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WIRESHARK Basics Moshe Haviv January 2010 [email_address]
Contents <ul><li>What is WIRESHARK? </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Network Sniffing </li></ul><ul><li>Display filtering </li></ul...
What is WIRESHARK? <ul><li>WIRESHARK is a Network Packet Analyzer </li></ul><ul><li>If installed with WinPcap it can also ...
Who needs/uses WIRESHARK? <ul><li>Any regular user who wants to know what his/her computer sends to the network and receiv...
Installing WIRESHARK <ul><li>Get the latest version from the official site  http:// www.wireshark.org / </li></ul><ul><li>...
Basic WIRESHARK features <ul><li>WIRESHARK supports hundreds of protocols  http:// www.wireshark.org/docs/dfref / </li></u...
Platform/Media support table
How do we capture packets from  the network? Where to connect? <ul><li>What do we want to capture? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P...
Basic Architecture Capturing <ul><li>In this architecture the signaling and/or media for the communication ends/starts at ...
Network Capturing Architecture WIRESHARK
Network Capture Architecture- Both entities connected to a HUB – Shared Media Simply start capturing WIRESHARK Hub
Network Capture Architecture- Multimedia entity/PC connected to a switch(1) <ul><li>Connect WIRESHARK and Network entity t...
Network Capture Architecture- Multimedia entity/PC both connected to a switch(2) <ul><li>Configure port mirroring (spannin...
Basic Network packet capturing-1-   When you activate the WIRESHARK you get the following view
Basic Network packet capturing -2-
Basic Network packet capturing -3-
Basic Network packet capturing -4-
<ul><li>The GUI can be changed for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GUI layout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Columns </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Basic displayed/captured packet manipulations <ul><li>Forcing a protocol to an unknown protocol packet </li></ul><ul><li>M...
 
 
Display filtering <ul><li>By arranging the display sort field/order changed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sort order of time/packe...
Display filtering-  by changing display sort order
Display Filter configuration <ul><li>We will configure simple filters </li></ul><ul><li>For a specific IP address </li></u...
Filter elements <ul><li>Filter fields (protocol fields ) </li></ul><ul><li>The full list can be found at  http:// www.wire...
Some basic filter field examples <ul><li>ip.src  Source IP address </li></ul><ul><li>ip.dst  Destination IP address </li><...
Filter Comparison operators <ul><li>English and C-like operators can be used (also mixed) </li></ul><ul><li>English operat...
Some simple filter examples <ul><li>ip.addr == 234.78.12.78 </li></ul><ul><li>ip.src != 10.0.0.2 </li></ul><ul><li>sip.Met...
How to build filter from the GUI <ul><li>Type your filter inside the filter toolbar </li></ul><ul><li>Click “Apply” </li><...
How to build filter from the GUI-2-
 
Filter save-activate <ul><li>Filters can be saved/edited by clicking the edit/apply filter button </li></ul><ul><li>A new ...
Display filter logical operators <ul><li>These are used to build compound filters from simple expressions </li></ul><ul><l...
Display filter logical operators (Contd.) and && Logical and or || Logical or xor ^^ Logical XOR not ! Logical Not […] Sub...
Capture filtering <ul><li>When capturing packets they are stored in temporary files on the computer </li></ul><ul><li>We c...
Capture filtering-2- <ul><li>WIRESHARK utilizes the libpcap filter language for capture filtering </li></ul><ul><li>Detail...
Capture filtering  – 3 -
<ul><li>Choose the relevant capture filter in “options”  </li></ul><ul><li>Start capturing </li></ul>Capture filtering  – ...
Capture filtering  – 5 –
Capture filtering  – 6 –
Capture filter syntax by examples <ul><li>host 192.168.122.23   </li></ul><ul><li>Capture packets from/to IP address 192.1...
Basic Capture filter syntax <ul><li>[src|dst] host <host> </li></ul><ul><li>ether [src|dst] host <ehost> </li></ul><ul><li...
Statistics and data analysis <ul><li>We can get graphical or written statistics real-time or from captured file </li></ul>...
Statistics menu  –    Statistics  Summary
Statistics menu   –    Statistics  Hierarchy Statistics
I/O Statistics – Real-time or offline
VOIP statistics     Statistics  VOIP
VOIP statistics   Statistics  VOIP (Contd.)
<ul><li>WIRESHARK can identify separate RTP streams </li></ul><ul><li>RTP parameters can be retrieved </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
RTP streams – Outline   Statistics  RTP   Show all Streams
RTP streams – Outline   Statistics  RTP   Show all Streams Choose one of the streams   Analyze
 
References and important URLs <ul><li>http:// www.wireshark.org /   </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wireshark.org/docs/ </li>...
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Wireshark Inroduction Li In

  1. 1. WIRESHARK Basics Moshe Haviv January 2010 [email_address]
  2. 2. Contents <ul><li>What is WIRESHARK? </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Network Sniffing </li></ul><ul><li>Display filtering </li></ul><ul><li>Capture filtering </li></ul><ul><li>RTP Stream Analysis </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is WIRESHARK? <ul><li>WIRESHARK is a Network Packet Analyzer </li></ul><ul><li>If installed with WinPcap it can also collect packets from the network </li></ul><ul><li>If AirpCap(Not free) installed full USB based 802.11 capture and analysis is possible </li></ul><ul><li>The latest WIRESHARK version on December 2009 is 1.2.5 </li></ul><ul><li>It is an Open Source Software project </li></ul>
  4. 4. Who needs/uses WIRESHARK? <ul><li>Any regular user who wants to know what his/her computer sends to the network and receives from it. </li></ul><ul><li>R&D Engineers to debug their protocol implementations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signaling protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Applications that communicate with other network devices/applications- send/receive payloads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Network administrators to troubleshoot their networks </li></ul><ul><li>Network Security Engineers to discover security breaches and deficiencies </li></ul><ul><li>Technical personnel that want to learn the workings of the protocols – Signaling and media- </li></ul>
  5. 5. Installing WIRESHARK <ul><li>Get the latest version from the official site http:// www.wireshark.org / </li></ul><ul><li>WIRESHARK can be installed as an application or the source code can be downloaded to create a new tailored application </li></ul><ul><li>By using LUA,a lightweight scripting language new dissectors, properties can be added http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lua_(programming_language ) </li></ul>
  6. 6. Basic WIRESHARK features <ul><li>WIRESHARK supports hundreds of protocols http:// www.wireshark.org/docs/dfref / </li></ul><ul><li>Live capture and offline analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Multiplatform support: Windows, Linux, Solaris, MAC </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-media support: Ethernet, ATM etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Rich VOIP analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Captured data browsing in GUI or in TTY mode (TSHARK) </li></ul><ul><li>R/W many different capture file formats: </li></ul><ul><li>tcpdump (libpcap), MS Network Monitor, Network General Sniffer®, </li></ul><ul><li>RADCOM WAN/LAN Analyzer and many others. </li></ul><ul><li>Output can be exported to XML, PostScript® or simple text </li></ul>
  7. 7. Platform/Media support table
  8. 8. How do we capture packets from the network? Where to connect? <ul><li>What do we want to capture? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Packets entering/going out of our computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packets entering/going out of any network equipment connected to the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Architecture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Once we know where and how to connect the computer with the WIRESHARK installed- Capturing architecture- we can start doing basic capturing </li></ul>
  9. 9. Basic Architecture Capturing <ul><li>In this architecture the signaling and/or media for the communication ends/starts at the WIRESHARK computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect the NIC(s) you want to collect packets from the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start WIRESHARK </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose the relevant NIC in WIRESHARK menu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start Collecting packets </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Network Capturing Architecture WIRESHARK
  11. 11. Network Capture Architecture- Both entities connected to a HUB – Shared Media Simply start capturing WIRESHARK Hub
  12. 12. Network Capture Architecture- Multimedia entity/PC connected to a switch(1) <ul><li>Connect WIRESHARK and Network entity to HUB </li></ul><ul><li>Connect HUB to SWITCH with an uplink </li></ul><ul><li>Start Capturing </li></ul>WIRESHARK HUB SWITCH
  13. 13. Network Capture Architecture- Multimedia entity/PC both connected to a switch(2) <ul><li>Configure port mirroring (spanning) on the switch </li></ul><ul><li>Start capturing </li></ul>WIRESHARK SWITCH
  14. 14. Basic Network packet capturing-1- When you activate the WIRESHARK you get the following view
  15. 15. Basic Network packet capturing -2-
  16. 16. Basic Network packet capturing -3-
  17. 17. Basic Network packet capturing -4-
  18. 18. <ul><li>The GUI can be changed for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GUI layout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Columns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time format </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coloring preferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field values for specific protocols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>……. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different profiles can be defined and saved </li></ul>WIRESHARK preferences
  19. 19. Basic displayed/captured packet manipulations <ul><li>Forcing a protocol to an unknown protocol packet </li></ul><ul><li>Marking a packet or a group of packets </li></ul><ul><li>Saving all or part of the captured packets </li></ul><ul><li>Exporting a trace </li></ul><ul><li>Printing all or part of the captured packets </li></ul>
  20. 22. Display filtering <ul><li>By arranging the display sort field/order changed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sort order of time/packet number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sort order per IP/MAC address of source/destination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sort order per protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><li>By marking specific packets manually </li></ul><ul><li>By configuring filters for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocol field value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frame length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>String </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Display filtering- by changing display sort order
  22. 24. Display Filter configuration <ul><li>We will configure simple filters </li></ul><ul><li>For a specific IP address </li></ul><ul><li>For a specific protocol </li></ul><ul><li>For a specific field value of a protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Compound filters </li></ul>
  23. 25. Filter elements <ul><li>Filter fields (protocol fields ) </li></ul><ul><li>The full list can be found at http:// www.wireshark.org/docs/dfref / </li></ul><ul><li>Display field comparison operators </li></ul><ul><li>Display filters logical operators </li></ul><ul><li>They are used to build complex filters by combining simple filters </li></ul>
  24. 26. Some basic filter field examples <ul><li>ip.src Source IP address </li></ul><ul><li>ip.dst Destination IP address </li></ul><ul><li>ip.addr IP address (source or destination) </li></ul><ul><li>eth.dst Destination MAC address </li></ul><ul><li>udp,sip, HTTP,H225,H245………….. </li></ul><ul><li>H263.dbq, sip.Method , h323.fastStart , rtp.payload , diameter.User-Name ……… </li></ul>
  25. 27. Filter Comparison operators <ul><li>English and C-like operators can be used (also mixed) </li></ul><ul><li>English operators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>eq Equal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ne Not Equal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gt Greater then </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lt Less then </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ge Greater then or equal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>le Less then or equal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C-like operators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>== </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>!= </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>< </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>>= </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li><= </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. Some simple filter examples <ul><li>ip.addr == 234.78.12.78 </li></ul><ul><li>ip.src != 10.0.0.2 </li></ul><ul><li>sip.Method==REGISTER </li></ul><ul><li>h263.unrestricted_motion_vector == 0 </li></ul><ul><li>sip.from.addr == &quot;sip:39260722@10.7.0.4“ </li></ul><ul><li>h245.masterSlaveDetermination </li></ul>
  27. 29. How to build filter from the GUI <ul><li>Type your filter inside the filter toolbar </li></ul><ul><li>Click “Apply” </li></ul>
  28. 30. How to build filter from the GUI-2-
  29. 32. Filter save-activate <ul><li>Filters can be saved/edited by clicking the edit/apply filter button </li></ul><ul><li>A new window </li></ul><ul><li>opens </li></ul>
  30. 33. Display filter logical operators <ul><li>These are used to build compound filters from simple expressions </li></ul><ul><li>When in doubt use parenthesis before applying the operator </li></ul><ul><li>The logical operators can have English or C-like syntax </li></ul>
  31. 34. Display filter logical operators (Contd.) and && Logical and or || Logical or xor ^^ Logical XOR not ! Logical Not […] Substring operator
  32. 35. Capture filtering <ul><li>When capturing packets they are stored in temporary files on the computer </li></ul><ul><li>We can configure WIRESHARK to capture packets directly to a single or multiple files </li></ul><ul><li>For heavy traffic network capturing or long time capturing the file/buffer sizes might overwhelm the computer or might even crash it. </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent accumulating huge file/files if we know what we are looking for we should apply capture filtering </li></ul>
  33. 36. Capture filtering-2- <ul><li>WIRESHARK utilizes the libpcap filter language for capture filtering </li></ul><ul><li>Details for libpcap can be found at http:// www.tcpdump.org/tcpdump_man.html </li></ul><ul><li>Any type of display filter can also be defined for capture but with a different syntax and different activation procedure </li></ul>
  34. 37. Capture filtering – 3 -
  35. 38. <ul><li>Choose the relevant capture filter in “options” </li></ul><ul><li>Start capturing </li></ul>Capture filtering – 4 – Activating capture filter
  36. 39. Capture filtering – 5 –
  37. 40. Capture filtering – 6 –
  38. 41. Capture filter syntax by examples <ul><li>host 192.168.122.23 </li></ul><ul><li>Capture packets from/to IP address 192.168.122.23 </li></ul><ul><li>src host 10.0.0.5 </li></ul><ul><li>Capture packets from IP 10.0.0.5 </li></ul><ul><li>tcp port 23 and host 10.0.0.5 </li></ul><ul><li>ether src 00:11:6b:80:47:96 </li></ul><ul><li>tcp port 23 and not src host 10.0.0.5 </li></ul><ul><li>ip multicast </li></ul>
  39. 42. Basic Capture filter syntax <ul><li>[src|dst] host <host> </li></ul><ul><li>ether [src|dst] host <ehost> </li></ul><ul><li>[src|dst] net <net> [{mask <mask>}|{len <len>}] </li></ul><ul><li>[tcp|udp] [src|dst] port <port> </li></ul><ul><li>less|greater <length> </li></ul>
  40. 43. Statistics and data analysis <ul><li>We can get graphical or written statistics real-time or from captured file </li></ul><ul><li>Statistics per protocol </li></ul><ul><li>VOIP pairs visualization </li></ul><ul><li>RTP stream analysis </li></ul>
  41. 44. Statistics menu – Statistics  Summary
  42. 45. Statistics menu – Statistics  Hierarchy Statistics
  43. 46. I/O Statistics – Real-time or offline
  44. 47. VOIP statistics Statistics  VOIP
  45. 48. VOIP statistics Statistics  VOIP (Contd.)
  46. 49. <ul><li>WIRESHARK can identify separate RTP streams </li></ul><ul><li>RTP parameters can be retrieved </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total RTP packets sent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jitter </li></ul></ul>RTP Stream Analysis
  47. 50. RTP streams – Outline Statistics  RTP  Show all Streams
  48. 51. RTP streams – Outline Statistics  RTP  Show all Streams Choose one of the streams  Analyze
  49. 53. References and important URLs <ul><li>http:// www.wireshark.org / </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wireshark.org/docs/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.winpcap.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://wiki.wireshark.org/CaptureSetup/NetworkMedia </li></ul><ul><li>http://wiki.wireshark.org/Preferences. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wireshark.org/lists/wireshark-bugs/ </li></ul><ul><li>http:// www.cs.columbia.edu/irt/software/rtptools / </li></ul>

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