50. 50. 3. Sequelae - children <ul><li>In children, seminal work of Terr (1991) </li></ul><ul><li>Type 2 – repeated trauma most important </li></ul><ul><li>“ Subsequent unfolding of horrors creates a sense of anticipation” </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to major attempts at psychological self-defence via denial and psychic numbing, self-hypnosis and dissociation </li></ul><ul><li>“ Developmental Trauma Disorder” (Van Der Kolk, 2005) </li></ul>
  51. 51. 3. Sequelae - syndromes <ul><li>No diagnostic category in adults for sequelae of childhood abuse – PTSD does not suit well (even for those traumatised in adulthood, Van der Kolk 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>Gelinas “Incest Recognition Profile” (1983) - range of symptoms – affective, guilt, DSH, nightmares, dissociation – most commonly, “become part of the wall,” or “float near the ceiling and look at what was happening” </li></ul>
  52. 52. 3. Sequelae - syndromes <ul><li>Ellenson , also post-incest, focussed on the mental state, especially content of symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Syndrome – nightmares, dissoc, phobias etc, perceptual disturbances – feeling that there is an evil entity in the house, hearing a child cry out or intruder sounds, recurring visual hallucinations involving objects in peripheral vision, tactile hallucinations of being touched or held down </li></ul><ul><li>Those who had suffered more severe abuse could also hear more elaborate voices – persecutory voices that “railed at the survivor inside her head…calling her whore, bitch, slut,” also “directive” voices goading toward self-harm </li></ul>
  53. 53. 3. Sequelae - syndromes <ul><li>Judith Herman, 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps the first to more thoroughly conceptualise adult sequelae of childhood abuse - Concept of Complex PTSD </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on domination, “totalitarian control” - history of abuse over a prolonged period </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of accurate diagnostic category serious consequences – connection b/w symptoms and abuse often lost, responses by medical system often replicate those of the abusive family </li></ul><ul><li>Proponents have tried for 20 years to have accepted into DSM </li></ul>
  54. 54. 3. Complex PTSD (DESNOS) <ul><li>History of abuse over a prolonged period </li></ul><ul><li>Alterations in affect regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Alterations in consciousness </li></ul><ul><li>Alterations in self-perception </li></ul><ul><li>Alterations in perception of perpetrator </li></ul><ul><li>Alterations in relations with others </li></ul><ul><li>Alterations in systems of meaning </li></ul>
  55. 55. 3. Neuroscientific findings in trauma <ul><li>Too much to review </li></ul><ul><li>Epigenetic – Schore – emphasis on right brain and affect regulation – brain is created within a social context </li></ul><ul><li>Memory – explicit, implicit, hippocampus </li></ul><ul><li>Survival mode, cortisol, glutamate, cell death, dissociation, misinterpretation, fragmentation – especially in the hippocampus </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus callosum also adversely affected by early trauma – smaller middle portion in paediatric inpatients with histories of abuse – decreased communication between hemispheres and increased laterality </li></ul>
  56. 56. 3. Neuroscience <ul><li>“ Traumatic experiences persist primarily as implicit, behavioural and somatic memories, and only secondarily as vague, over-general, fragmented, incomplete and disorganised narratives” </li></ul><ul><li>(Van der Kolk, 2003) </li></ul><ul><li>They are not usually available in the form of an autobiographical narrative, and, seemingly unattached to other experience, are stored as images, sensations and emotions in the right brain </li></ul>
  57. 57. 3. Neuroscience <ul><li>Neuroimaging studies in those with “simple” PTSD (ie adults with single traumas) show that when re-exposed to trauma-related stimuli there is hypoperfusion in the left PFCX, in the hippocampus and in Broca’s area, and increased activation in the parrahippocampal gyrus, the posterior cingulate and the right amygdala </li></ul>
  58. 58. 3. Neuroscience <ul><li>As the LH is usually dominant, and contains Broca and Wernicke, in those with PTSD there is more affective than linguistic processing and failure of the LH is especially important as it does not tell the sufferer that the memory does not belong to the present </li></ul><ul><li>(Peres, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Presumably more important/complex in older childhood trauma/memories </li></ul>
  59. 59. 4. “Suzie” <ul><li>WARNING </li></ul><ul><li>“ Suzie” was a public mental health patient for 25 years </li></ul><ul><li>She was first seen in the child psychiatry service with “behavioural problems,” she later spent time in juvenile detention facilities, then in the drug and alcohol service, and finally in the adult mental health service </li></ul><ul><li>Throughout this period she was seen to be angry and violent, “attention-seeking,” BUT ALSO needing to “block out emotional pain,” suffering with nightmares and overdosing </li></ul><ul><li>Retrospectively she added that she was always anxious, had never felt good about herself, had major difficulties in relationships </li></ul>
  60. 60. 4. “Suzie” <ul><li>First presented with psychotic symptoms three months after giving birth </li></ul><ul><li>Voices of “cartoon characters”, “barking dogs,” “put” in head by infant daughter </li></ul><ul><li>Eight consecutive psychiatrists diagnosed her with schizophrenia over several years </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually a therapist started to talk to her about her childhood </li></ul><ul><li>It soon became clear that she had been systematically and ritually sexually abused by her stepfather and others, and that her mother was not emotionally avail and had not been able to protect her, and that the abuse history was first detected during her drug and alcohol treatment </li></ul>
  61. 61. 4. “Suzie” <ul><li>The voices of the “cartoon characters” she heard were eventually recognised as a particular favourite that she watched on TV after school; she dissociated to this protective character whilst being abused and later experienced this as a voice </li></ul><ul><li>The “barking dogs” that her baby “put” in her head she similarly recognised as a real noise that she had dissociated to whilst being abused on one occasion </li></ul>
  62. 62. 4. “Suzie” <ul><li>Over four years, Suzie’s therapy progressed and her multiple antipsychotic and antidepressant medications were withdrawn, and the patient was ultimately discharged from the service </li></ul><ul><li>Suzie is NOT representative of most of the psychotic patients I see, however the lesson learnt was about listening, trying to put symptoms into context, and always considering the role that trauma might play </li></ul>
  63. 63. 4. Summary <ul><li>Suzie not schizophrenia but Complex PTSD </li></ul><ul><li>She was subjected to ongoing abuse and could not escape </li></ul><ul><li>She could not regulate her affect or emotions </li></ul><ul><li>She did not value herself </li></ul><ul><li>She had complex relations with others </li></ul><ul><li>She could not make links between abuse and symptoms and dissociated </li></ul>
  64. 64. 4. Link to affective interchange <ul><li>Childhood sexual abuse has much broader effects of course than the abuse itself </li></ul><ul><li>It can only occur in atmosphere that is not protective or aware </li></ul><ul><li>The harm is also attributable to the age and frequency of abuse, and the relationship of the abuser to the abused, and the betrayal </li></ul><ul><li>The abuse is of course the ultimate in relation to lack of respect and contempt </li></ul>
  65. 65. 4. Link to affective interchange <ul><li>No normal attachment likely </li></ul><ul><li>No normal RH development </li></ul><ul><li>No normal development of affect regulation </li></ul><ul><li>No-one listening, being with, nourishing </li></ul><ul><li>The repair occurred when someone got beyond the symptoms and listened to the story </li></ul><ul><li>When they really listened – joined </li></ul><ul><li>When they tried to reflect back their understanding of what happened – representation </li></ul><ul><li>When they sat with all the pain, and also looked for positives - amplification </li></ul>
  66. 66. Conclusion <ul><li>We are all put together in the context of others (not withstanding some very significant genetic/biological factors) </li></ul><ul><li>Histories of trauma and abuse are very common in those presenting with mental health problems </li></ul><ul><li>These histories may be not be totally relevant to the presenting problem, they may be partially relevant and additional, and in some cases they may be totally explanatory </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying the trauma allows not only for its relevance to be understood, it allows the patient to be heard, sometimes for the very first time, and it may point to a completely different treatment pathway </li></ul>
  67. 67. <ul><li>End part 1 !! </li></ul>
  68. 68. Trauma Informed Care in Practice – Engaging the Left and the Right Hemisphere Meeting the Challenge: Trauma Informed Care and Practice Conference Mental Health Coordinating Council of NSW Sydney, June 23 and 24, 2011
  69. 69. “ Using principles of affective interchange and trauma to inform mental health care” <ul><li>1. Some trends in current Western culture, and their potential relevance to mental health services </li></ul><ul><li>2. Useful concepts from the Conversational Model of Psychotherapy – the powerful effects of early emotional trauma’ “Eric” </li></ul><ul><li>3. Historical trends in psychiatry and their relevance to trauma and care, especially the DSM classif system </li></ul><ul><li>4. Affectively informed trauma-informed care, including “David” </li></ul>
  70. 70. Summary Part 1 * <ul><li>We are all “put together” in the context of others </li></ul><ul><li>Histories of trauma and abuse are very common in those presenting with mental health problems (not withstanding some very significant biological factors) </li></ul><ul><li>These histories may be not be totally relevant to the presenting problem, they may be partially relevant and additional, and in some cases may be totally explanatory </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying the trauma allows not only for its relevance to be understood, it allows the patient to be heard, sometimes for the very first time, and it may point to a completely different treatment path </li></ul>
  71. 71. 1. Iain McGilchrist <ul><li>Seminal text, “The Master and his Emissary; the Divided Brain and the Making of the Western World,” 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing on an enormous body of research, case material and history, argues that the two different hemispheres have not merely different skills but wholly different perspectives on the world </li></ul><ul><li>The LH is designed to exploit the world effectively, mainly for the purpose of “getting and feeding,” is narrow in focus, sees things abstracted from content and broken into parts, prizes theory over experience, prefers mechanisms to living things, lacks empathy and is unreasonably certain of itself </li></ul>
  72. 72. 1. McGilchrist cont. <ul><li>The RH has a more generous understanding of the world, sees things in context, more holistically </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates a broader and much more vigilant attention, the purpose of which appears to be maintaining awareness of signals from surroundings, especially in the social context of friend or foe, and is involved in bonding in social animals, and is the seat of empathy and emotional understanding </li></ul>
  73. 73. 1. McGilchrist cont. <ul><li>Emphasises the need for the two hemispheres to work together, in balance </li></ul><ul><li>But, at least in Western culture, believes there is evidence of a power struggle, with the LH becoming increasingly dominant </li></ul><ul><li>Result is a dehumanised society, rigid and bureaucratic, obsessed with structure and mechanism, at a huge cost to happiness and the world around us </li></ul>
  74. 74. 1. What a LH dominated world would look like <ul><li>Increasing specialisation of knowledge, and substitution of knowledge for experience and wisdom </li></ul><ul><li>Skills become more algorithmic, regulated by administrators </li></ul><ul><li>Humans would be seen as more mechanical, produce in quantity, not quality, loss of individuality </li></ul><ul><li>The social bonds between us would become neglected, pervading stance - paranoid </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals and governments all feel greater need to control, with a perception of a greater need for security </li></ul>
  75. 75. 1. What a LH dominated world would look like <ul><li>Accidents and illnesses would be blamed on others </li></ul><ul><li>There would be less insight, less willingness to take responsibility for one’s actions </li></ul><ul><li>There would be less self-control and more anger </li></ul><ul><li>Reasonableness would be replaced by rationality </li></ul><ul><li>Displays of emotion would become more difficult, and there would be increasing difficulty in understanding non-verbal communication </li></ul>
  76. 76. 1. McGilchrist cont. <ul><li>How much of this do you see around you, in the wider world ? How much in government, service provision and in mental health ? </li></ul><ul><li>Getting anywhere seems to be some sort of steeplechase involving rules, entry criteria, paperwork and multiple professionals and services </li></ul><ul><li>McGilchrist thinks the RH is losing the battle </li></ul><ul><li>Will return to this later when looking at classification in psychiatry – seems to be highly relevant </li></ul>
  77. 77. George Bush
  78. 78. 2. Conversational Model <ul><li>Russell Meares and Robert Hobson </li></ul><ul><li>Meares - Sydney-based international expert on trauma and personality development </li></ul><ul><li>Worked intensively in the UK with patients now known as “borderline” </li></ul><ul><li>With Hobson devised an empathic therapy involving the integration of childhood trauma (in adults) in the context of a very finely attuned therapeutic relationship </li></ul><ul><li>For those suffering with the borderline condition and related disorders, very broadly applicable </li></ul>
  79. 79. 2. Conversational Model <ul><li>Meares has focussed his work on emotional traumata </li></ul><ul><li>For the purposes of today – most important are two concepts – that of the traumatic memory and the expectational field </li></ul><ul><li>Repetitive, early attacks upon value – belittling, humiliation etc – lead to the formation of a complex of traumatic memories which are largely unconscious (RH, “subconscious fixed idea,” “you are worthless” becomes “I am worthless”); this very different type of traumatic memory </li></ul><ul><li>Often dormant until triggered by an event – almost always interpersonal </li></ul>
  80. 80. 2. Conversational Model <ul><li>Now intrudes and may obliterate ordinary self (road rage – this is invalidation, inpatient declined a phone call who gets angry or self-harming, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>The complex includes the form of relationship in which the trauma took place – the patient now feels herself ugly or worthless for example, and at the same time the patient feels herself to be in the presence of someone who is, for example, critical or controlling, locating an experience that came from the past as occurring in the present </li></ul><ul><li>Ie this is what happens “in-between” </li></ul>
  81. 81. 2. The Expectational Field <ul><li>“ The unconscious traumatic memory system potentiates the repeated development throughout the individual’s life of the form of relatedness in which the experience of trauma arose” </li></ul><ul><li>That is, the trauma is repeatedly relived with others </li></ul><ul><li>“ Borderline patients have generally endured a childhood in which they were abused, rejected or neglected. When they present to psychiatric facilities, they are often abused, neglected or rejected” (Meares, 2005) </li></ul>
  82. 82. 2. The Expectational Field <ul><li>In order for the original trauma to be re-enacted, the expectational field requires a “host” </li></ul><ul><li>Anybody may unwittingly become this host – might begin to feel bored, or sad, or angry, or might not believe a story offered – might offer advice or suggest they cannot help – may often in fact really be speaking in the voice of the original abuser </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of this phenomenon, and the principles of co-regulation of affect, and containment as suggested by the protoconversation and by Schore, can make for a dramatically different outcome </li></ul>
  83. 83. 2. “Invalidation” <ul><li>Childhood abuse, Complex PTSD, Trevarthen, Schore, Meares – demonstrate that much trauma that we see in mental health services is that perpetrated by one person upon another , all “emotional” abuse in a way – not respecting the essential dignity of another - Meares might call this “invalidation,” not giving value </li></ul><ul><li>Invalidation may be subtle, may go unnoticed, but with very damaging effects </li></ul><ul><li>Regardless of the presenting issue all suffering with mental illness need to be respected and heard (this is “old-fashioned therapy” approach) </li></ul><ul><li>It would seem to be self-evident that this should be done, but this is not always the case, multiple systems not necessarily well set up for this to be a primary focus, and in fact may be partially set up inadvertently not to listen (not intentionally !) </li></ul>
  84. 84. 2. “Eric” <ul><li>“ Eric” had been a fire-fighter who had been diagnosed with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder </li></ul><ul><li>He initially talked to me about a car accident that he had attended in which a young woman had been killed by an intoxicated driver </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually he said that he “froze” in a house fire and had to leave the job </li></ul>
  85. 85. 2. “Eric” <ul><li>Was indeed very anxious and avoidant, and had been admitted several times with suicidal ideation, and was barely functioning either vocationally or in family life </li></ul><ul><li>He had been trialled on a number of different antidepressants and had had two trials of CBT, all to no avail </li></ul>
  86. 86. 2. “Eric” <ul><li>In an expressive therapy, informed by the principles of the Conversational Model, Eric soon added that he had had a very difficult father, and that he grew up in fear of his father’s “wrath” </li></ul><ul><li>He said that his father was always yelling at him, and belittling him, and that that had made him feel small and unworthy </li></ul>
  87. 87. 2. “Eric” <ul><li>“ You never lived up to his expectations. We grew up in absolute silence, everything was done dad’s way” </li></ul><ul><li>He and his brother were never allowed to run about or play in the house </li></ul><ul><li>Eric soon came to the conclusion in therapy that every time he had a conversation with anybody he was expecting the wrath of his father, and that he never offered an opinion of his own </li></ul>
  88. 88. 2. “Eric” <ul><li>He thought people could see through him and that his greatest fear was of being “found out, a fraud,” and of making mistakes; this was probably why he really left the fire-fighting job, and why he had not been able to hold down any subsequent jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Eric eventually realised that he had initially expected his new therapist to tell him how to get better, just like his previous therapists and his father would have done; when this did not happen, he realised that he could “take part” in his own therapy, that he was worthy of existing in his own right, and in relation to another - this can only happen with awareness of what is “in-between” </li></ul>
  89. 89. 2. “Eric” <ul><li>He slowly grew in confidence within and then outside of the therapy, and eventually retrained as a driving instructor </li></ul><ul><li>After three years, his therapy was terminated, and Eric described being happy both at home and at work </li></ul><ul><li>No symptom had ever been individually targeted </li></ul><ul><li>The much earlier traumas of invalidation by his father were much more significant than the “PTSD,” anxiety or depression, structured therapy in the form of CBT had failed because it failed to consider what was happening between the patient and the therapist, and medication had been of no use similarly because it failed to address the underlying problem </li></ul>
  90. 90. 3. How did we get to be here; focus on symptom and medication? <ul><li>Psychiatry much more than any other branch of medicine is subject to trends and paradigm shifts that are not always merit-based, or balanced, and sometimes different treatments offered to the same patient can appear to be almost polar opposites </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding some of the background history is absolutely critical when trying to understand where we are now, how we got here, and how things might – or might not - change into the future </li></ul>
  91. 91. 3. The History of Psychiatry is Brief <ul><li>Psychiatry as a specialty was not practiced before the 19th century </li></ul><ul><li>Care provided in asylums had been primarily custodial, and conditions were poor, and often brutal </li></ul><ul><li>A new therapeutic optimism inspired by the Enlightenment in the 19th century led briefly to the provision of more humane care </li></ul><ul><li>But this optimism was soon overrun by the large numbers of patients taken into asylums around the turn of the 20 th century </li></ul>
  92. 92.
  93. 93. 3. Rake’s Progress, 1732-33 <ul><li>Englishman William Hogarth </li></ul><ul><li>It depicts the fall of Tom Rakewell, through gambling and prostitution, into madness, in Bethlehem Hospital (Bethlam, or Bedlam) </li></ul><ul><li>The women are fashionably dressed because they are there for a social occasion, to be entertained by the antics of the inmates </li></ul>
  94. 94. 3. History <ul><li>“ In the 18 th century, people used to go to Bethlem to stare at ‘the lunatics.’ For a penny, one could peer into the cells, view the freaks and laugh at their antics, generally of a sexual nature or violent fights. Entry was free on the first Tuesday of the month. Visitors were permitted to bring long sticks with which to poke and enrage the inmates. In 1814 alone, there were 96000 such visits” (Shorter, 1997) </li></ul>
  95. 95. 3. History <ul><li>Classification in psychiatry began essentially in the 1890’s with Emil Kraepelin’s great division of all the psychoses into two groups – manic-depression, or bipolar disorder, and dementia praecox, or schizophrenia, and this is still the basis of the DSM </li></ul><ul><li>There were however two groups of psychiatrists around this time – the “Somatiker” – who generally attributed mental disorder to brain disease (“Biological psychiatrist”) and – the “Psychiker,” or analyst, who emphasised the emotional causes (therapist or counsellor). The “Psychiker” held sway from the turn of the century until the mid 1960s (Ellenberger, 1970) </li></ul>
  96. 96. 3. History <ul><li>Around the turn of the 20 th century there were a great many brilliant people working in analysis, philosophy and psychology – William James, Jean-Martin Charcot, Pierre Janet, Sigmund Freud, Carl Jung to name a few </li></ul><ul><li>Freud left the biggest legacy </li></ul><ul><li>Much of this is has been incredibly beneficial: the importance of really listening to the patient’s own story, the therapeutic relationship, the concept of transference etc </li></ul>
  97. 97. 3. History <ul><li>Unfortunately however when it came to trauma he was not helpful </li></ul><ul><li>Freud heard repeatedly of sexual assault and incest; he described his belief in a causative relationship between incest and the symptoms of hysteria in his “Aetiology of Hysteria” in 1896 </li></ul><ul><li>He retracted this theory within a year, primarily because the society he existed within at the time could not hear of it </li></ul>
  98. 98. 3. History <ul><li>“ For close to a century, these patients would again be silenced. The dominant psychological theory of the next century was founded in the denial of women’s reality. Psychoanalysis became a study of the internal vicissitudes of fantasy and desire, dissociated from the reality of experience. Freud concluded that his hysterical patients accounts of childhood sexual abuse were untrue. The study of psychological trauma came to a halt ” </li></ul><ul><li>Judith Herman, 1992 </li></ul>
  99. 99. 3. History <ul><li>However, several paradigm shifts were important around the middle of the 20 th century </li></ul><ul><li>First, the introduction of the antipsychotics led to the process of deinstitutionalisation, which led to the development of community or public mental health services outpatient psychiatry, and to the prominence of biological psychiatry once again </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, the Women’s Movement and studies of rape and sexual abuse in children, and the study of the after effects of war in Vietnam Vets, led to a resurgence in interest in trauma </li></ul>
  100. 100. 3. History/DSM <ul><li>These studies were bolstered by the publication of the DSM-III and the inclusion of the diagnoses of PTSD, and Borderline Personality in 1980 </li></ul><ul><li>Especially important to note that not only did the diagnosis of PTSD give credibility to the sufferer it also named up the aetiology, rare for DSM </li></ul><ul><li>But also important to note this did not occur for the Borderline condition, despite the similarities </li></ul>
  101. 101. 3. Back to classification - DSM <ul><li>5 revisions since 1952, 5 th full version due 2013 </li></ul><ul><li>DSM-III in 1980 part anti-analysis, created especially to assist with improving the uniformity of diagnoses – Rosenham 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>Designed primarily to assist with research and communication </li></ul><ul><li>DSM-IV(-TR) has almost 300 diagnostic categories, and multiple diagnoses or “co-morbidity” are the norm </li></ul><ul><li>DSM does not “cut nature at its joints,” it does not follow Medicine’s routine use of Occam’s Razor, or the theory of parsimony, which states that “entities must not be multiplied beyond necessity” (William of Ockham, c 1285-1349); multiple symptoms in medicine lead to a search for one disease </li></ul>
  102. 102. 3. DSM <ul><li>Increasing controversy in many areas, for eg: </li></ul><ul><li>Depression/bipolar – 79% of a non-clinical group diagnosable with a condition over 20 years, can be diagnosed bipolar now without suffering mania, over 200 different “types” of depression available (Parker, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Adult bipolar disorder (Zimmerman, 2009), Anxiety disorders (Starcevic, 2008), Psychosis (Read 2004, Moskowitz 2008) </li></ul>
  103. 103. 3. DSM <ul><li>Increasingly criticised for being reductionistic, with an over-emphasis on the biological, for over-medicalising and over-simplifying the human condition, and for pharmaceutical company conflicts of interest for panel experts, potentially promoting an emphasis on disease </li></ul><ul><li>Drives treatment availability, treatment training, and reimbursement in US, with flow-on effects elsewhere </li></ul>
  104. 104. 3. DSM <ul><li>Criticisms culminated in what has been called the “Pax Medica” – a model described recently – combination of DSM, Prozac (or Big Pharma), and the rise of the “evidence-based therapies” </li></ul><ul><li>Seen to be erroneously founded on theories of chemical imbalance in the brain, with an inappropriate emphasis on symptom-based diagnoses, and on specialised treatments and techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Which together have been seen to have, “Medicalised psychology and psychiatry in a way that has become so pervasive it’s almost invisible, like the air we breathe” </li></ul><ul><li>(Linford and Arden, 2009) </li></ul>
  105. 105. 3. The Loss of Sadness <ul><li>Or, “How Psychiatry Transformed Normal Sorrow Into Depressive Disorder” Horwitz, AV, Wakefield, JC, 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Argue that whilst depressive disorder exists and can be a devastating condition, the apparent “epidemic” reflects the way that the psychiatric profession has reclassified normal human sadness as largely an abnormal experience, as the diagnosis of depression fails to take into account any personal context </li></ul><ul><li>Foreword written by the architect of DSM-III, Robert Spitzer </li></ul>
  106. 106.
  107. 107. 3. DSM – LH and RH <ul><li>DSM was designed to help more accurately categorise mental health syndromes, to enhance research and communication amongst colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>Very unlike most of medicine – less rarely does the “diagnosis” assist with the treatment planning and prognosis, as there is much less aetiology/pathogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>The focus on delineating “Axis 1” conditions, mirrors McGilchrist’s left hemisphere concern about an overly narrow, “scientific,” mechanistic and fragmented focus, at the expense of a more holistic, emotional and social perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Is perfectly reasonable with added RH perspective </li></ul>
  108. 108. 4. Trauma-informed care <ul><li>A specific movement that originated in the US in the mid 1990’s as a result of community distress over coercive inpatient treatments and coercive treatment of children in schools </li></ul><ul><li>Aims to educate especially in inpatient and residential units about the high prevalence of traumatic experiences in people who receive mental health services, and of the widespread bio-psycho-social effects </li></ul><ul><li>Also of the not uncommon finding that public MHS may be insensitive to such patients and not infrequently re-traumatise them </li></ul>
  109. 109. 4. Principles <ul><li>Patients should be inherently valued </li></ul><ul><li>Staff should ask about abuse and trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Neutral, objective and supportive language should be used </li></ul><ul><li>Staff should always take care to avoid shaming and humiliating patients </li></ul>
  110. 110. 4. Principles <ul><li>Treatment plans need to be individualised </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment plans need to include an understanding of triggers, early warning signs and individually created strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions should be open to outside parties including advocates and consultants </li></ul><ul><li>There should be an organisational commitment to trauma-informed care </li></ul>
  111. 111. 4. What the affective interchange science tells us <ul><li>Recognise that some distressed patients may be “in” unconscious traumatic memories </li></ul><ul><li>Are essentially “in” the past </li></ul><ul><li>Sit quietly beside (or below), not in front </li></ul><ul><li>Listen, listen, if not sure what to say there is no necessity to talk, but you will need time , and possibly space </li></ul><ul><li>When responding use few words, and a gentle voice </li></ul><ul><li>Patients do not usually respond well to reassurance when in a trauma zone, nor to questioning </li></ul>
  112. 112. 4. Affective interchange <ul><li>Understand that the quiet presence of a clinician alone (when possible, safe, not driven by psychosis) may help a patient regulate their emotion with you </li></ul><ul><li>Trying to reflect how painful things might be for the patient will often be helpful </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike the protoconversation, direct eye-to-eye contact is usually too hard, but the other principles apply – to-and-fro exchanges, use of similar language, and tone </li></ul><ul><li>Note that if a patient has engendered strong feelings in a clinician then it is useful to share that with a colleague, and not with the patient (this expec field) </li></ul>
  113. 113. 4. Affective interchange <ul><li>Use the person of the clinician to treat then </li></ul><ul><li>Proactively engage, actively listen, preferably early </li></ul><ul><li>Contain and co-regulate </li></ul><ul><li>Do not think the patient could or should be able to do it by themselves – the science says they may not be able to (no hardware, software) </li></ul><ul><li>Have “protected therapeutic time” to do this </li></ul>
  114. 114. One reason a dog can be such a comfort when you’re feeling blue is that he doesn’t try to find out why
  115. 115. 4. “David” <ul><li>“ David” has been a public mental health patient for 30 years </li></ul><ul><li>In his early life he used substances extensively, and he had also been incarcerated on multiple occasions </li></ul><ul><li>His numerous discharge summaries usually referred to the diagnoses of “depression” and “personality disorder” </li></ul><ul><li>He had most frequently presented with suicidal ideation and irritability, and had been seeking somewhere where he could feel safe </li></ul>
  116. 116. 4. “David” <ul><li>He often became agitated during the admission process and had frequently required “take-downs,” and the use of involuntary medication </li></ul><ul><li>He had been abandoned by his mother at the age of four to institutional care, where (when a little older) he was regularly “drugged” with antipsychotics and forced to complete sexual acts </li></ul><ul><li>The medication offered to him in the treatment setting was sometimes exactly the same as the medication used to “drug” him in childhood </li></ul>
  117. 117. 4. “David” <ul><li>When the problem was reconceptualised as Complex Post-traumatic Stress Disorder, when seeking admission the inpatient staff were alerted to his previous institutional experiences – that was the major intervention </li></ul><ul><li>No further takedowns were necessary </li></ul><ul><li>The patient was not able to tolerate regular therapy to attempt to look at nightmares and flashbacks, but he did well in supportive case management informed by trauma principles, with the need for admission eventually receding </li></ul>
  118. 118. 4. Traumatic memories <ul><li>Suzie’s voices </li></ul><ul><li>Eric’s fear of ridicule </li></ul><ul><li>David’s “takedowns” </li></ul><ul><li>All examples of deep-seated traumatic memories or the system’s response to them </li></ul><ul><li>All went undetected for many, many, many years </li></ul><ul><li>All controlled their behaviour and other’s responses </li></ul><ul><li>However when seen through the lens of psychiatry/DSM and trauma can be understood </li></ul>
  119. 119. 4. Things that we do well <ul><li>Mainstreaming , medicalising to make legitimate and to de-stigmatise </li></ul><ul><li>Use of documents that encourage holistic view eg ISP </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying risk </li></ul><ul><li>Nursing/providing care with warmth and compassion </li></ul><ul><li>Involving consumers and carers more and more </li></ul><ul><li>Utilising contemporary treatments eg second generation medications, modified ECT </li></ul><ul><li>Being more transparent and accountable with respect to record-keeping, oversight, incident review </li></ul>
  120. 120. 4. Things that might be unhelpful <ul><li>Automatically using the “psych” cubicle, searching, removing possessions without due thought </li></ul><ul><li>Involving multiple staff, each for short periods, and asking multiple questions, whilst not listening intently and not taking one comprehensive history in a therapeutic fashion </li></ul><ul><li>Favouring cross-sectional over longitudinal histories </li></ul><ul><li>Medicalising if this means removing symptoms from context </li></ul>
  121. 121. 4. Things that might be unhelpful <ul><li>Using “take-downs” and seclusion too frequently, not involving trained staff early enough, medicating and secluding patients with histories of abuse at greater rates than other patients </li></ul><ul><li>Using fish bowls (both ways) </li></ul><ul><li>Being insensitive re conversations – eg ward rounds </li></ul><ul><li>Not providing enough therapeutic time </li></ul>
  122. 122. 4. “Talking with acutely psychotic people,” Len Bowers, UK* <ul><li>The work of (mental health inpatient) nurses is generally highly regarded by patients (Rogers 1993) and nurses can relate many critical incidents where their interactions with patients have been highly valuable (Cormack 1983) </li></ul><ul><li>However many research studies have found low rates of interaction, with only 8-21% of nurses time spent this way (Altschul 1972, Sanson-Fisher 1979) </li></ul><ul><li>Not much literature with respect to the acutely mentally unwell, so studied the work of 28 senior nurses </li></ul>
  123. 123. 4. Talking cont.* <ul><li>Some recommendations including keeping interactions relatively short, joining in in activities etc </li></ul><ul><li>Most helpful findings centred around things like – careful first approach , showing warmth, care, respect , avoiding being intrusive, being honest, simply sitting or spending time, focussing on the patient as a person rather than on their symptoms, using slow pace, short sentences, regulating own emotional response </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing what patients experiences were, accepting them, seeking to understand their effect on patients </li></ul><ul><li>These recommendations then are essentially the same then as those for the traumatised patient </li></ul>
  124. 124. 4. Talking cont. <ul><li>For there to be a (greater) focus on trauma, talking, listening and therapy there needs to be : </li></ul><ul><li>Greater understanding at the highest levels </li></ul><ul><li>Greater value placed upon this </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate training </li></ul><ul><li>A different ward set-up </li></ul><ul><li>With more time, time, time </li></ul>
  125. 125. Areas to address Mindset Trauma is widespread Not obvious Even less appreciated Social connectedness Legislation Income, housing Education and training Jobs Funding and policy Federal versus state Bodies Education and training Promotion Coal-face Champions “ Ward design” Training Supervision
  126. 126. 4. Funding <ul><li>Because of the difficulty in accepting the paradigm the most important issue from my perspective is aiming at nothing less than dedicated state-based funding </li></ul><ul><li>A national body might drive change initially and stop inefficient state-based re-invention of the wheel with respect to tools/policy, but no help if no state funding unless the funding paradigm changes </li></ul><ul><li>Funding should be percentage of total budget, must be recurrent and must be ring-fenced </li></ul>
  127. 127. 4. Coal-face <ul><li>Must have champions </li></ul><ul><li>Wards should be reshaped/redesigned – physically – this will visually demonstrate change to all </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of protected therapeutic time as normal policy - will also quickly demonstrate what is seen to be considered to be important by senior management </li></ul><ul><li>Need to train at all levels </li></ul><ul><li>Need to think about employing people to be actively therapeutic – in statement of duties, regardless of background training etc </li></ul>
  128. 128. 4. South Carolina Study, Frueh C et al 2001* <ul><li>Looked at 245 clinicians in outpatient facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Only 30% had 6 hours or more trauma training </li></ul><ul><li>93% of staff however said they felt comfortable or somewhat comfortable working with trauma </li></ul><ul><li>The proportion of patients rated as having trauma-related difficulties was however rated as very low </li></ul><ul><li>A strong relationship was however noted between hours of training and perception of trauma-related difficulty, that was not related to education or experience </li></ul>
  129. 129. 4. Why we might be so slow to act <ul><li>The entrenchment of the current biological paradigm, and the relative obscurity of the newer paradigm, and the length of time required to change any paradigm - decades </li></ul><ul><li>The reality of short-lived political cycles and of government funding (secl and restraint eg) </li></ul><ul><li>Management, case-mix, funding, so many other issues </li></ul><ul><li>My recent experience </li></ul>
  130. 130. 4. Tucci study* <ul><li>In 2006, child abuse was perceived as less concerning to the public than the rising cost of petrol, and problems with transport and roads </li></ul><ul><li>31% of respondents stated that they would not believe children’s stories about abuse </li></ul><ul><li>43% of respondents felt so poorly informed on the issue that they were unable to guess the number of reported cases of child abuse, whilst those prepared to estimate significantly underestimated the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Tucci et al, 2006 </li></ul>
  131. 131. Final comment <ul><li>Much is known about trauma and the mentally ill, but this knowledge has not yet been widely disseminated or applied </li></ul><ul><li>Application of this knowledge will make for much more human and empathic mental health services, with better, more holistic “diagnosis” and better outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>There will be significant resistance to change from some quarters, but the tide may be turning, this conference and the amount of interest generated may be hugely beneficial </li></ul>
  132. 132. Selected bibliography <ul><li>Affect Regulation and the Origin of the Self, Allan Schore, LEA, 1994 </li></ul><ul><li>Affect Regulation and the Repair of the Self, Allan Schore, Norton, 2003 (updated, briefer, whilst still comprehensive) </li></ul><ul><li>The Metaphor of Play, Russell Meares, Routledge, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions Revealed, Paul Ekman, Holt, 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>The Loss of Sadness, Horwitz, Oxford, 2007 </li></ul><ul><li>Trauma and Recovery, Judith Herman, Basic Books, 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>The Master and his Emissary, Iain McGilchrist, Yale, 2009 </li></ul><ul><li>The Use and Misuse of Psychiatric Drugs, Joel Paris, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>The Conversational Model – </li></ul>
  133. 133. <ul><li>The end </li></ul>