Ch 12


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Ch 12

  1. 1. Developing & Managing Brand & Product Categories Intro to Marketing Ch.12
  2. 2. Managing Brands  How are products identified?  brand, logo, song, color  creating and protecting a strong identity for products and product lines is very important.
  3. 3. What is a Brand?  Name, term, sign, symbol design, or some combination of these used to identify the products of one firm from another.  Consumers respond to branding by making repeat purchases of the same product.
  4. 4. Brand loyalty measured in three ways:  Brand Recognition  Consumer awareness & identification of a brand  Stage of brand acceptance where consumer knows of a brand but doesn’t prefer it to competing brands.  The first objective for new products  Brand Preference - it will be chosen over competitors’ brand  Brand Insistence - substitutes will not be accepted
  5. 5. Types of brands  Generic product - black & white plain label; no advertising and no brand names pharmaceuticals  Manufacture’s brand (National Brands) - owned by a manufacturer - HP, Sony, Pepsi-Cola, Dell Corn Flakes Cereal
  6. 6.  Private brands (Labels) - brand name placed on products marked by a wholesaler or retailer - usually lower priced
  7. 7. Captive Brands  National Brands sold exclusively by a retail chain Conair Produces the Hairdryers and Curling Irons for Wal-Mart’s Captive Brand
  8. 8.  Family brand - a brand name that identifies several products  Individual brand - brand name that identifies a specific product line - more expensive than family brands to market P rocter & Gamble  Both Types of brands
  9. 9. Product Identification  Brand Names  Part of the brand consisting of words or letters that can distinguish it from the competitor  Must be carefully chosen for in order to avoid embarrassing translations.  Should communicate a correct connotation.  Should qualify for legal protection.
  10. 10. Brand Marks  A firm’s distinguishing symbol or pictorial design.  Generic names fail the test of uniqueness
  11. 11. Developing Global Brand Names & Trademarks  An excellent brand name or symbol in one country may prove disastrous in another.
  12. 12. A Trademark  Brand for which the owner claims exclusive legal protection. -Trademark Protection Ensures the differentiation of a brand in consumers’ mind. Allows a brand name, brand mark, or slogan to be used legally
  13. 13. Trade Dress  Visual cues used in branding an overall look that may be related to color selections, sizes, package, label shapes
  14. 14. Trademarks
  15. 15. Packaging Three goals:  Protect against damage, spoilage, and pilferage.  Assist in marketing the product.  Be cost-effective
  16. 16. Labeling  Contains brand name or symbol, name and address of manufacture or distributor, composition and size, recommended use for the product.  Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990. - Requires detailed nutritional information.  Promotional and informational, very important part of the package  Unsubstantiated or misleading claims on product labels risk fines or lawsuits  UPC code  RFID Tags may replace UPC
  17. 17. New Product Planning  A steady flow of new product entries must be available if the firm is to survive. Product Failures
  18. 18. Product Positioning  Consumers perception of a products attributes, uses, quality, & benefits.  Cannibalization  Loss of sales of a current product due to competition from a new product in the same line.
  19. 19. Consumer Adoption Process - Adopter Categories Based on Relative Times of Adoption
  20. 20. New Product Development Process  Idea  Screening  Business Analysis  Development  Test Marketing  Commercialization
  21. 21. Product Safety  Growth in the number of product liability lawsuits.  Safety warnings appear on labels  True examples:  Sears hair dryer: Do not use while sleeping  Fritos bag: You could be a winner! No purchase necessary. Details inside  Sainsbury’s Peanut bag: Warning: Contains nuts  Nytol Sleep Aid: Warning: May cause drowsiness  Boot’s Children’s Cough Medicine: Do not drive or operate heavy machinery